02 Mar 2021-Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (The American Chemical Society (ACS))-Vol. 12, Iss: 9, pp 2299-2305

Abstract: Solvent-solute interactions in precursor solutions of lead halide perovskites (LHPs) critically impact the quality of solution-processed materials, as they lead to the formation of a variety of poly-iodoplumbates that act as building blocks for LHPs. The formation of [PbI2+n]n- complexes is often expected in diluted solutions, while coordination occurring at high concentrations is not yet well understood. In a combined ab initio and experimental work, we demonstrate that the optical spectra of the quasi-one-dimensional iodoplumbate complexes PbI2(DMSO)4, Pb2I4(DMSO)6, and Pb3I6(DMSO)8 formed in dimethyl sulfoxide solutions are compatible with the spectral fingerprints measured at high lead iodide concentrations. This finding suggests that the interpretation of optical spectra of LHP precursor solutions should account for the formation of polynuclear lead halide complexes.

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Topics: Halide (52%)

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6 results found

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Formation of Lead Halide Perovskite Precursors in Solution: Insight from Electronic-Structure Theory

Richard Schier^{1}, Alejandro Conesa Rodriguez^{1}, Ana M. Valencia^{1}, Ana M. Valencia^{2} +2 more•Institutions (2)

Abstract: Understanding the formation of lead halide (LH) perovskite solution precursors is crucial to gain insight into the evolution of these materials to thin films for solar cells. Using density-functional theory in conjunction with the polarizable continuum model, we investigate 18 complexes with chemical formula PbX$_2$M$_4$, where X = Cl, Br, I and M are common solvent molecules. Through the analysis of structural properties, binding energies, and charge distributions, we clarify the role of halogen species and solvent molecules in the formation of LH perovskite precursors. We find that interatomic distances are critically affected by the halogen species, while the energetic stability is driven by the solvent coordination to the backbones. Regardless of the solvent, lead iodide complexes are more strongly bound than the others. Based on the charge distribution analysis, we find that all solvent molecules bind covalently with the LH backbones and that Pb-I and Pb-Br bonds lose ionicity in solution. Our results contribute to clarify the physical properties of LH perovskite solution precursors and offer a valuable starting point for further investigations on their crystalline intermediates.

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Topics: Perovskite (structure) (56%), Polarizable continuum model (54%), Molecule (51%)

2 Citations

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Lukas Schmidt-Mende^{1}, Vladimir Dyakonov^{2}, Selina Olthof^{3}, Feray Ünlü^{3} +66 more•Institutions (29)

Abstract: Metal halide perovskites are the first solution processed semiconductors that can compete in their functionality with conventional semiconductors, such as silicon. Over the past several years, perovskite semiconductors have reported breakthroughs in various optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors, light emitting and memory devices, and so on. Until now, perovskite semiconductors face challenges regarding their stability, reproducibility, and toxicity. In this Roadmap, we combine the expertise of chemistry, physics, and device engineering from leading experts in the perovskite research community to focus on the fundamental material properties, the fabrication methods, characterization and photophysical properties, perovskite devices, and current challenges in this field. We develop a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art and offer readers an informed perspective of where this field is heading and what challenges we have to overcome to get to successful commercialization.

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1 Citations

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Formation of lead halide perovskite precursors in solution: Insight from electronic-structure theory

Richard Schier^{1}, Alejandro Conesa Rodriguez^{1}, Ana M. Valencia^{1}, Ana M. Valencia^{2} +2 more•Institutions (2)

Abstract: Understanding the formation of lead halide (LH) perovskite solution precursors is crucial to gain insight into the evolution of these materials to thin films for solar cells. Using density-functional theory in conjunction with the polarizable continuum model, we investigate 18 complexes with chemical formula PbX$_2$M$_4$, where X = Cl, Br, I and M are common solvent molecules. Through the analysis of structural properties, binding energies, and charge distributions, we clarify the role of halogen species and solvent molecules in the formation of LH perovskite precursors. We find that interatomic distances are critically affected by the halogen species, while the energetic stability is driven by the solvent coordination to the backbones. Regardless of the solvent, lead iodide complexes are more strongly bound than the others. Based on the charge distribution analysis, we find that all solvent molecules bind covalently with the LH backbones and that Pb-I and Pb-Br bonds lose ionicity in solution. Our results contribute to clarify the physical properties of LH perovskite solution precursors and offer a valuable starting point for further investigations on their crystalline intermediates.

... read more

Topics: Perovskite (structure) (56%), Polarizable continuum model (54%), Molecule (51%)

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13 Sep 2021-

Abstract: Controlled perovskite growth from solution is crucial for efficient optoelectronic applications and requires a deep understanding of the perovskite precursor chemistry. The so-called “chlorine rout...

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Topics: Perovskite (structure) (58%), Iodide (53%), Chloride (51%) ... read more

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Giovanni Procida^{1}, Richard Schier^{2}, Ana M. Valencia^{2}, Ana M. Valencia^{1} +2 more•Institutions (2)

Abstract: Lead halide perovskites (LHPs) are promising materials for opto-electronics and photovoltaics, thanks to favorable characteristics and low manufacturing costs enabled by solution processing. In light of this, it is crucial to assess the impact of solvent–solute interactions on the electronic and optical properties of LHPs and of their solution precursors. In a first-principles work based on time-dependent density-functional theory coupled with the polarizable continuum model, we investigate the electronic and optical properties of a set of charge-neutral compounds with chemical formula, PbX2(Sol)4, where X = Cl, Br, and I, and Sol are the six common solvents. We find that single-particle energies and optical gaps depend on the halogen species as well as on the solvent molecules, which also affect the energy and the spatial distribution of the molecular orbitals, thereby impacting on the excitations. We clarify that dark states at the absorption onset are promoted by electron-withdrawing solvents, and we show the correlation between oscillator strength and HOMO → LUMO contribution to the excitations. Our results provide microscopic insight into the electronic and optical properties of LHP solution precursors, complementing ongoing experimental research on these systems and on their evolution to photovoltaic thin films.

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Topics: HOMO/LUMO (54%), Polarizable continuum model (52%)

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52 results found

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Abstract: Generalized gradient approximations (GGA’s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. [S0031-9007(96)01479-2] PACS numbers: 71.15.Mb, 71.45.Gm Kohn-Sham density functional theory [1,2] is widely used for self-consistent-field electronic structure calculations of the ground-state properties of atoms, molecules, and solids. In this theory, only the exchange-correlation energy EXC › EX 1 EC as a functional of the electron spin densities n"srd and n#srd must be approximated. The most popular functionals have a form appropriate for slowly varying densities: the local spin density (LSD) approximation Z d 3 rn e unif

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Topics: Local-density approximation (60%), Orbital-free density functional theory (57%), Density functional theory (56%) ... read more

117,932 Citations

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Abstract: From a theory of Hohenberg and Kohn, approximation methods for treating an inhomogeneous system of interacting electrons are developed. These methods are exact for systems of slowly varying or high density. For the ground state, they lead to self-consistent equations analogous to the Hartree and Hartree-Fock equations, respectively. In these equations the exchange and correlation portions of the chemical potential of a uniform electron gas appear as additional effective potentials. (The exchange portion of our effective potential differs from that due to Slater by a factor of $\frac{2}{3}$.) Electronic systems at finite temperatures and in magnetic fields are also treated by similar methods. An appendix deals with a further correction for systems with short-wavelength density oscillations.

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Topics: Jellium (56%), Hartree–Fock method (55%), Thomas–Fermi model (55%) ... read more

42,177 Citations

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Abstract: This paper deals with the ground state of an interacting electron gas in an external potential $v(\mathrm{r})$. It is proved that there exists a universal functional of the density, $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$, independent of $v(\mathrm{r})$, such that the expression $E\ensuremath{\equiv}\ensuremath{\int}v(\mathrm{r})n(\mathrm{r})d\mathrm{r}+F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ has as its minimum value the correct ground-state energy associated with $v(\mathrm{r})$. The functional $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ is then discussed for two situations: (1) $n(\mathrm{r})={n}_{0}+\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}(\mathrm{r})$, $\frac{\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}}{{n}_{0}}\ensuremath{\ll}1$, and (2) $n(\mathrm{r})=\ensuremath{\phi}(\frac{\mathrm{r}}{{r}_{0}})$ with $\ensuremath{\phi}$ arbitrary and ${r}_{0}\ensuremath{\rightarrow}\ensuremath{\infty}$. In both cases $F$ can be expressed entirely in terms of the correlation energy and linear and higher order electronic polarizabilities of a uniform electron gas. This approach also sheds some light on generalized Thomas-Fermi methods and their limitations. Some new extensions of these methods are presented.

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33,880 Citations

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Abstract: A new hybrid exchange–correlation functional named CAM-B3LYP is proposed. It combines the hybrid qualities of B3LYP and the long-range correction presented by Tawada et al. [J. Chem. Phys., in press]. We demonstrate that CAM-B3LYP yields atomization energies of similar quality to those from B3LYP, while also performing well for charge transfer excitations in a dipeptide model, which B3LYP underestimates enormously. The CAM-B3LYP functional comprises of 0.19 Hartree–Fock (HF) plus 0.81 Becke 1988 (B88) exchange interaction at short-range, and 0.65 HF plus 0.35 B88 at long-range. The intermediate region is smoothly described through the standard error function with parameter 0.33.

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Topics: Hybrid functional (66%)

8,975 Citations

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Abstract: We investigate electronic transport in lithographically patterned graphene ribbon structures where the lateral confinement of charge carriers creates an energy gap near the charge neutrality point. Individual graphene layers are contacted with metal electrodes and patterned into ribbons of varying widths and different crystallographic orientations. The temperature dependent conductance measurements show larger energy gaps opening for narrower ribbons. The sizes of these energy gaps are investigated by measuring the conductance in the nonlinear response regime at low temperatures. We find that the energy gap scales inversely with the ribbon width, thus demonstrating the ability to engineer the band gap of graphene nanostructures by lithographic processes.

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Topics: Graphene nanoribbons (65%), Band gap (58%), Graphene (57%) ... read more

4,705 Citations