# Optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnS films prepared by high pressure magnetron sputtering

TL;DR: The optical absorption in these films could be explained by the combined effects of phonon and inhomogeneity broadening along with optical loss due to light scattering at the nanocrystallites.

Abstract: Nanocrystalline ZnS films with different thickness (10–40 nm) were deposited onto quartz and NaCl substrates by magnetron sputtering of a ZnS target in argon plasma. All the films showed a zinc blende structure and the photoluminescence peak positions depended on the surface to volume ratio of the films. The optical absorption in these films could be explained by the combined effects of phonon and inhomogeneity broadening along with optical loss due to light scattering at the nanocrystallites.

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TL;DR: In the limit of a QD much smaller than the bulk exciton size, the linear spectrum will be a series of lines, and the phonon broadening of these lines is considered.

Abstract: We analyze theoretically the optical properties of ideal semiconductor crystallites so small that they show quantum confinement in all three dimensions [quantum dots (QD's)]. In the limit of a QD much smaller than the bulk exciton size, the linear spectrum will be a series of lines, and we consider the phonon broadening of these lines. The lowest interband transition will saturate like a two-level system, without exchange and Coulomb screening. Depending on the broadening, the absorption and the changes in absorption and refractive index resulting from saturation can become very large, and the local-field effects can become so strong as to give optical bistability without external feedback. The small QD limit is more readily achieved with narrow-band-gap semiconductors.

788 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the first attempt at relating the size-induced transformation from a hexagonal to a cubic structure in CdS nanoparticles to a change in the band gap was made.

Abstract: The interrelation between particle size, crystal structure and optical properties in semiconductor quantum dots has elicited widespread interest. We report the first attempt at relating the size-induced transformation from a hexagonal to a cubic structure in CdS nanoparticles to a change in the band gap. CdS nanoparticles with particle size in the 0.7-10 nm range were prepared by chemical precipitation using thiophenol as a capping agent. Whereas the band gap for bulk hexagonal CdS is about 2.5 eV, that for 1 nm cubic CdS nanoparticles was found to be almost 3.9 eV. We also suggest a simple mechanism (based on the periodic insertion of stacking faults) for the transformation from the cubic zinc blende structure to the hexagonal wurtzite structure.

322 citations

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TL;DR: This work describes a fast, clean and low-cost approach to synthesize ZnS–PVA nanofluids consisting ofZnS nanoparticles homogeneously distributed in a PVA solution.

Abstract: This work describes a fast, clean and low-cost approach to synthesize ZnS–PVA nanofluids consisting of ZnS nanoparticles homogeneously distributed in a PVA solution. The ZnS nanoparticles were formed by the electrostatic force between zinc and sulfur ions induced by gamma irradiation at a dose range from 10 to 50 kGy. Several experimental characterizations were conducted to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the samples. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine the chemical structure and bonding conditions of the final products, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for determining the shape morphology and average particle size, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for confirming the formation and crystalline structure of ZnS nanoparticles, UV–visible spectroscopy for measuring the electronic absorption characteristics, transient hot wire (THW) and photoacoustic measurements for measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity of the samples, from which, for the first time, the values of specific heat and thermal diffusivity of the samples were then calculated.

147 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the structural and optical properties of sputtered ZnS thin film were investigated in order to elucidate the changes induced by the varying thermal energy during the growth process.

Abstract: RF-sputtered ZnS thin film was grown under various substrate temperatures with the aim of investigating its effects on the structural, surface morphology and optical properties. Investigated substrate temperature in this study was in the range of 25 °C–300 °C and the structural and optical properties were investigated in order to elucidate the changes induced by the varying thermal energy during the growth process. Structural determination by XRD method indicates all sputtered films have cubic structure with (1 1 1) as the preferential orientation. However, higher substrate temperature up to 200 °C increases the film's crystallinity and grain size evident by the increase in peak intensity. Slight peak shift indicates ZnS lattice undergoes strain relaxation process mediated through the increase in the lattice constant from 5.32 A to 5.40 A. SEM image of surface morphology clearly shows the evolution of grain growth in which sputtered film at 200 °C has the largest grains with distinct grain boundaries. Calculation from the obtained transmission spectra indicates optical band gap is in the range of 3.6–3.9 eV. Theoretical analysis in terms of lattice parameter between ZnS with several upcoming photovoltaic absorber layers shows that lattice matched ZnS buffer layer can be grown by varying the substrate temperature.

86 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the single crystal X-ray structures of zinc and cadmium complexes (2, (3), (4), (5) and (6) were determined.

Abstract: Zinc and cadmium complexes of 1,1,5,5-tetraalkyl-2-4-dithiobiurets [M(N(SCNR2)2)2] [M = Zn, R = methy (1), ethyl (2) and M = Cd, R = methyl (4), ethyl (5)] and 1,1,5,5-tetraalkyl-2-thiobiurets [M(SON(CNR2)2)2] [M = Zn, R = isopropyl (3) and M = Cd, R = isopropyl (6)] have been synthesized. The single crystal X-ray structures of complexes (2), (3), (4), and (5) were determined. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that all six complexes decomposed in a single step to their corresponding metal sulfides. The complexes were used as single source precursors for the deposition of zinc sulfide (ZnS), cadmium sulfide (CdS), and zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnxCd1−xS) thin films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The zinc complexes (1) and (3) deposited cubic ZnS films with small rods and granular crystallites at 300 and 350 °C, whereas at 400 and 450 °C hexagonal ZnS with granular crystallites were dominant. Complex (2) gave granular hexagonal ZnS films at all deposition temperatures. Cadmium complex...

59 citations

##### References

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[...]

01 Jan 1959

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals, including interference, interferometers, and diffraction.

Abstract: The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals. The text covers the elements of the theories of interference, interferometers, and diffraction. The book tackles several behaviors of light, including its diffraction when exposed to ultrasonic waves.

19,815 citations

[...]

01 Oct 1999

TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals, including interference, interferometers, and diffraction.

Abstract: The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals. The text covers the elements of the theories of interference, interferometers, and diffraction. The book tackles several behaviors of light, including its diffraction when exposed to ultrasonic waves.

19,503 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an extensive numerical calculation for the eigenvalue problem is carried out by Ritz's variational technique, and the motional state of the lowest level is classified into three regimes: the regime of exciton confinement for R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\gtrsim}4, the regime for individual particle confinement forR/${b}^{*}+1.2.

Abstract: Quantum-size effects of an electron-hole system confined in microcrystals of semiconductors are studied theoretically with the spherical-dielectric continuum model. An extensive numerical calculation for the eigenvalue problem is carried out by Ritz's variational technique. The motional state of the lowest level is classified into three regimes: the regime of exciton confinement for R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\gtrsim}4, the regime of individual particle confinement for R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\lesssim}2, and the intermediate regime for 2\ensuremath{\lesssim}R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\lesssim}4, where R is the radius of the quantum well and ${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$ is the exciton Bohr radius. In the region R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\gtrsim}4, the high-energy shift of the lowest exciton state is described by the rigid-sphere model of the exciton quite well, which takes into account the spatial extension of the relative motion of the electron and the hole. The oscillator strength of the interband optical transition changes dramatically across the region 2\ensuremath{\lesssim}R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\lesssim}4. The metamorphosis of the absorption spectrum is shown as a function of R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$ and compared with the experimental data.

1,119 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the optical properties of ideal semiconductor crystallites so small that they show quantum confinement in all three dimensions [quantum dots (QD's)] were analyzed theoretically, and the phonon broadening of these lines was considered.

Abstract: We analyze theoretically the optical properties of ideal semiconductor crystallites so small that they show quantum confinement in all three dimensions [quantum dots (QD's)]. In the limit of a QD much smaller than the bulk exciton size, the linear spectrum will be a series of lines, and we consider the phonon broadening of these lines. The lowest interband transition will saturate like a two-level system, without exchange and Coulomb screening. Depending on the broadening, the absorption and the changes in absorption and refractive index resulting from saturation can become very large, and the local-field effects can become so strong as to give optical bistability without external feedback. The small QD limit is more readily achieved with narrow-band-gap semiconductors.

843 citations

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TL;DR: In the limit of a QD much smaller than the bulk exciton size, the linear spectrum will be a series of lines, and the phonon broadening of these lines is considered.

Abstract: We analyze theoretically the optical properties of ideal semiconductor crystallites so small that they show quantum confinement in all three dimensions [quantum dots (QD's)]. In the limit of a QD much smaller than the bulk exciton size, the linear spectrum will be a series of lines, and we consider the phonon broadening of these lines. The lowest interband transition will saturate like a two-level system, without exchange and Coulomb screening. Depending on the broadening, the absorption and the changes in absorption and refractive index resulting from saturation can become very large, and the local-field effects can become so strong as to give optical bistability without external feedback. The small QD limit is more readily achieved with narrow-band-gap semiconductors.

788 citations