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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Optimal Design of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Blades

01 Jan 2008-pp 99-109
TL;DR: In this article, the optimal aerodynamic design of a horizontal axis wind turbine is investigated and a simple design method is derived, where the turbine blade is optimized for operation at a specific wind speed, without considering operation at other wind speeds.
Abstract: The optimal aerodynamic design of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) is investigated. The Blade-element/Momentum model is used for the aerodynamic analysis. In the first part of the paper a simple design method is derived, where the turbine blade is optimized for operation at a specific wind speed. Results of this simple optimization are presented and discussed. Besides being optimized for operation at a specific wind speed, without considering operation at other wind speeds, the simple model is also limited in the choice of design goals (cost functions), design variables and constraints. In the second part of the paper a comprehensive design method that is based on a mixed numerical optimization strategy, is presented. This method can handle almost any combination of: design goal, design variables, and constraints. Results of this method are presented, compared with the results of the simple optimization, and discussed.© 2008 ASME
Citations
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Book
01 Aug 1967
TL;DR: Aerodynamics of V/STOL flight as discussed by the authors, Aerodynamic of V and STOL flight, aircraft propulsion, propulsion, and propulsion, V2V flight, and V2StOL flight.
Abstract: Aerodynamics of V/STOL flight , Aerodynamics of V/STOL flight , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

220 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the robust design of horizontal axis wind turbines, including both parameter design and tolerance design, is presented by using the traditional Taguchi method and its extensions, in order to yield an economical design, while ensuring a minimal variability in the performance of the wind turbine.
Abstract: The robust design of horizontal axis wind turbines, including both parameter design and tolerance design, is presented. A simple way of designing robust horizontal axis wind turbine systems under realistic conditions is outlined with multiple design parameters (variables), multiple objectives, and multiple constraints simultaneously by using the traditional Taguchi method and its extensions. The performance of the turbines is predicted using the axial momentum theory and the blade element momentum theory. In the parameter design stage, the energy output of the turbine is maximized using the Taguchi method and an extended penalty-based Taguchi method is proposed to solve constrained parameter design problems. The results of the unconstrained and constrained parameter design problems, in terms of the objective function and constraints are compared. Using an appropriate set of tolerance settings of the parameters, the tolerance design problem is formulated so as to yield an economical design, while ensuring a minimal variability in the performance of the wind turbine. The resulting multi-objective tolerance design problem is solved using the traditional Taguchi method. The present work provides a simple and economical approach for the robust optimal design of horizontal axis wind turbines.

21 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors considered the daily energy consumption variations for low demand season and high demand season weekdays and weekends in order to compare the corresponding fuels cost and analyse the operational efficiency of the PV/PW/DG/battery system for 24 hours period taken as control horizon.
Abstract: The paper considers the daily energy consumption variations for low demand season and high demand season weekdays and weekends in order to compare the corresponding fuels cost and analyse the operational efficiency of the PV/PW/DG/battery system for 24 hours period taken as control horizon. Previous researches have assumed a fixed load and uniform daily cost. A load following diesel dispatch strategy is used in this paper and the fuel costs and energy flows are analysed. The results show that a renewable energy system which combines the PV/PW/diesel/battery models achieves a better saving for the fuel during the high demand as well as the low demand seasons for days considered when compared to a model where the diesel generator satisfies the loads on its own.

6 citations


Cites background from "Optimal Design of Horizontal Axis W..."

  • ...In [77] the authors presented a multi-objective function for the optimisation of the geometrical parameters of the rotor configuration of stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines with the objective of finding a better trade-off performance between the total energy production per square metre of a wind park and the cost....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2021
TL;DR: In this article, the design of low-speed wind turbine blades with a rated power of 600 kW and an average wind speed of 4.3 m/s at the hub height is investigated.
Abstract: As a clean and renewable energy with huge reserves, wind energy has been widely developed and utilized worldwide. Wind turbine blades are one of the main components of wind power generation. The degree of conversion of wind energy by the blades can determine the efficiency of the wind turbine. This paper aims to optimize the design of low-speed wind turbine blades with a rated power of 600 kW and an average wind speed of 4.3 m/s at the hub height. Wind turbines use variable speed and pitch control to determine the design parameters of the wind turbine. We choose an airfoil with good aerodynamic performance at low wind speeds. The Wilson design method is used to calculate the chord length, torsion angle and other parameters of each segment of the blade, complete the preliminary shape design of the low-speed blade, and calculate its aerodynamic performance.

1 citations


Cites methods from "Optimal Design of Horizontal Axis W..."

  • ...In this experiment, the Wilson design method was used to complete the design of the low wind speed blade [8-9]....

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Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a scaled-down rotor blade for a 2kW small scale HAWT is evaluated at wind velocities V = 1-20m/s and TSR=1-20, and the performance parameter defined by coefficient of power C p is considered for appraising and comparing the performance of the analytical and the experimental scaleddown versions of the blade.
Abstract: Experimental testing of a scaled-down rotor blade for a 2kW small scale HAWT is the forefront of the present research work. To facilitate the objectives, a rotor blade for a 2kW HAWT has been analytically designed employing the iterative Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT). For the ease of manufacturing, the linearized blade obtained through the BEM theory is fabricated and subsequently, its performance is evaluated at wind velocities V=1-20m/s and TSR=1-20. The performance parameter defined by coefficient of power C p is considered for appraising and comparing the performance of the analytical and the experimental scaled-down versions of the blade. At the design conditions, the coefficient of power C p for the blade was calculated to be C p =0.40. Further, appropriate scaling laws have been incorporated to scale down the original blade to retrofit to an existing wind turbine generator. Performance of the blade was examined at the prescribed wind velocities V and TSR λ. The experimental outcomes depicted a C p trend for the scaled-down model to be similar to the actual model. At design conditions, the experimental results rendered a maximum C P =0.380 for the scaled-down model with an error of around 6%. However, the investigation showed that the C P for the scaled-down model was aligned with the actual model. The error in C p of the analytical and scaled-down models are deemed due to the ignorance of hub losses, 3-Dimensional flow effects and unsteady aerodynamic effects in the study.
References
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Book
01 Sep 1988
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the computer techniques, mathematical tools, and research results that will enable both students and practitioners to apply genetic algorithms to problems in many fields, including computer programming and mathematics.
Abstract: From the Publisher: This book brings together - in an informal and tutorial fashion - the computer techniques, mathematical tools, and research results that will enable both students and practitioners to apply genetic algorithms to problems in many fields Major concepts are illustrated with running examples, and major algorithms are illustrated by Pascal computer programs No prior knowledge of GAs or genetics is assumed, and only a minimum of computer programming and mathematics background is required

52,797 citations

Book
01 Mar 2004
TL;DR: In this article, the focus is on recognizing convex optimization problems and then finding the most appropriate technique for solving them, and a comprehensive introduction to the subject is given. But the focus of this book is not on the optimization problem itself, but on the problem of finding the appropriate technique to solve it.
Abstract: Convex optimization problems arise frequently in many different fields. A comprehensive introduction to the subject, this book shows in detail how such problems can be solved numerically with great efficiency. The focus is on recognizing convex optimization problems and then finding the most appropriate technique for solving them. The text contains many worked examples and homework exercises and will appeal to students, researchers and practitioners in fields such as engineering, computer science, mathematics, statistics, finance, and economics.

33,341 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method is described for the minimization of a function of n variables, which depends on the comparison of function values at the (n 41) vertices of a general simplex, followed by the replacement of the vertex with the highest value by another point.
Abstract: A method is described for the minimization of a function of n variables, which depends on the comparison of function values at the (n 41) vertices of a general simplex, followed by the replacement of the vertex with the highest value by another point. The simplex adapts itself to the local landscape, and contracts on to the final minimum. The method is shown to be effective and computationally compact. A procedure is given for the estimation of the Hessian matrix in the neighbourhood of the minimum, needed in statistical estimation problems.

27,271 citations


"Optimal Design of Horizontal Axis W..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Enumerative scheme – Nelder and Mead’s ‘Simplex’ scheme [36] c....

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  • ...The Simplex method is based on Nelder and Mead's [36] method, which is different from the well known linear programming Simplex method....

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ReportDOI
01 Dec 2001
TL;DR: In this article, insteady aerodynamics experiment was used to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines and to familiarize the user with the entire scope of the wind tunnel test and to support the use of the resulting data.
Abstract: The primary objective of the insteady aerodynamics experiment was to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines. This report is intended to familiarize the user with the entire scope of the wind tunnel test and to support the use of the resulting data.

700 citations


"Optimal Design of Horizontal Axis W..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The test was reported by NREL [27] and it includes a three bladed wind turbine of radius [ ] 5....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an approximate solution for the irrotational motion of a screw surface in an inviscid fluid was given by Prandtl, which is the main object of this work to find the exact solution.
Abstract: The vortex-theory of screw propellers develops along similar lines to aerofoil theory. There is circulation of flow round each blade; this circulation vanishes at the tip and the root. The blade may be replaced by a bound vortex system, which, for the sake of simplicity, may be taken, as a first approximation, to be a bound vortex line. The strength of the vortex at any point is equal to Γ, the circulation round the corresponding blade section. From every point of this bound vortex spring free, trailing vortices, whose strength per unit length is —∂Γ/∂ r , where r is distance from the axis of the screw. When the interference flow of this vortex system is small compared with the velocity of the blades, the trailing vortices are approximately helices, and together build a helical or screw surface. Part of the work supplied by the motor is lost in producing the trailing vortex system. When the distribution of Γ along the blade is such that, for a given thrust, the energy so lost per unit time is a minimum, then the flow far behind the screw is the same as if the screw surface formed by the trailing vortices was rigid, and moved backwards in the direction of its axis with a constant velocity, the flow being that of classical hydro dynamics in an inviscid fluid, continuous, irrotational, and without circulation. The circulation round any blade section is then equal to the discontinuity in the velocity potential at the corresponding point of the screw surface. Further, for symmetrical screws, the interference flow at the blade is half that at the corresponding point of the screw surface far behind the propeller. An approximate solution for the irrotational motion of a screw surface in an inviscid fluid was given by Prandtl. The accuracy of the approximation increases with the number of blades and with the ratio of the tip speed to the velocity of advance, but for given values of these numbers we have no means of estimating the error, since the exact solution of the problem has not yet been found. It is the main object of this work to find the exact solution.

518 citations


"Optimal Design of Horizontal Axis W..." refers background in this paper

  • ...( ) r κ is Goldstein’s coefficient of interference velocity [21] ,which is a...

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