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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10030493

Optimal Nitrogen Supply Ameliorates the Performance of Wheat Seedlings under Osmotic Stress in Genotype-Specific Manner.

05 Mar 2021-Vol. 10, Iss: 3, pp 493
Abstract: Strategies and coping mechanisms for stress tolerance under sub-optimal nutrition conditions could provide important guidelines for developing selection criteria in sustainable agriculture. Nitrogen (N) is one of the major nutrients limiting the growth and yield of crop plants, among which wheat is probably the most substantial to human diet worldwide. Physiological status and photosynthetic capacity of two contrasting wheat genotypes (old Slomer and modern semi-dwarf Enola) were evaluated at the seedling stage to assess how N supply affected osmotic stress tolerance and capacity of plants to survive drought periods. It was evident that higher N input in both varieties contributed to better performance under dehydration. The combination of lower N supply and water deprivation (osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol treatment) led to greater damage of the photosynthetic efficiency and a higher degree of oxidative stress than the individually applied stresses. The old wheat variety had better N assimilation efficiency, and it was also the one with better performance under N deficiency. However, when both N and water were deficient, the modern variety demonstrated better photosynthetic performance. It was concluded that different strategies for overcoming osmotic stress alone or in combination with low N could be attributed to differences in the genetic background. Better performance of the modern variety conceivably indicated that semi-dwarfing (Rht) alleles might have a beneficial effect in arid regions and N deficiency conditions.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10040733
09 Apr 2021-
Abstract: Drought is a major environmental constrain with a deleterious effect on plant development leading to a considerable reduction of crop productivity worldwide. Wheat is a relatively drought tolerant crop during the vegetative stage. The herbicide Serrate® (Syngenta) is a preparation containing two active chemical substances with different modes of action, which inhibit the biosynthesis of fatty and amino acids. It is commonly used as a systemic and selective chemical agent to control annual grass and broadleaf weeds in cereal crops and particularly in wheat, which is tolerant to Serrate®. Seventeen-day-old wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Sadovo-1) grown as soil culture under controlled conditions were sprayed with an aqueous solution of Serrate®. Seventy-two hours later the plantlets were subjected to drought stress for seven days to reach a severe water deficit followed by four days of recovery with a normal irrigation regime. Oxidative stress markers, non-enzymatic, and enzymatic antioxidants were analyzed in the leaves of plants from the different treatment groups (herbicide-treated, droughts-stressed, and individuals which were consecutively subjected to both treatments) at 0, 96, and 168 h of drought stress, and after 96 h of recovery. Herbicide treatment did not alter substantially the phenotype and growth parameters of the above-ground plant parts. It provoked a moderate increase in phenolics, thiol-containing compounds, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and H2O2. However, significant variations of malondialdehyde, proline, and peroxidase activity caused by the sole application of the herbicide were not detected during the experimental period. Drought and herbicide + drought treatments caused significant growth inhibition, increased oxidative stress markers, and activation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense reaching the highest levels at 168 h of stress. Plant growth was restored after 96 h of recovery and the levels of the monitored biochemical parameters showed a substantial decline. The herbicide provoked an extra load of oxidative stress-related biochemical components which did not aggravate the phenotypic and growth traits of plants subjected to drought, since they exhibited a good physiological status upon recovery.

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Topics: Drought tolerance (62%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SJBS.2021.10.010
Bisma Jan1, M. Anwar Bhat1, Tauseef A. Bhat1, Munazah Yaqoob1  +10 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2020 at Agronomy farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Wadura, SKUAST-K to study the influence of age of seedling and sources of nutrients on phenology, yield and agrometeorological indices for sweet corn. The experiment included two factors viz. age of seedlings (12, 22 and 32 days old seedling) and sources of nutrients (control, RDF, 50 percent RDF + FYM @ 12 t ha−1, 50 percent RDF + vermi-compost @ 4 t ha−1 and 50 percent RDF + poultry manure @ 2 t ha−1) tested in RCBD with three replications. Transplanting 12 days old seedlings required maximum number of days to attain different phenological stages, thereby accumulated maximum heat units followed by 22 days old seedlings. While as transplanting 22 days old seedling recorded significantly highest HUE, HTUE, PTUE and HyTUE and consequently resulted in the highest green cob and biological yield compared to other ages of seedlings. Among various sources of nutrients, application of 50 per cent RDF + poultry manure @ 2 t ha−1 took maximum number of days to attain various phenophases thereby accumulated maximum heat units and registered highest HUE, HTUE, PTUE and HyTUE followed by application of 100 per cent RDF.

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Topics: Transplanting (53%), Seedling (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SJBS.2021.07.027
Abstract: Nitrogen fertilizer is one of the key elements to increase the yield and significance of winter wheat. The experiment was established in the split zone design and was repeated three times. The nitrogen application level is set to 4 treatments, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1 are arranged in the main plot, and different nitrogen application ratios are arranged in the sub-plots, respectively 5:5 (50%+50%) and 6: 4 (60%) + 40%). Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before sowing, jointing stage, flowering stage and filling stage. The experimental plot is 12 m2 (3 m × 4 m). The results showed that under the conditions of 225 kg/hm2 nitrogen application and 60%+40% nitrogen application rate, the yield of Jintai 182 was the highest compared with other treatment groups. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the number of ears, grains per ear, thousand-grain weight and grain yield all increase first and then decrease. Each factor reached the highest 225 N kg / hm2, 417.17, 30.74, 40.96 g and 6182.11 kg / hm2. Compared with 75 kg/hm2 topdressing fertilizer, 225 kg/hm2 is a more suitable nitrogen fertilizer application rate for winter wheat. Within a reasonable range of nitrogen fertilizer application, there is a significant positive correlation between nitrogen content and winter wheat yield. By studying the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and a reasonable ratio of base fertilizer to topdressing, the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer can be maximized and excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer can be avoided.

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Topics: Fertilizer (56%), Nitrogen (53%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JPLPH.2021.153469
Hongxia Li1, Junjie Li1, Xuhui Zhang1, Tingrui Shi1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The major effect of nitrogen (N) deficiency is the inhibition on CO2 assimilation regulated by light energy absorption, transport and conversion, as well as N allocation. In this study, a yellow-green wheat mutant (Jimai5265yg) and its wild type (Jimai5265, WT) were compared between 0 mM N (N0) and 14 mM N (N14) treatments using hydroponic experiments. The mutant exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (An) than WT despite low chlorophyll (Chl) content in non-stressed conditions. The photosynthetic advantages of the mutant were maintained under N deficient condition. The quantitative analysis of limitations to photosynthesis revealed that CO2 diffusion associated with mesophyll conductance (gm) was the dominant limitation. Relative easiness to gain CO2 in the chloroplast contributed to the higher An of Jimai5265yg. N deficiency induced the photoinhibition of PSII, but the cyclic electron transport and photochemical activity of PSI was higher in Jimai5265yg compared to Jimai5265, which was a protective mechanism to avoid photodamage. Because of the sharp drop of An, N deficient seedlings had much lower photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). However, N deficiency increased the relative content of photosynthetic N (Npsn) and decreased the relative content of storage N (Nstore). The range of change in N partitioning induced by N deficiency was smaller for Jimai5265yg compared to WT. The less insensitive to N deficiency for the mutant in terms of photosynthetic property and N partitioning suggested that gm, cyclic electron transport around PSI and more optimal N partitioning pattern is necessary to sustain photosynthesis under N deficient condition.

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Topics: Photoinhibition (57%), Photosynthetic efficiency (55%), Photosynthesis (52%) ... show more

Open accessDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10112443
12 Nov 2021-
Abstract: This study presents the variability of some biochemical indicators in the winter wheat assortments tested in south-western Oltenia (Romania) and identification of the sources showing a high antioxidant activity. The peroxidase activity has intensified as the stress induced by treatment with PEG of different concentrations and in different doses increased. Regarding the peroxidase content, among the varieties treated with PEG 10,000 25%, the majority of the Romanian varieties tested showed higher values of the PEG/control treatment ratio, which suggests tolerance to drought. In reverse, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase is lower in tolerant varieties. The varieties with a subunit report have been noted. Among them are the Izvor variety, known as the drought-tolerant variety, as well as other Romanian varieties: Alex, Delabrad, Lovrin 34, etc. An increased activity of catalase was present in most varieties, so there is the possibility of drought tolerance. Among the varieties highlighted are Romanian varieties (Dropia, Trivale, Nikifor, etc.) but also foreign varieties (Kristina, GH Hattyu, Karlygash, etc.). However, the correlation between yield index in the limited assortment and the antioxidant enzyme content ratios between PEG and control treatments does not exist, suggesting that none of these biochemical indicators are a selective indicator for drought tolerance under the experimental condition.

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Topics: Drought tolerance (54%)

References
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54 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF00018060
L. S. Bates1, R. P. Waldren1, I. D. Teare1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 1973-Plant and Soil
Abstract: Proline, which increases proportionately faster than other amino acids in plants under water stress, has been suggested as an evaluating parameter for irrigation scheduling and for selecting drought-resistant varieties. The necessity to analyze numerous samples from multiple replications of field grown materials prompted the development of a simple, rapid colorimetric determination of proline. The method detected proline in the 0.1 to 36.0 μmoles/g range of fresh weight leaf material.

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12,637 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter presents detailed information on chlorophylls and carotenoids to give practical directions toward their quantitative isolation and determination in extracts from leaves, chloroplasts, thylakoid particles, and pigment proteins. The chapter focuses on the spectral characteristics and absorption coefficients of chlorophylls, pheophytins, and carotenoids, which are the basis for establishing equations to quantitatively determine them. Therefore, the specific absorption coefficients of the pigments are re-evaluated. This is achieved by using a two-beam spectrophotometer of the new generation, which allows programmed automatic recording and printing out of the proper wavelengths and absorbancy values. Several procedures have been developed for the separation of the photosynthetic pigments, including column (CC), paper (PC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). All chloroplast carotenoids exhibit a typical absorption spectrum that is characterized by three absorption maxima (violaxanthin, neoxanthin) or two maxima with one shoulder (lutein and β-carotene) in the blue spectral region.

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Topics: Neoxanthin (53%), Pheophytins (53%), Carotenoid (50%) ... show more

8,924 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PLAPHY.2010.08.016
Abstract: Various abiotic stresses lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants which are highly reactive and toxic and cause damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA which ultimately results in oxidative stress. The ROS comprises both free radical (O(2)(-), superoxide radicals; OH, hydroxyl radical; HO(2), perhydroxy radical and RO, alkoxy radicals) and non-radical (molecular) forms (H(2)O(2), hydrogen peroxide and (1)O(2), singlet oxygen). In chloroplasts, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) are the major sites for the production of (1)O(2) and O(2)(-). In mitochondria, complex I, ubiquinone and complex III of electron transport chain (ETC) are the major sites for the generation of O(2)(-). The antioxidant defense machinery protects plants against oxidative stress damages. Plants possess very efficient enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR; monodehydroascorbate reductase, MDHAR; dehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; guaicol peroxidase, GOPX and glutathione-S- transferase, GST) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, ASH; glutathione, GSH; phenolic compounds, alkaloids, non-protein amino acids and α-tocopherols) antioxidant defense systems which work in concert to control the cascades of uncontrolled oxidation and protect plant cells from oxidative damage by scavenging of ROS. ROS also influence the expression of a number of genes and therefore control the many processes like growth, cell cycle, programmed cell death (PCD), abiotic stress responses, pathogen defense, systemic signaling and development. In this review, we describe the biochemistry of ROS and their production sites, and ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery.

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Topics: Reactive oxygen species (60%), Superoxide dismutase (59%), Glutathione reductase (59%) ... show more

6,556 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1071/FP02076
Abstract: In the last decade, our understanding of the processes underlying plant response to drought, at the molecular and whole-plant levels, has rapidly progressed. Here, we review that progress. We draw attention to the perception and signalling processes (chemical and hydraulic) of water deficits. Knowledge of these processes is essential for a holistic understanding of plant resistance to stress, which is needed to improve crop management and breeding techniques. Hundreds of genes that are induced under drought have been identified. A range of tools, from gene expression patterns to the use of transgenic plants, is being used to study the specific function of these genes and their role in plant acclimation or adaptation to water deficit. However, because plant responses to stress are complex, the functions of many of the genes are still unknown. Many of the traits that explain plant adaptation to drought - such as phenology, root size and depth, hydraulic conductivity and the storage of reserves - are those associated with plant development and structure, and are constitutive rather than stress induced. But a large part of plant resistance to drought is the ability to get rid of excess radiation, a concomitant stress under natural conditions. The nature of the mechanisms responsible for leaf photoprotection, especially those related to thermal dissipation, and oxidative stress are being actively researched. The new tools that operate at molecular, plant and ecosystem levels are revolutionising our understanding of plant response to drought, and our ability to monitor it. Techniques such as genome-wide tools, proteomics, stable isotopes and thermal or fluorescence imaging may allow the genotype-phenotype gap to be bridged, which is essential for faster progress in stress biology research.

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Topics: Biotic stress (56%)

2,924 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1365-3040.2009.02041.X
Gad Miller1, Nobuhiro Suzuki1, Sultan Ciftci-Yilmaz1, Ron Mittler1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Water deficit and salinity, especially under high light intensity or in combination with other stresses, disrupt photosynthesis and increase photorespiration, altering the normal homeostasis of cells and cause an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS play a dual role in the response of plants to abiotic stresses functioning as toxic by-products of stress metabolism, as well as important signal transduction molecules. In this review, we provide an overview of ROS homeostasis and signalling in response to drought and salt stresses and discuss the current understanding of ROS involvement in stress sensing, stress signalling and regulation of acclimation responses.

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Topics: Light intensity (54%), Abiotic stress (50%)

2,330 Citations