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Book ChapterDOI

Optimization of Silicon-On-Insulator Photonic Strip Waveguide for Biosensing Applications

01 Jan 2021-pp 695-698
TL;DR: In this article, a waveguide was used to detect the changes or alterations happened in the blood sample, where the evanescent field of the light which extends outside the boundary of the waveguide structure referred to them as a transient field, which bond to the target molecules and the receptors on the waveguarded platform will be absorbed by photons.
Abstract: Silicon-on-insulator Photonics Biosensor is Engaged to detect the changes or alterations happened in the blood sample. The evanescent field of the light which extends outside the boundary of the waveguide structure referred to them as a transient field, which bond to the target molecules and the receptors on the waveguide platform will be absorbed by photons. The transmission loss of the waveguide will be reduced at 1554 nm, were the sample of Blood, Hemoglobin, and Albumin have glucose components present in the concentration. This Waveguide design gives the best absorption to these sample placed to the waveguide structure to analysis the glucose components present in the given sample.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the response of two silicon-based waveguide structures to the refractive index of urine samples (human renal fluids) to diagnose diabetes mellitus.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition that affects millions of people worldwide. The present paper investigates the bulk sensitivity of silicon and silicon nitride strip waveguides in the transverse electric (TE) mode. At 1550 nm wavelength, silicon on insulator (SOI) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) are two distinct waveguides of the same geometry structure that can react to refractive changes around the waveguide surface. This article examines the response of two silicon-based waveguide structures to the refractive index of urine samples (human renal fluids) to diagnose diabetes mellitus. An asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer has waveguide sensing and a reference arm with a device that operates in the transverse electric (TE) mode. 3D FDTD simulated waveguide width 800 nm, thickness 220 nm, and analyte thickness 130 nm give the bulk sensitivity of 1.09 (RIU/RIU) and 1.04 (RIU/RIU) for silicon and silicon nitride, respectively, high compared to the regular transverse magnetic (TM) mode strip waveguides. Furthermore, the proposed design gives simple fabrication, contrasting sharply with the state-of-the-art 220 nm wafer technology.

3 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies is given, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available.
Abstract: Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available.

782 citations

Book
01 Mar 2015
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the state-of-the-art in the field of fabless silicon photonic systems, including the following: 1.1 Optical Waveguide Mode Solver 2.2 Wave Propagation 2.3 Optoelectronic models 2.4 Microwave Modelling 2.5 Thermal Modeling 2.6 Photonic Circuit Modelling 3.7 Physical Layout 2.8 Software Tools Integration 3.4 Code Listings 4.5 Problems 4.7 Problems 5.4 Polarization 5.5 Problem 5.6 Code List
Abstract: Part I. Silicon Photonics - Introduction: 1. Fabless Silicon Photonics: 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Silicon photonics - the next fabless semiconductor industry 1.3 Applications 1.4 Technical challenges and the state of the art 1.5 Opportunities 2. Modelling and Design Approaches: 2.1 Optical Waveguide Mode Solver 2.2 Wave Propagation 2.3 Optoelectronic models 2.4 Microwave Modelling 2.5 Thermal Modelling 2.6 Photonic Circuit Modelling 2.7 Physical Layout 2.8 Software Tools Integration Part II. Silicon Photonics - Passive Components: 3. Optical Materials and Waveguides: 3.1 Silicon-on-Insulator 3.2 Waveguides 3.3 Bent waveguides 3.4 Code Listings 3.5 Problems 4. Fundamental Building Blocks: 4.1 Directional couplers 4.2 Y-Branch 4.3 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer 4.4 Ring resonators 4.5 Waveguide Bragg Grating Filters 4.6 Code Listings 4.7 Problems 5. Optical I/O: 5.1 The challenge of optical coupling to silicon photonic chips 5.2 Grating Coupler 5.3 Edge Coupler 5.4 Polarization 5.5 Code Listings 5.6 Problems Part III. Silicon Photonics - Active Components: 6. Modulators: 6.1 Plasma Dispersion E 6.2 PN Junction Phase Shifter 6.3 Micro-ring Modulators 6.4 Forward-biased PIN Junction 6.5 Active Tuning 6.6 Thermo-Optic Switch 6.7 Code Listings 6.8 Problems 7. Detectors: 7.1 Performance Parameters 7.2 Fabrication 7.3 Types of detectors 7.4 Design Considerations 7.5 Detector modelling 7.5.2 Electronic Simulations 7.6 Code Listings 7.7 Problems 8. Lasers: 8.1 External Lasers 8.2 Laser Modelling 8.3 Co-Packaging 8.4 Hybrid Silicon Lasers 8.5 Monolithic Lasers 8.6 Alternative Light Sources 8.7 Problems Part IV. Silicon Photonics - System Design: 9. Photonic Circuit Modelling: 9.1 Need for photonic circuit modelling 9.2 Components for System Design 9.3 Compact Models 9.4 Directional Coupler - Compact Model 9.5 Ring Modulator - Circuit Model 9.6 Grating Coupler - S Parameters 9.7 Code Listings 10. Tools and Techniques: 10.1 Process Design Kit (PDK) 10.2 Mask Layout 11. Fabrication: 11.1 Fabrication Non-Uniformity 11.2 Problems 12. Testing and Packaging: 12.1 Electrical and Optical Interfacing 12.2 Automated Optical Probe Stations 12.3 Design for Test 13. Silicon Photonic System Example: 13.1 Wavelength Division Multiplexed Transmitter.

355 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Oct 2018-Sensors
TL;DR: An overview of the state-of-the-art in evanescent field biosensing technologies including interferometer, microcavity, photonic crystal, and Bragg grating waveguide-based sensors, as well as real biomarkers for label-free detection are exhibited and compared.
Abstract: Thanks to advanced semiconductor microfabrication technology, chip-scale integration and miniaturization of lab-on-a-chip components, silicon-based optical biosensors have made significant progress for the purpose of point-of-care diagnosis In this review, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in evanescent field biosensing technologies including interferometer, microcavity, photonic crystal, and Bragg grating waveguide-based sensors Their sensing mechanisms and sensor performances, as well as real biomarkers for label-free detection, are exhibited and compared We also review the development of chip-level integration for lab-on-a-chip photonic sensing platforms, which consist of the optical sensing device, flow delivery system, optical input and readout equipment At last, some advanced system-level complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip packaging examples are presented, indicating the commercialization potential for the low cost, high yield, portable biosensing platform leveraging CMOS processes

239 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Sep 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors quantitatively compare the sensing performance of various waveguide geometries through figures of merit that derive for each mode of sensing, and conclude that properly engineered TM-polarized strip waveguides claim the best performance for refractometry and absorption spectroscopy.
Abstract: The unique ability of slot and sub-wavelength grating (SWG) waveguides to confine light outside of the waveguide core material has attracted significant interest in their application to chemical and biological sensing. However, a high sensitivity to sidewall-roughness-induced scattering loss in these structures compared with strip waveguides casts doubt on their efficacy. In this article, we seek to settle the controversy for silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic devices by quantitatively comparing the sensing performance of various waveguide geometries through figures of merit that we derive for each mode of sensing. These methods (which may be readily applied to other material systems) take into account both modal confinement and roughness scattering loss, the latter of which is computed using a volume-current (Green’s function) method with a first Born approximation. For devices based on the standard 220 nm SOI platform at telecommunication wavelengths (λ=1550 nm), whose propagation loss is predominantly limited by random line-edge sidewall roughness scattering, our model predicts that properly engineered TM-polarized strip waveguides claim the best performance for refractometry and absorption spectroscopy, whereas optimized slot waveguides demonstrate >5× performance enhancement over the other waveguide geometries for waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

77 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Mar 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented the calculation of blood refractive index based on experi-mental data for the real part of the Refractive index of the main protein components, haemoglobin and albumin.
Abstract: We present the calculation of blood refractive index based on the experi-mental data for the real part of the refractive index of the main protein components, haemoglobin and albumin. The refractive index of blood proteins was measured using the multi-wavelength Abbe refractometer at the wavelengths 480, 486, 546, 589, 644, 656, 680, 930, 1100, 1300, and 1550 nm at room temperature +24°С.

42 citations