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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Optofluidic devices and applications

01 Dec 2012-

AbstractOptofluidic devices are most commonly fabricated using microfluidic technology into which photonic capability is embedded. Lasers, microscopes, sensors, optical fibers, and lenses can be fabricated with this approach [1]. The application areas of optofluidics include tunable optical devices, biophotonics [2], and more recently solar energy harvesting [3].

Topics: Optofluidics (62%), Optical engineering (56%), Photonics (52%), Biophotonics (51%)

Summary (2 min read)

1. Introduction

  • Until now, to the best of their knowledge, the most common and reproducible methods of microscale manipulation have included mechanical and magnetic micro-manipulators [1,2] and various types of optical tweezers [3] including: holographic [4], plasmonic [5], antenna-based [6], and photonic crystal-based tweezers [7].
  • The currents could be generated by heating with different wavelengths of light in the near IR spectrum shining on a variety of plasmonic structures and rough metal films [14,17–20].
  • Also, they were done using light coupled through a microscope objective, which made the whole setup inflexible in terms of independent observation and manipulation.
  • The authors substrate contains a continuous bi-metal layer , and this configuration has multiple advantages over traditional thermo-plasmonic structures.
  • (c–h) Optical microscope images and corresponding three-dimensional models of the three regimes of opto-fluidic particle manipulation; (c,f) low power—no controllable particle movement; (d,g) medium power—trapping regime; (e,h) high power—levitation regime.

2. Optoelectrokinetics (OEK) Chips and Their Working Principles

  • In their study, only a layer of a-Si:H was deposited, which was also classified into an a-Si:H based OEK chip.
  • Specifically, if the value of the real part of the CM factor is higher than zero, a positive ODEP force will be generated and then the micro/nanoparticles will be attracted and moved to the illuminated area.
  • Figure 2. Structure of P3HT/PCBM polymer-based OEK chip (reproduced from Ref. [47]).
  • Another kind of OEK chip was devised based on TiOPc, an organic photosensitive material.

3.1. Separation and Assembly of Micro-Scaled Particles

  • The OEK chip has been commonly used to perform manipulations such as separation, concentration and assembly on micro/nanoparticles, with the aid of an ODEP and/or ACEO mechanism.
  • Manipulation and assembly of metallic microspheres into patterns were proposed [60].
  • It has been further demonstrated that OEK can serve as a versatile and programmable microrobot to perform typical micromanipulations such as “load,” “transport,” and “deliver” [63].
  • Figure 8G schematically presents the three-step process, which exhibited a higher moving velocity than when OEK was used alone.

3.2. Manipulation of Nano-Scaled Particles

  • OEK has also been used to dynamically manipulate nano-scaled entities, including the separation of nanowires [64–67], the patterning of two-dimensional nanomaterials [68], and manipulation of nanoparticles [69–74].
  • When the external voltage was higher than the “separation voltage,” i.e., the threshold one for moving the silicon nanowire, the silver nanowire could be separated from the silicon nanowire.
  • First, a rapid and automatic assembly of 100 nm diameter gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based microstructures was experimentally investigated [72].
  • Using the triangle pattern as the virtual electrodes attracted most of the AuNPs into the locations of angular bisectors and formed a circle structure with three lines pointing toward the center of the triangle.
  • Specifically, their resistance value could be controlled by the width and length of the microstructures: inversely increasing with the width and linearly increasing with the length .

4. Mask-Free Fabrication of Electrodes and Devices

  • An optically-induced electrochemical reaction and deposition scheme was presented to enable dynamic, rapid and mask-free fabrication of microelectrodes [75–79].
  • Then, the Au and Ag electrodes were rapidly fabricated onto the target MoS2 film.
  • Then, the fabricated microstructures were transferred into an OEK chip for assembly, which was achieved by using microfluidic flow.
  • Figure 16 illustrates the assembly of PEGDA-based microstructures with different sizes and shapes.
  • Two alternating lines perpendicular to each other were designed to fabricate hydrogel microstructures, as shown in Figure 17a.

6. Conclusions and Prospects

  • As discussed above, the OEK technique has been widely used by the microfluidic community to make a list of research achievements in terms of the manipulation and fabrication of micro/nanomaterials A lens-free holographic microscope was incorporated into the OEK chip to allow observing microparticles and cells in a large field of view [99].
  • 16 Micromachines 2020, 11, 78 Finally, increased efforts are required to identify new possible applications of the OEK technique, which is the ultimate challenge and also the key to address the above two challenges.
  • The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Optofluidic
Devices and
Applications
Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Micromachines
www.mdpi.com/journal/micromachines
Francisco Yubero and Fernando Lahoz
Edited by
Optofluidic Devices and Applications • Francisco Yubero and Fernando Lahoz

Optofluidic Devices and Applications


Optofluidic Devices and Applications
Editors
Francisco Yubero
Fernando Lahoz
MDPI Basel Beijing Wuhan Barcelona Belgrade Manchester Tokyo Cluj Tianjin

Editors
Francisco Yubero
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC–Univ. Sevilla)
Spain
Fernando Lahoz
Universidad de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Spain
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MDPI
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This is a reprint of articles from the Special Issue published online in the open access journal
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special
issues/optofluidic devices applications).
For citation purposes, cite each article independently as indicated on the article page online and as
indicated below:
LastName, A.A.; LastName, B.B.; LastName, C.C. Article Title. Journal Name Year, Volume Number,
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2020 by the authors. Articles in this book are Open Access and distributed under the Creative
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Figures (14)
Citations
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DOI
01 Jan 2012
Abstract: The term of optofluidics defines an emergent research field that combines microfluidics and optics. In many lab-on-a-chip applications, these two technologies are used in combining the microfluidics for sample delivery and optics for sensing and controlling. Optofluidic represents the implementation of optics in microfluidic platform that produces an unprecedented level of integration. Moreover, optofluidic devices are easily and highly reconfigurable, which can be a significant advantage to the traditional solid optical components. As an elastomer, PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is one of the most popular materials in microfluidics. It exhibits excellent elasticity, bio-compatibility and optical transparence. Most microfluidic chips are made of PDMS using soft lithography. And multi-layer soft lithography has enabled large-scale integration of monolithic microfluidic valves and pumps on a single chip. Thus to develop the optofluidic elements within PDMS microfluidic chip is one of the most promising and desirable ways towards further integration of optofluidic and microfluidic functions together for more complex lab-on-a-chip applications. During my doctoral research, we worked on a batch of optofluidic devices that are based on PDMS material and soft lithography. They include the optofluidic dye lasers, optofluidic interferometer, optofluidic switch, and optofluidic differential spectroscopy. Such optofluidic elements provide a broad spectrum of toolbox with different optical functions that can be easily into many other PDMS microfluidic chips. They are compatible to the conventional PDMS microfluidic chip in terms of fabrication, operation and control. And they could provide important optical functions in lab-on-a-chip systems. For examples, the optofluidic dye laser can be integrated as a widely tunable coherent source for chip-scale fluorescence spectroscopy or cell flow cytometry. The optofluidic membrane interferometer can be easily integrated into conventional PDMS microfluidic chip for multi-site pressure and flow monitoring with high precision. Optofluidic switch can compose a reconfigurable optical circuit on single microfluidic chip. Optofluidic differential spectroscopy provides a simple and highly sensitive method for in-line measuring of solution concentration. Among these devices, we have also developed and summarized a series of novel optofluidic turning methods that are controlled by pneumatic actuation. These simple turning methods also take the advantages of high precision and reliability. In addition to these elastomeric optofluidic devices, we are also working on several other optofluidic projects. In the last chapter of this thesis, we will give a partial preview of these works and also our perspective on the nano-optofluidics which represents a new trend of optofluidics.

4 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
26 Jul 2006-Nature
TL;DR: D devices in which optics and fluidics are used synergistically to synthesize novel functionalities are described, according to three broad categories of interactions: fluid–solid interfaces, purely fluidic interfaces and colloidal suspensions.
Abstract: We describe devices in which optics and fluidics are used synergistically to synthesize novel functionalities. Fluidic replacement or modification leads to reconfigurable optical systems, whereas the implementation of optics through the microfluidic toolkit gives highly compact and integrated devices. We categorize optofluidics according to three broad categories of interactions: fluid–solid interfaces, purely fluidic interfaces and colloidal suspensions. We describe examples of optofluidic devices in each category.

1,617 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mechanisms by which optofluidics enhances bio/chemical analysis capabilities, including sensing and the precise control of biological micro/nanoparticles, are emphasized.
Abstract: Optofluidics - the synergistic integration of photonics and microfluidics - has recently emerged as a new analytical field that provides a number of unique characteristics for enhanced sensing performance and simplification of microsystems. In this review, we describe various optofluidic architectures developed in the past five years, emphasize the mechanisms by which optofluidics enhances bio/chemical analysis capabilities, including sensing and the precise control of biological micro/nanoparticles, and envision new research directions to which optofluidics leads.

736 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Since its emergence as a field, optofluidics has developed unique tools and techniques for enabling the simultaneous delivery of light and fluids with microscopic precision. In this Review, we describe the possibilities for applying these same capabilities to the field of energy. We focus in particular on optofluidic opportunities in sunlight-based fuel production in photobioreactors and photocatalytic systems, as well as optofluidically enabled solar energy collection and control. We then provide a series of physical and scaling arguments that demonstrate the potential benefits of incorporating optofluidic elements into energy systems. Throughout the Review we draw attention to the ways in which optofluidics must evolve to enable the up-scaling required to impact the energy field.

245 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: By integrating soft-lithography-based nanofluidics with silicon nanophotonics, we demonstrate dynamic, liquid-based addressing and high Delta n/n(~0.1) refractive index modulation of individual features within photonic structures at subwavelength length scales. We show ultracompact tunable spectral filtering through nanofluidic targeting of a single row of holes within a planar photonic crystal. We accomplished this with an optofluidic integration architecture comprising a nanophotonic layer, a nanofluidic delivery structure, and a microfluidic control engine. Variants of this technique could enable dynamic reconfiguration of photonic circuits, selective introduction of optical nonlinearities, or delivery of single molecules into resonant cavities for biodetection.

234 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Based on peristaltic nematogen microflows in polydimethylsiloxane, scientists demonstrate an optofluidic modulator that exhibits a symmetric 250 µs response and can operate at frequencies of up to 1 kHz.

98 citations


Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What contributions have the authors mentioned in the paper "Optofluidic devices and applications optofluidic devices and applications" ?

In this paper, the authors summarize a variety of differently structured OEK chips, followed by a discussion on how they are fabricated and the ways in which they work. The authors also review how three differently sized polystyrene beads can be separated simultaneously, how a variety of nanoparticles can be assembled, and how micro/nanomaterials can be fabricated into functional devices. The authors provide a summary of the current challenges facing the OEK technique and its future prospects at the end of this paper.