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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12866-021-02130-4

Oral microbiota and Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis: what do we know and where next?

04 Mar 2021-BMC Microbiology (BioMed Central)-Vol. 21, Iss: 1, pp 71-71
Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies causing death worldwide, and Helicobacter pylori is a powerful inducer of precancerous lesions and GC. The oral microbiota is a complex ecosystem and is responsible for maintaining homeostasis, modulating the immune system, and resisting pathogens. It has been proposed that the gastric microbiota of oral origin is involved in the development and progression of GC. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between oral microbiota and GC and the role of H. pylori in this relationship is still controversial. This study was set to review the investigations done on oral microbiota and analyze various lines of evidence regarding the role of oral microbiota in GC, to date. Also, we discussed the interaction and relationship between H. pylori and oral microbiota in GC and the current understanding with regard to the underlying mechanisms of oral microbiota in carcinogenesis. More importantly, detecting the patterns of interaction between the oral cavity microbiota and H. pylori may render new clues for the diagnosis or screening of cancer. Integration of oral microbiota and H. pylori might manifest a potential method for the assessment of GC risk. Hence it needs to be specified the patterns of bacterial transmission from the oral cavity to the stomach and their interaction. Further evidence on the mechanisms underlying the oral microbiota communities and how they trigger GC may contribute to the identification of new prevention methods for GC. We may then modulate the oral microbiota by intervening with oral-gastric bacterial transmission or controlling certain bacteria in the oral cavity.

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6 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14728222.2021.1971195
Abstract: Introduction As a multifactorial disorder, gastric cancer (GC) has higher genetic, cytologic, and architectural heterogeneity compared to other gastrointestinal cancers. Its late diagnosis has made its treatment challenging. By inducing gastric inflammation, Helicobacter pylori (HP) may lead to GC through combining bacterial factors with host factors. In this regard, identification of the major therapeutic targets against the host-HP interactions plays a critical role in GC prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Areas covered This study offers new insights into the promising therapeutic targets against the angiogenesis, invasion, or metastasis of GC from a host-HP interaction perspective. To this end, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, AIM, and IndMed databases were searched for relevant articles since 1992. Expert opinion Wnt signaling and COX pathway have a well-documented history in the genesis of GC by HP and might be considered as the most promising targets for early GC treatment. Destroying HP may decrease the risk of GC, but it cannot fully hinder the GC development induced by HP infection. Therefore, targeting HP-activated pathways, especially COX-2/Wnt/beta-catenin/VEGF, TLR2/TLR9/COX-2, COX2-PGE2, and NF-κB/COX-2, as well as EPHA2, MMPs, and miR-543/SIRT1 axis, can be an effective measure in the early treatment of GC. However, different clinical trials and large, multi-center cohorts are required to validate these potentially effective targets for GC therapy.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12866-021-02315-X
23 Sep 2021-BMC Microbiology
Abstract: Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is a critical risk factor for gastric cancer (GC). However, only 1–3 % of people with H. pylori develop GC. In gastric carcinogenesis, non-H. pylori bacteria in the stomach might interact with H. pylori. Bacterial dysbiosis in the stomach can strengthen gastric neoplasia development via generating tumor-promoting metabolites, DNA damaging, suppressing antitumor immunity, and activating oncogenic signaling pathways. Other bacterial species may generate short-chain fatty acids like butyrate that may inhibit carcinogenesis and inflammation in the human stomach. The present article aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the effects of gut microbiota and H. pylori on the development of GC. Next, the potential mechanisms of intestinal microbiota were discussed in gastric carcinogenesis. We also disserted the complicated interactions between H. pylori, intestinal microbiota, and host in gastric carcinogenesis, thus helping us to design new strategies for preventing, diagnosing, and treating GC.

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Topics: Dysbiosis (58%), Helicobacter pylori (56%), Gut flora (53%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LFS.2021.119933
01 Nov 2021-Life Sciences
Abstract: Gastrointestinal cancers are one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. Dysregulation of lncRNAs by epigenetic alteration is crucial in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Epigenetic alteration includes DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone modifications, and deregulated-gene expression by miRNAs. LncRNAs are involved in biological processes, including, uncontrolled cell division, migration, invasion, and resistance to apoptosis and drugs. Multiple-drug resistance (MDR) is a crucial obstacle in effective chemotherapy for gastrointestinal cancers. MDR can be associated with the prognosis and diagnosis of patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents (i.e. cisplatin, oxaliplatin, platinum, 5-fluorouracil, gefitinib, methotrexate, taxol, cetuximab, docetaxel, and gemcitabine). In this review, we focused on recently known lncRNAs and their relation with miRNAs and chemotherapeutic drugs, and their modulation in gastrointestinal cancers. Moreover, we mentioned the future prospective and clinical application of lncRNAs as a critical indicator and biomarker in diagnosis, prognosis, staging, grading, and treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

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Topics: Gastrointestinal cancer (53%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9111680
12 Nov 2021-Biomedicines
Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the global leading causes of cancer death. The association between Helicobacter pylori, which is a predominant risk factor for GC, with GC development has been well-studied. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the presence of a large population of microorganisms other than H. pylori in the human stomach. Existing sequencing studies have revealed microbial compositional and functional alterations in patients with GC and highlighted a progressive shift in the gastric microbiota in gastric carcinogenesis with marked enrichments of oral or intestinal commensals. Moreover, using a combination of gastric bacterial signatures, GC patients could be significantly distinguished from patients with gastritis. These findings, therefore, emphasize the importance of a collective microbial community in gastric carcinogenesis. Here, we provide an overview of non-H. pylori gastric microbes in gastric carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of gastric microbes-related carcinogenesis and potential clinical applications of gastric microbiota as biomarkers of GC are also explored.

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Topics: Helicobacter pylori (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.10.3109
Abstract: A healthy microbiome is important for human health because it exhibits a variety of functions in the human body wherein the microbiome dysbiosis can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer. Recent advances in technology and cost reduction of sequencing have made it possible and much easier for researchers to investigate the role of the microbiome in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, modulation of microflora may serve as an effective adjunct to conventional anticancer therapy that is very important to improve the patient’s quality of life. Additionally, microbiome biomarkers can also be used as a diagnostic tool for cancer. So far the association between oral microbial consortia and their interactions with the host in maintaining the human health and the pathogenesis of multiple cancers has gained much popularity in the scientific research community. While the interactions of oral microflora are better established in cancer- like gastric cancer, it is far less understood in others like breast cancer. Therefore, this review briefly outlines the current information on the role of oral microbiota in breast cancer with emphasis on the mechanisms of oral microflora induced carcinogenesis and discusses the emerging role of periodontitis as a risk factor for breast cancer. Clinical relevance; Periodontitis is a very common disease that is characterized by chronic polymicrobial infection and inflammation of gingiva. It might be associated as a risk factor for breast cancer. If this association is validated in large cohort studies, it would serve as a non-invasive biomarker for breast cancer.

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Topics: Breast cancer (59%), Cancer (58%), Microbiome (56%) ... read more

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139 results found


Open accessJournal Article
Pelayo Correa1Institutions (1)
15 Dec 1992-Cancer Research
Abstract: Evidence from pathology and epidemiology studies has been provided for a human model of gastric carcinogenesis with the following sequential stages: chronic gastritis; atrophy; intestinal metaplasia; and dysplasia. The initial stages of gastritis and atrophy have been linked to excessive salt intake and infection with Helicobacter pylori. The intermediate stages have been associated with the ingestion of ascorbic acid and nitrate, determinants of intragastric nitrosation. The final stages have been linked with the supply of beta-carotene and with excessive salt intake. Nitrosating agents are candidate carcinogens and could originate in the gastric cavity or in the inflammatory infiltrate.

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Topics: Salt intake (61%), Chronic gastritis (58%), Ascorbic acid (54%) ... read more

2,795 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/JCM.43.11.5721-5732.2005
Jørn A. Aas1, Jørn A. Aas2, Bruce J. Paster1, Bruce J. Paster3  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: More than 700 bacterial species or phylotypes, of which over 50% have not been cultivated, have been detected in the oral cavity. Our purposes were (i) to utilize culture-independent molecular techniques to extend our knowledge on the breadth of bacterial diversity in the healthy human oral cavity, including not-yet-cultivated bacteria species, and (ii) to determine the site and subject specificity of bacterial colonization. Nine sites from five clinically healthy subjects were analyzed. Sites included tongue dorsum, lateral sides of tongue, buccal epithelium, hard palate, soft palate, supragingival plaque of tooth surfaces, subgingival plaque, maxillary anterior vestibule, and tonsils. 16S rRNA genes from sample DNA were amplified, cloned, and transformed into Escherichia coli. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes were used to determine species identity or closest relatives. In 2,589 clones, 141 predominant species were detected, of which over 60% have not been cultivated. Thirteen new phylotypes were identified. Species common to all sites belonged to the genera Gemella, Granulicatella, Streptococcus, and Veillonella. While some species were subject specific and detected in most sites, other species were site specific. Most sites possessed 20 to 30 different predominant species, and the number of predominant species from all nine sites per individual ranged from 34 to 72. Species typically associated with periodontitis and caries were not detected. There is a distinctive predominant bacterial flora of the healthy oral cavity that is highly diverse and site and subject specific. It is important to fully define the human microflora of the healthy oral cavity before we can understand the role of bacteria in oral disease.

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Topics: Gemella (50%)

2,411 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-019-52748-8
Daniel Conroy-Beam1, David M. Buss2, Kelly Asao2, Agnieszka Sorokowska3  +108 moreInstitutions (59)
15 Nov 2019-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Humans express a wide array of ideal mate preferences. Around the world, people desire romantic partners who are intelligent, healthy, kind, physically attractive, wealthy, and more. In order for these ideal preferences to guide the choice of actual romantic partners, human mating psychology must possess a means to integrate information across these many preference dimensions into summaries of the overall mate value of their potential mates. Here we explore the computational design of this mate preference integration process using a large sample of n = 14,487 people from 45 countries around the world. We combine this large cross-cultural sample with agent-based models to compare eight hypothesized models of human mating markets. Across cultures, people higher in mate value appear to experience greater power of choice on the mating market in that they set higher ideal standards, better fulfill their preferences in choice, and pair with higher mate value partners. Furthermore, we find that this cross-culturally universal pattern of mate choice is most consistent with a Euclidean model of mate preference integration.

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Topics: Mate choice (55%), Preference (55%), Sexual selection (50%)

1,812 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRC1046
Abstract: Free radicals are ubiquitous in our body and are generated by normal physiological processes, including aerobic metabolism and inflammatory responses, to eliminate invading pathogenic microorganisms. Because free radicals can also inflict cellular damage, several defences have evolved both to protect our cells from radicals--such as antioxidant scavengers and enzymes--and to repair DNA damage. Understanding the association between chronic inflammation and cancer provides insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In particular, we highlight the interaction between nitric oxide and p53 as a crucial pathway in inflammatory-mediated carcinogenesis.

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1,507 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PATH.2287
Abstract: TNF was originally described as a circulating factor that can cause necrosis of tumours, but has since been identified as a key regulator of the inflammatory response This review describes the known signalling pathways and cell biological effects of TNF, and our understanding of the role of TNF in human disease TNF interacts with two different receptors, designated TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are differentially expressed on cells and tissues and initiate both distinct and overlapping signal transduction pathways These diverse signalling cascades lead to a range of cellular responses, which include cell death, survival, differentiation, proliferation and migration Vascular endothelial cells respond to TNF by undergoing a number of pro-inflammatory changes, which increase leukocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration and vascular leak and promote thrombosis The central role of TNF in inflammation has been demonstrated by the ability of agents that block the action of TNF to treat a range of inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis The increased incidence of infection in patients receiving anti-TNF treatment has highlighted the physiological role of TNF in infectious diseases

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Topics: Cytokine (57%), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (56%), Inflammation (54%) ... read more

1,435 Citations


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