Open accessJournal Article

# Orbital-hybridization-created optical excitations in Li2GeO3

02 Mar 2021-Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 11, Iss: 1, pp 1-10
Abstract: The three-dimensional ternary Li2GeO3 compound presents various unusual essential properties. The main features are thoroughly explored from the first-principles calculations. The concise pictures, the critical orbital hybridizations in Li–O and Ge–O bonds, are clearly examined through the optimal geometric structure, the atom-dominated electronic energy spectrum, the spatial charge densities, the atom and orbital-decomposed van Hove singularities, and the strong optical responses. The unusual optical transitions cover the red-shift optical gap, various frequency-dependent absorption structures and the most prominent plasmon mode in terms of the dielectric functions, energy loss functions, reflectance spectra, and absorption coefficients. Optical excitations, depending on the directions of electric polarization, are strongly affected by excitonic effects. The close combinations of electronic and optical properties can identify a significant orbital hybridization for each available excitation channel. The developed theoretical framework will be very useful in fully understanding the diverse phenomena of other emergent materials.

Topics: , Plasmon (50%)
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Open accessJournal Article
Robert N. Spengler1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Over the past decade, niche construction theory (NCT) has been one of the fastest-growing theories or scholarly approaches in the social sciences, especially within archaeology. It was proposed in the biological sciences 25 years ago and is often referred to as a neglected evolutionary mechanism. Given its rapid acceptance by the archaeological community, it is important that scholars consider how it is being applied and look for discrepancies between applications of the concept. Many critical discussions of NCT have already been published, but most of them are in biology journals and may be overlooked by scholars in the social sciences. In this manuscript, my goal is to synthesis the criticisms of NCT, better allowing archaeologists to independently evaluate its usefulness. I focus on the claims of novelty and differences between NCT and other approaches to conceptualizing anthropogenic ecosystem impacts and culture-evolution feedbacks. I argue that the diverse concepts currently included in the wide-reaching purview of NCT are not new, but the terminology is and may be useful to some scholars. If proponents of the concept are able to unify their ideas, it may serve a descriptive function, but given that lack of a testable explanatory mechanism, it does not have a clear heuristic function.

Topics: Niche construction (52%), Terminology (50%)

5 Citations

Journal Article
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles play a crucial role in feto-maternal communication and provide an important paracrine signaling mechanism in pregnancy. We hypothesized that fetal cells-derived exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) under oxidative stress (OS) carry unique cargo and traffic through feto-maternal interface, which cause inflammation in uterine cells associated with parturition. Exosomes and MVs, from primary amnion epithelial cell (AEC) culture media under normal or OS-induced conditions, were isolated by optimized differential centrifugation method followed by characterization for size (nanoparticle tracking analyzer), shape (transmission electron microscopy), and protein markers (western blot and immunofluorescence). Cargo and canonical pathways were identified by mass spectroscopy and ingenuity pathway analysis. Myometrial, decidual, and cervical cells were treated with 1 × 107 control/OS-derived exosomes/MVs. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured using a Luminex assay. Statistical significance was determined by paired T-test (P < 0.05). AEC produced cup-shaped exosomes of 90–150 nm and circular MVs of 160–400 nm. CD9, heat shock protein 70, and Nanog were detected in exosomes, whereas OCT-4, human leukocyte antigen G, and calnexin were found in MVs. MVs, but not exosomes, were stained for phosphatidylserine. The protein profiles for control versus OS-derived exosomes and MVs were significantly different. Several inflammatory pathways related to OS were upregulated that were distinct between exosomes and MVs. Both OS-derived exosomes and MVs significantly increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-8) in maternal cells compared with control (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that fetal-derived exosomes and MVs under OS exhibited distinct characteristics and a synergistic inflammatory role in uterine cells associated with the initiation of parturition. Summary sentence Oxidative stress-induced fetal membrane cells produce exosomes and MVs with distinct properties and cargo and may function as paracrine signalers at the feto-maternal interface during pregnancy and parturition. Graphical Abstract

Topics: Microvesicles (55%)

5 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Ultrasonic de-agglomeration and dispersion of oxides is important for a range of applications. In particular, in liquid metal, this is one of the ways to produce metal-matrix composites reinforced with micron and nano sized particles. The associated mechanism through which the de-agglomeration occurs has, however, only been conceptualized theoretically and not yet been validated with experimental observations. In this paper, the influence of ultrasonic cavitation on SiO2 and MgO agglomerates (commonly found in lightweight alloys as reinforcements) with individual particle sizes ranging between 0.5 and 10 μm was observed for the first time in-situ using high-speed imaging. Owing to the opacity of liquid metals, a de-agglomeration imaging experiment was carried out in de-ionised water with sequences captured at frame rates up to 50 kfps. In-situ observations were further accompanied by synchronised acoustic measurements using an advanced calibrated cavitometer, to reveal the effect of pressure amplitude arising from oscillating microbubbles on oxide de-agglomeration. Results showed that ultrasound-induced microbubble clusters pulsating chaotically, were predominantly responsible for the breakage and dispersion of oxide agglomerates. Such oscillating cavitation clusters were seen to capture the floating agglomerates resulting in their immediate disintegration. De-agglomeration of oxides occurred from both the surface and within the bulk of the aggregate. Microbubble clusters oscillating with associated emission frequencies at the subharmonic, 1st harmonic and low order ultra-harmonics of the driving frequency were deemed responsible for the breakage of the agglomerates.

Topics: Cavitation (50%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Szu-Min Hsieh1, Ming-Che Liu2, Ming-Che Liu3, Yen-Hsu Chen4  +20 moreInstitutions (14)
Abstract: Summary Background MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing pre-fusion-stabilised spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide, has been shown to be well tolerated with a good safety profile in healthy adults aged 20–49 years in a phase 1 trial, and provided a good cellular and humoral immune responses. We present the interim safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity results of a phase 2 clinical trial of the MVC-COV1901 vaccine in Taiwan. Methods This is a large-scale, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial done at ten medical centres and one regional hospital in Taiwan. Individuals aged 20 years or older who were generally healthy or had stable pre-existing medical conditions were eligible for enrolment. Exclusion criteria included (but were not limited to) travel overseas within 14 days of screening, intention to travel overseas within 6 months of the screening visit, and the absence of prespecified medical conditions, including immunosuppressive illness, a history of autoimmune disease, malignancy with risk to recur, a bleeding disorder, uncontrolled HIV infection, uncontrolled hepatitis B and C virus infections, SARS-CoV-1 or SARS-CoV-2 infections, an allergy to any vaccine, or a serious medical condition that could interfere with the study. Study participants were randomly assigned (6:1) to receive two doses of either MVC-COV1901 or placebo, administered via intramuscular injection on day 1 and day 29. MVC-COV1901 contained 15 μg of S-2P protein adjuvanted with 750 μg CpG 1018 and 375 μg aluminium hydroxide in a 0·5 mL aqueous solution, and the placebo contained the same volume of saline. Randomisation was done centrally by use of an interactive web response system, stratified by age (≥20 to ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04695652 . Findings Of 4173 individuals screened between Dec 30, 2020, and April 2, 2021, 3854 were enrolled and randomly assigned: 3304 to the MVC-COV1901 group and 550 to the placebo group. A total of 3844 participants (3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 549 in the placebo group) were included in the safety analysis set, and 1053 participants (903 and 150) had received both doses and were included in the per-protocol immunogenicity analysis set. From the start of this phase 2 trial to the time of interim analysis, no vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events in all study participants were pain at the injection site (2346 [71·2%] of 3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 128 [23·3%] of 549 in the placebo group), and malaise or fatigue (1186 [36·0%] and 163 [29·7%]). Fever was rarely reported (23 [0·7%] and two [0·4%]). At 28 days after the second dose of MVC-COV1901, the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody GMT was 662·3 (95% CI 628·7–697·8; 408·5 IU/mL), the GMT ratio (geometric mean fold increase in titres at day 57 vs baseline) was 163·2 (155·0–171·9), and the seroconversion rate was 99·8% (95% CI 99·2–100·0). Interpretation MVC-COV1901 has a good safety profile and elicits promising immunogenicity responses. These data support MVC-COV1901 to enter phase 3 efficacy trials. Funding Medigen Vaccine Biologics and Taiwan Centres for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare.

Topics: Interim analysis (54%), Placebo (53%), Tolerability (51%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: In December 2019, a new virus called SARS-CoV-2 was reported in China and quickly spread to other parts of the world. The development of SARS-COV-2 vaccines has recently received much attention from numerous researchers. The present study aims to design an effective multi-epitope vaccine against SARS-COV-2 using the reverse vaccinology method. In this regard, structural proteins from SARS-COV-2, including the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins, were selected as target antigens for epitope prediction. A total of five helper T lymphocytes (HTL) and five cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) epitopes were selected after screening the predicted epitopes for antigenicity, allergenicity, and toxicity. Subsequently, the selected HTL and CTL epitopes were fused via flexible linkers. Next, the cholera toxin B-subunit (CTxB) as an adjuvant was linked to the N-terminal of the chimeric structure. The proposed vaccine was analyzed for the properties of physicochemical, antigenicity, and allergenicity. The 3D model of the vaccine construct was predicted and docked with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to evaluate the stable interactions between the vaccine construct and TLR4. The immune simulation was also conducted to explore the immune responses induced by the vaccine. Finally, in silico cloning of the vaccine construct into the pET-28 (+) vector was conducted. The results obtained from all bioinformatics analysis stages were satisfactory; however, in vitro and in vivo tests are essential to validate these results.

Topics: Helper T lymphocyte (56.99%), Epitope (55%), Reverse vaccinology (54%)

1 Citations

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33 results found

Journal Article
Abstract: Generalized gradient approximations (GGA’s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. [S0031-9007(96)01479-2] PACS numbers: 71.15.Mb, 71.45.Gm Kohn-Sham density functional theory [1,2] is widely used for self-consistent-field electronic structure calculations of the ground-state properties of atoms, molecules, and solids. In this theory, only the exchange-correlation energy EXC › EX 1 EC as a functional of the electron spin densities n"srd and n#srd must be approximated. The most popular functionals have a form appropriate for slowly varying densities: the local spin density (LSD) approximation Z d 3 rn e unif

117,932 Citations

Journal Article
Georg Kresse1, Daniel P. Joubert2Institutions (2)
15 Jan 1999-Physical Review B
Abstract: The formal relationship between ultrasoft (US) Vanderbilt-type pseudopotentials and Bl\"ochl's projector augmented wave (PAW) method is derived. It is shown that the total energy functional for US pseudopotentials can be obtained by linearization of two terms in a slightly modified PAW total energy functional. The Hamilton operator, the forces, and the stress tensor are derived for this modified PAW functional. A simple way to implement the PAW method in existing plane-wave codes supporting US pseudopotentials is pointed out. In addition, critical tests are presented to compare the accuracy and efficiency of the PAW and the US pseudopotential method with relaxed core all electron methods. These tests include small molecules $({\mathrm{H}}_{2}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{O},\mathrm{}\mathrm{Li}}_{2}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{N}}_{2}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{F}}_{2}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{BF}}_{3}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{SiF}}_{4})$ and several bulk systems (diamond, Si, V, Li, Ca, ${\mathrm{CaF}}_{2},$ Fe, Co, Ni). Particular attention is paid to the bulk properties and magnetic energies of Fe, Co, and Ni.

Topics: Cauchy stress tensor (53%)

46,297 Citations

Open accessBook
01 Jan 1953-
Abstract: Mathematical Introduction Acoustic Phonons Plasmons, Optical Phonons, and Polarization Waves Magnons Fermion Fields and the Hartree-Fock Approximation Many-body Techniques and the Electron Gas Polarons and the Electron-phonon Interaction Superconductivity Bloch Functions - General Properties Brillouin Zones and Crystal Symmetry Dynamics of Electrons in a Magnetic Field: de Haas-van Alphen Effect and Cyclotron Resonance Magnetoresistance Calculation of Energy Bands and Fermi Surfaces Semiconductor Crystals I: Energy Bands, Cyclotron Resonance, and Impurity States Semiconductor Crystals II: Optical Absorption and Excitons Electrodynamics of Metals Acoustic Attenuation in Metals Theory of Alloys Correlation Functions and Neutron Diffraction by Crystals Recoilless Emission Green's Functions - Application to Solid State Physics Appendix: Perturbation Theory and the Electron Gas Index.

Topics: Solid-state physics (59%), Cyclotron resonance (56.99%), Fermi gas (56%) ... show more

21,934 Citations

Journal Article
Mark S. Hybertsen1, Steven G. Louie1Institutions (1)
15 Oct 1986-Physical Review B
Abstract: We present a first-principles theory of the quasiparticle energies in semiconductors and insulators described in terms of the electron self-energy operator. The full dielectric matrix is used to evaluate the self-energy operator in the GW approximation: the first term in an expansion of the self-energy operator in terms of the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction (W) and the dressed Green's function (G). Quasiparticle energies are calculated for the homopolar materials diamond, Si, and Ge as well as for the ionic compound LiCl. The results are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. In particular, the indirect band gap is calculated as 5.5, 1.29, and 0.75 eV as compared with experimental gaps of 5.48, 1.17, and 0.744 eV for diamond, Si, and Ge, respectively. The Ge results include relativistic effects. The calculated direct gap for LiCl is within 5% of experiment. Viewed as a correction to the density-functional eigenvalues calculated with the local-density approximation, the present results show a correction dominated by a large jump at the gap. It is found that because of the charge inhomogeneity, the full dielectric screening matrix must be included, i.e., local-field effects are essential. The dynamical effects are also found to be crucial. The required dielectric matrices are obtained within the density-functional approach for the static case and extended to finite frequency with use of a generalized plasmon-pole model based on sum rules. The model reproduces the \ensuremath{\omega} and ${\ensuremath{\omega}}^{\mathrm{\ensuremath{-}}1}$ moments of the exact many-body response function. The qualitative features of the electron self-energy operator are discussed. Using the static Coulomb-hole--screened-exchange approximation for illustration, the role of local fields in the self-energy operator are explained. The role of dynamical renormalization is illustrated. The same qualitative features are observed in both the homopolar and ionic materials.

Topics: GW approximation (59%), Operator (physics) (55%), Band gap (55%) ... show more

2,389 Citations

Journal Article
Abstract: Preface 1. Introduction 2. Classical propagation 3. Interband absorption 4. Excitons 5. Luminescence 6. Semiconductor quantum wells 7. Free electrons 8. Molecular materials 9. Luminescence centres 10. Phonons 11. Nonlinear optics Appendix A: Electromagnetism in dielectrics Appendix B: Quantum theory of radiative absorption and emission Appendix C: Band theory Appendix D: Semiconductor p-i-n diodes

Topics: Semiconductor (51%)

2,360 Citations

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