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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.02.002

Osteoclasts recycle via osteomorphs during RANKL-stimulated bone resorption

04 Mar 2021-Cell (Cell Press)-Vol. 184, Iss: 5, pp 1940-1940
Abstract: Osteoclasts are large multinucleated bone-resorbing cells formed by the fusion of monocyte/macrophage-derived precursors that are thought to undergo apoptosis once resorption is complete. Here, by intravital imaging, we reveal that RANKL-stimulated osteoclasts have an alternative cell fate in which they fission into daughter cells called osteomorphs. Inhibiting RANKL blocked this cellular recycling and resulted in osteomorph accumulation. Single-cell RNA sequencing showed that osteomorphs are transcriptionally distinct from osteoclasts and macrophages and express a number of non-canonical osteoclast genes that are associated with structural and functional bone phenotypes when deleted in mice. Furthermore, genetic variation in human orthologs of osteomorph genes causes monogenic skeletal disorders and associates with bone mineral density, a polygenetic skeletal trait. Thus, osteoclasts recycle via osteomorphs, a cell type involved in the regulation of bone resorption that may be targeted for the treatment of skeletal diseases.

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Topics: Bone resorption (63%), Osteoclast (58%), RANKL (58%) ... show more

30 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1210/ENDREV/BNAB015
26 Apr 2021-Endocrine Reviews
Abstract: Reproductive hormones play a crucial role in the growth and maintenance of the mammalian skeleton. Indeed, the biological significance for this hormonal regulation of skeletal homeostasis is best illustrated by common clinical reproductive disorders, such as primary ovarian insufficiency, hypothalamic amenorrhea, congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and early menopause, which contribute to the clinical burden of low bone mineral density and increased risk for fragility fracture. Emerging evidence relating to traditional reproductive hormones and the recent discovery of newer reproductive neuropeptides and hormones has deepened our understanding of the interaction between bone and the reproductive system. In this review, we provide a contemporary summary of the literature examining the relationship between bone biology and reproductive signals that extend beyond estrogens and androgens, and include kisspeptin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, inhibin, activin, and relaxin. A comprehensive and up-to-date review of the recent basic and clinical research advances is essential given the prevalence of clinical reproductive disorders, the emerging roles of upstream reproductive hormones in bone physiology, as well as the urgent need to develop novel safe and effective therapies for bone fragility in a rapidly aging population.

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Topics: Kisspeptin (52%), Hormone (51%), Reproductive system (51%)

5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22115445
Abstract: Bone is a dynamic tissue constantly responding to environmental changes such as nutritional and mechanical stress. Bone homeostasis in adult life is maintained through bone remodeling, a controlled and balanced process between bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Osteoblasts secrete matrix, with some being buried within the newly formed bone, and differentiate to osteocytes. During embryogenesis, bones are formed through intramembraneous or endochondral ossification. The former involves a direct differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor to osteoblasts, and the latter is through a cartilage template that is subsequently converted to bone. Advances in lineage tracing, cell sorting, and single-cell transcriptome studies have enabled new discoveries of gene regulation, and new populations of skeletal stem cells in multiple niches, including the cartilage growth plate, chondro-osseous junction, bone, and bone marrow, in embryonic development and postnatal life. Osteoblast differentiation is regulated by a master transcription factor RUNX2 and other factors such as OSX/SP7 and ATF4. Developmental and environmental cues affect the transcriptional activities of osteoblasts from lineage commitment to differentiation at multiple levels, fine-tuned with the involvement of co-factors, microRNAs, epigenetics, systemic factors, circadian rhythm, and the microenvironments. In this review, we will discuss these topics in relation to transcriptional controls in osteogenesis.

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Topics: Osteoblast (63%), Bone remodeling (60%), Endochondral ossification (60%) ... show more

4 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22083989
Abstract: Bone formation starts near the end of the embryonic stage of development and continues throughout life during bone modeling and growth, remodeling, and when needed, regeneration. Bone-forming cells, traditionally termed osteoblasts, produce, assemble, and control the mineralization of the type I collagen-enriched bone matrix while participating in the regulation of other cell processes, such as osteoclastogenesis, and metabolic activities, such as phosphate homeostasis. Osteoblasts are generated by different cohorts of skeletal stem cells that arise from different embryonic specifications, which operate in the pre-natal and/or adult skeleton under the control of multiple regulators. In this review, we briefly define the cellular identity and function of osteoblasts and discuss the main populations of osteoprogenitor cells identified to date. We also provide examples of long-known and recently recognized regulatory pathways and mechanisms involved in the specification of the osteogenic lineage, as assessed by studies on mice models and human genetic skeletal diseases.

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Topics: Stem cell (58%), Embryonic stem cell (55%), Regeneration (biology) (52%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JBM4.10539
01 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that are characterized by their unique ability to resorb large quantities of bone. Therefore, they are frequently the target of therapeutic interventions to ameliorate bone loss. In an adult organism, osteoclasts derive from hematopoietic stem cells and differentiate into osteoclasts within a multistep process under the influence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Historically, the osteoclast life cycle has been defined as linear, whereby lineage-committed mononuclear precursors fuse to generate multinucleated highly specialized and localized bone phagocytic cells, which then undergo apoptosis within weeks. Recent advances through lineage tracing, single cell RNA sequencing, parabiosis, and intravital imaging approaches have challenged this dogma, revealing they have greater longevity and the capacity to circulate and undergo cell recycling. Indeed, these new insights highlight that under homeostatic conditions very few incidences of osteoclast apoptosis occur. More importantly, as we revisit the formation and fate of the osteoclast, novel methods to target osteoclast biology in bone pathology and regeneration are emerging. This review briefly summarizes the historical life cycle of osteoclasts and highlights recent discoveries made through advanced methodologies, which have led to a paradigm shift in osteoclast biology. These findings are discussed in light of both existing and emerging bone targeted therapeutics, bone pathologies, and communication between osteoclasts and cells resident in bone or at distant sites. © 2021 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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Topics: Osteoclast (58%), RANKL (57%), Stem cell (50%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CEB.2021.04.007
Abstract: Intravital imaging is a powerful technology used to quantify and track dynamic changes in live cells and tissues within an intact environment. The ability to watch cell biology in real-time 'as it happens' has provided novel insight into tissue homeostasis, as well as disease initiation, progression and response to treatment. In this minireview, we highlight recent advances in the field of intravital microscopy, touching upon advances in awake versus anaesthesia-based approaches, as well as the integration of biosensors into intravital imaging. We also discuss current challenges that, in our opinion, need to be overcome to further advance the field of intravital imaging at the single-cell, subcellular and molecular resolution to reveal nuances of cell behaviour that can be targeted in complex disease settings.

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1 Citations


82 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.2019
01 Jul 2012-Nature Methods
Abstract: Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.

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Topics: Software design (51%), Software (50%)

30,888 Citations

Open accessBook
13 Aug 2009-
Abstract: This book describes ggplot2, a new data visualization package for R that uses the insights from Leland Wilkisons Grammar of Graphics to create a powerful and flexible system for creating data graphics. With ggplot2, its easy to: produce handsome, publication-quality plots, with automatic legends created from the plot specification superpose multiple layers (points, lines, maps, tiles, box plots to name a few) from different data sources, with automatically adjusted common scales add customisable smoothers that use the powerful modelling capabilities of R, such as loess, linear models, generalised additive models and robust regression save any ggplot2 plot (or part thereof) for later modification or reuse create custom themes that capture in-house or journal style requirements, and that can easily be applied to multiple plots approach your graph from a visual perspective, thinking about how each component of the data is represented on the final plot. This book will be useful to everyone who has struggled with displaying their data in an informative and attractive way. You will need some basic knowledge of R (i.e. you should be able to get your data into R), but ggplot2 is a mini-language specifically tailored for producing graphics, and youll learn everything you need in the book. After reading this book youll be able to produce graphics customized precisely for your problems,and youll find it easy to get graphics out of your head and on to the screen or page.

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Topics: Data visualization (58%), Graphics (56%)

23,839 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTS635
01 Jan 2013-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation Accurate alignment of high-throughput RNA-seq data is a challenging and yet unsolved problem because of the non-contiguous transcript structure, relatively short read lengths and constantly increasing throughput of the sequencing technologies. Currently available RNA-seq aligners suffer from high mapping error rates, low mapping speed, read length limitation and mapping biases. Results To align our large (>80 billon reads) ENCODE Transcriptome RNA-seq dataset, we developed the Spliced Transcripts Alignment to a Reference (STAR) software based on a previously undescribed RNA-seq alignment algorithm that uses sequential maximum mappable seed search in uncompressed suffix arrays followed by seed clustering and stitching procedure. STAR outperforms other aligners by a factor of >50 in mapping speed, aligning to the human genome 550 million 2 × 76 bp paired-end reads per hour on a modest 12-core server, while at the same time improving alignment sensitivity and precision. In addition to unbiased de novo detection of canonical junctions, STAR can discover non-canonical splices and chimeric (fusion) transcripts, and is also capable of mapping full-length RNA sequences. Using Roche 454 sequencing of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplicons, we experimentally validated 1960 novel intergenic splice junctions with an 80-90% success rate, corroborating the high precision of the STAR mapping strategy. Availability and implementation STAR is implemented as a standalone C++ code. STAR is free open source software distributed under GPLv3 license and can be downloaded from

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Topics: MRNA Sequencing (57%)

20,172 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.14806/EJ.17.1.200
Marcel Martin1Institutions (1)
02 May 2011-EMBnet.journal
Abstract: When small RNA is sequenced on current sequencing machines, the resulting reads are usually longer than the RNA and therefore contain parts of the 3' adapter. That adapter must be found and removed error-tolerantly from each read before read mapping. Previous solutions are either hard to use or do not offer required features, in particular support for color space data. As an easy to use alternative, we developed the command-line tool cutadapt, which supports 454, Illumina and SOLiD (color space) data, offers two adapter trimming algorithms, and has other useful features. Cutadapt, including its MIT-licensed source code, is available for download at

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Topics: Adapter (genetics) (50%)

13,576 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-323
Bo Li1, Colin N. Dewey1Institutions (1)
04 Aug 2011-BMC Bioinformatics
Abstract: RNA-Seq is revolutionizing the way transcript abundances are measured. A key challenge in transcript quantification from RNA-Seq data is the handling of reads that map to multiple genes or isoforms. This issue is particularly important for quantification with de novo transcriptome assemblies in the absence of sequenced genomes, as it is difficult to determine which transcripts are isoforms of the same gene. A second significant issue is the design of RNA-Seq experiments, in terms of the number of reads, read length, and whether reads come from one or both ends of cDNA fragments. We present RSEM, an user-friendly software package for quantifying gene and isoform abundances from single-end or paired-end RNA-Seq data. RSEM outputs abundance estimates, 95% credibility intervals, and visualization files and can also simulate RNA-Seq data. In contrast to other existing tools, the software does not require a reference genome. Thus, in combination with a de novo transcriptome assembler, RSEM enables accurate transcript quantification for species without sequenced genomes. On simulated and real data sets, RSEM has superior or comparable performance to quantification methods that rely on a reference genome. Taking advantage of RSEM's ability to effectively use ambiguously-mapping reads, we show that accurate gene-level abundance estimates are best obtained with large numbers of short single-end reads. On the other hand, estimates of the relative frequencies of isoforms within single genes may be improved through the use of paired-end reads, depending on the number of possible splice forms for each gene. RSEM is an accurate and user-friendly software tool for quantifying transcript abundances from RNA-Seq data. As it does not rely on the existence of a reference genome, it is particularly useful for quantification with de novo transcriptome assemblies. In addition, RSEM has enabled valuable guidance for cost-efficient design of quantification experiments with RNA-Seq, which is currently relatively expensive.

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10,559 Citations

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