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Dissertation

Out of antiquity : Umayyad baths in context

01 Jan 2005-
TL;DR: Rabbat et al. as discussed by the authors explored the relationship between the art and architecture of the early Islamic period to those of pre-Islamic Bilad al-Sham (the region encompassing the modem-day countries of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Israel), and focused on the Umayyad bathhouse as a paradigm through which this relationship is articulated.
Abstract: This dissertation explores the relationship between the art and architecture of the early Islamic period to those of pre-Islamic Bilad al-Sham (the region encompassing the modem-day countries of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Israel), and focuses on the Umayyad bathhouse as a paradigm through which this relationship is articulated. The visual culture of the Umayyad dynasty (661-750CE) is of extreme importance, not only because it constitutes the foundation of Islamic art and architecture, but more importantly because it serves as the main link in the chain of cultural transmission from the GrecoRoman and Byzantine worlds to the Medieval Islamic world. The first section of this dissertation explores the ways in which this relationship has been studied as well as the nature of the primary sources, and suggests a new method of how best to study and understand Umayyad art and architecture and their relationship to precedent and contemporaneous cultures. The second section examines the cultural, architectural and political changes in Bilad al-Sham between the fourth and eighth centuries CE, and how the events of these four centuries shaped the art, architecture and culture of the Umayyads. The third and fourth sections concentrate on transformation of the shape and function of the bathhouse in late antiquity, and how the bathhouse was adapted to fit the needs of both pre-Islamic and Islamic late antique cultures in this region. This study concludes by suggesting that Umayyad architecture and culture can best be understood only when interpreted as part of the rich regional and cultural milieu of late antique Bilad al-Sham. Thesis Supervisor: Nasser Rabbat Title: Associate Professor of the History of Architecture Aga Khan Professor in the History of Islamic Architecture
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the government and the people in Byzantine Ephesus were discussed, from Diocletian to Heraclius, public works and public services, Pagans, Christians and Jews.
Abstract: Preface Part I. Late Antique Ephesus: 1. From Diocletian to Heraclius 2. The government and the people 3. Public works and public services 4. Pagans, Christians and Jews 5. The material remains 6. Ephesus in Late Antiquity Part II. Byzantine Ephesus: 7. The Dark Ages 8. Medieval recovery c. 850-1304 Part III. Turkish Ephesus: 9. The emirate of Aydin: 1304-1425 10. The Ottoman period: 1425-1863 Appendices Short titles and abbreviations Bibliography Index.

153 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Baths and bathing in Classical Antiquity as discussed by the authors is a well-known topic in the field of new book reviews and reviews of new books, especially in the area of history.
Abstract: (1994). Baths and Bathing in Classical Antiquity. History: Reviews of New Books: Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 136-137.

92 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: For instance, the authors defines Islamic art as "the art made by artists or artisans whose religion was Islam, for patrons who lived in predominantly Muslim lands, or for purposes that are re-stricted or peculiar to a Muslim population or a Muslim setting."
Abstract: When we started studying Islamic art some thirty years ago, there were no good introductory textbooks that undergrad¬uates could read. When we started teaching the subject nearly a decade later, there were still none, and we had to make do with stacks of photocopied articles and chapters assigned from one book or another in an attempt to present students with a coherent narrative. So little survey material existed that even graduate students had difficulty getting a grasp on the whole field and had to resort to obscure and uneven publi¬cations. For example, K.A.C. Creswell's massive tomes im¬plied that Islamic architecture ended in 900 C.E. except in Egypt, where it suddenly stopped four hundred years later in the middle of the Bahri Mamluk period, although the Mam-luk sequence of sultans persisted until 1517 and there was ample evidence for a glorious tradition of Islamic architec¬ture in many lands besides Egypt.1 The venerable Survey of Persian Art, originally published in five massive volumes in the 1930s, continued to define that field although many of the chapters were woefully out of date when the series was re¬printed, faute de mieux, in the 1970s.2 In short, despite the exponential growth of interest in the Islamic lands generated by the oil boom and crisis of the 1970s, Islamic art remained a rather esoteric specialty field taught in a few elite institu¬tions.Today the situation could not be more different. Courses in Islamic art are regularly offered at dozens of colleges and universities in North America, and many university depart¬ments of art history mint doctoral candidates in the specialty. General art history survey books and courses, though still heavily Western and chronological in orientation, often in¬clude one or two chapters or lectures on Islamic art, awk¬wardly inserted somewhere between the periods of late an¬tiquity and early medieval and the geographically defined fields of India, China, and Japan. There are now several introductory texts devoted exclusively to Islamic art, and specialist books and articles proliferate to such a degree that scholars and graduate students cannot possibly keep up with everything published in the field. It is, perhaps, a measure of the popularity of Islamic art that the Pelican History7 of Art volume on the subject, commissioned in the 1950s and pub¬lished in 1987, has already been reissued in a new and expanded edition.3 The horrific events of September 11, 2001, have only increased public curiosity for all things con¬nected to Islam, art included.As the course listings, survey texts, and specialists' articles on Islamic art proliferate, scholars of the subject have put the fundamental definition of their field under close scrutiny. From the vantage point of the early twenty-first century of the Common Era (or the early fifteenth century after Muham¬mad emigrated with a small company of believers from Mecca to Medina), we may now ask: What exactly is Islamic art? How well does this category serve the understanding of the mate- rial? Does a religiously based classification serve us better than geographic or linguistic ones, like those used for much of European art? To begin to answer these questions, we must first review how the subject is defined, how it got to be that way, and how it has been studied.4The Definition and Historiography of Islamic ArtIslamic art is generally held to be "the art made by artists or artisans whose religion was Islam, for patrons who lived in predominantly Muslim lands, or for purposes that are re¬stricted or peculiar to a Muslim population or a Muslim setting."5 It therefore encompasses much, if not most, of the art produced over fourteen centuries in the "Islamic lands," usually defined as the arid belt covering much of West Asia but stretching from the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Spain on the west to the steppes of Central Asia and the Indian Ocean on the east. These were the lands where Islam spread during the initial conquests in the seventh and eighth centuries C. …

17 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: In this paper, a richly illustrated study explains why the wheel was abandoned in the Middle East in favor of the camel as a means of transport, drawing on archaeology, art, technology, anthropology, linguistics, and camel husbandry.
Abstract: Why, for many centuries, was the wheel abandoned in the Middle East in favor of the camel as a means of transport? This richly illustrated study explains this anomaly. Drawing on archaeology, art, technology, anthropology, linguistics, and camel husbandry, Bulliet explores the implications for the region's economic and social development during the Middle Ages and into modern times.

278 citations

Book
01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: The main argument of as discussed by the authors is that the conventional opinion of the rise of Islam is based on classical accounts of the trade between south Arabia and the Mediterranean some 600 years earlier than the time of Muhammed.
Abstract: The main argument of this book is that the conventional opinion of the rise of Islam is based on classical accounts of the trade between south Arabia and the Mediterranean some 600 years earlier than the time of Muhammed. The author draws on literary, epigraphical and archaeological evidence from Classical and Islamic sources to argue that the Meccans were never the commercial tycoons that current theory suggests, nor was Mecca ever an important trade centre. Moreover, she rejects the claims that Mecca was a religious sanctuary and a centre of Arabian pilgrimage. Following this, she seeks to clarify the nature of the sources on which an explanation of the birth of the new religion in Arabia in her view should be based.

256 citations


"Out of antiquity : Umayyad baths in..." refers background in this paper

  • ...30 For a cogent refutation of Crone's argument see, R. B. Serjeant, "Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam: Misconceptions and Flawed Polemics," Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 110, No. 3 (1990): 472-486 31 A....

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Book
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the evolution of the Sufyanid pattern, 661-84 [41-64] 4. Syria of 684 [64] 5. The Marwanid evolution, 684-744 [64-126] 6. Umayyad clientage, 744 [126] 8. Failure of the Islamic Empire: 9. The abortive service aristocracy 10. The emergence of the slave soldiers 11.
Abstract: Preface A note on conventions Part I. Introduction: 1. Historiographical introduction 2. The nature of the Arab conquest Part II. The Evolution of the Conquest Society: 3. The Sufyanid pattern, 661-84 [41-64] 4. Syria of 684 [64] 5. The Marwanid evolution, 684-744 [64-126] 6. The Marwanid faction 7. Syria of 744 [126] 8. Umayyad clientage Part III. The Failure of the Islamic Empire: 9. The abortive service aristocracy 10. The emergence of the slave soldiers 11. The emergence of the medieval polity Appendices Notes Bibliography General index Prosopographical index.

225 citations

Book
01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: In this article, the Umayyad conception of the caliphate is discussed, and the title khalifat Allah is given to the prophet of the sunna, which is the basis of the prophetical sunna.
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. The title khalifat Allah 3. The Umayyad conception of the caliphate 4. Caliphal law 5. From caliphal to Prophetic sunna 6. Epilogue Appendices Index.

224 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fowden as discussed by the authors traces the transition from empire to commonwealth, and exposes the sources of major cultural contours that still play a determining role in Europe and southwest Asia, showing that the tensions between orthodoxy and heresy that were inherent in monotheism broke the unitary empires of Byzantium and Baghdad into the more pluralistic commonwealths of Eastern Christendom and Islam.
Abstract: In this bold approach to late antiquity, Garth Fowden shows how, from the second-century peak of Rome's prosperity to the ninth-century onset of the Islamic Empire's decline, powerful beliefs in One God were used to justify and strengthen \"world empires.\" But tensions between orthodoxy and heresy that were inherent in monotheism broke the unitary empires of Byzantium and Baghdad into the looser, more pluralistic commonwealths of Eastern Christendom and Islam. With rare breadth of vision, Fowden traces this transition from empire to commonwealth, and in the process exposes the sources of major cultural contours that still play a determining role in Europe and southwest Asia.

218 citations