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Journal ArticleDOI

Outcast Europe. Refugees and Relief Workers in an Era of Total War 1936-48

01 Jun 2012-French History (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 26, Iss: 2, pp 268-270
About: This article is published in French History.The article was published on 2012-06-01. It has received 11 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Refugee & Total war.
Citations
More filters
Dissertation
09 Sep 2019
TL;DR: The authors traces the mobilization of Canadian associations helping refugees during the Second World War and provides an intermediate perspective on Canadian assistance and reception throughout the conflict, between the history of migration policy and the study of population movements.
Abstract: This thesis traces the mobilization of Canadian associations helping refugees during the Second World War. The study of this collective mobilization - the refuge - sheds light on Canada's willingness to help in the face of the dangers and persecutions threatening refugees between December 1938 and October 1945. Based on the sources of the two main refugee actors in the refuge - the Canadian National Committee on Refugees (CNCR) and the committees of the Canadian Jewish Congress (CJC) - the thesis provides an intermediate perspective on Canadian assistance and reception throughout the conflict, between the history of migration policy and the study of population movements. By following the rhythm of the refuge, the thesis retraces the complex structure of collective mobilization made up of about ten organizations opposed by ideological, political and territorial rivalries. By pulling the threads out of this "associative knot bag", the study of the refuge highlights the categorization of the refugee in a Canada that does not distinguish them from traditional migrants. Faced with the government's refusal to admit refugees to Canada, collective mobilization does not remain isolated from the rest of the Canadian population and seeks its support to open Canada's borders to persecuted people. The shelter then developed two propaganda messages reflecting internal collaboration in collective mobilization, notably between the CJC's fundraising committee - the United Jewish Refugee and Relief Agencies - and the CNCR. Faced with the restrictive policy of the Canadian government, the shelter develops remote relief, participating in humanitarian aid carried out by American organizations, and determines an assistance strategy based on discretion. Its purpose is to bypass Canadian migration rules and prepare for the reception of potential refugees. The arrival of the refugees then appears as the highest point of the refuge.

95 citations

Dissertation
30 Nov 2017
TL;DR: The role of exile in the work of the Spanish Republican Arturo Barea (1897-1957) is explored in this article, where the authors suggest that, linked to the movements that exile generates (physical, social and intellectual), the concept of "transnational" can be used as an analytical tool with which to interrogate Barea's work and its interpretations.
Abstract: This thesis explores the role of exile in the work of the Spanish Republican Arturo Barea (1897-1957). It suggests that, linked to the movements that exile generates (physical, social and intellectual), the concept of ‘transnational’ can be used as an analytical tool with which to interrogate Barea’s work and its interpretations. It was during his exile in Britain that Barea became a professional writer, a literary critic and a broadcaster for the BBC. He published his autobiographical trilogy The Forging of a Rebel, edited by T.S. Eliot, in London between 1941 and 1946. This work was immediately translated into several languages, but was only printed in Spanish in its Argentinian edition of 1951, and was not published in Spain until 1977. Through a combined reading of the trilogy alongside a larger body of fictional and non-fictional work the thesis offers a detailed historical analysis of the first context of production and reception of Barea’s writing in Britain, focusing on the period of 1938-1945. It highlights the challenges and opportunities of exile as a transnational and cosmopolitan experience, and demonstrates the different ways in which the homeland and the host state intersect in Barea’s work. Barea’s writings are read here as exercises of cross-cultural translation in which Spain, its people and the Spanish Civil War were construed for a British – and later international – public, while Britain, its people and their role in the Second World War were also interpreted for a Latin American audience. This thesis emphasizes the historical importance of the informal intellectual networks, the publishing landscape, and the ‘corporate cosmopolitanism’ of the BBC as the institutional sites in which Barea developed his work. A transnational and cosmopolitan approach can offer an avenue to analyse Spanish Republican exile cultural products in a wider historical setting.

55 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: The American Aid to France (AAF) as mentioned in this paper was a private voluntary relief organization that provided emergency supplies, rehabilitative services, and assisted in the reconstruction of France following the Second World War.
Abstract: This dissertation contributes to literature on postwar philanthropy and the Franco-American relationship. It examines the private voluntary relief organization, American Aid to France (AAF), which provided emergency supplies, rehabilitative services, and assisted in the reconstruction of France following the Second World War. Unlike other devastated European countries, Charles de Gaulle did not invite the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) to host a program, which limited France’s participation in the transnational relief movement of the immediate postwar period and allowed AAF to become the principal foreign private voluntary aid agency operating in Liberated France. From 1944 to 1956, AAF asserted that its assistance reflected the strength of the Franco-American alliance, and kinship felt between two countries with a shared history of liberal revolution and republicanism. AAF’s statements expressing “goodwill” and “historical friendship” towards France rapidly began to assume a more political tone as Cold War tensions intensified. From 1947 onward, AAF became increasingly outspoken in its support for capitalism, democracy, and international cooperation. These statements were crafted for, and appealed to, U.S. authorities who believed France was the key to containing communism in Europe. In reality, AAF’s main concern was redressing the destruction of Normandy caused by Allied bombing campaigns, and the organization showed no hesitation to work with mayors from across the political spectrum in devastated French communities to achieve this goal. AAF’s private voluntary status shielded the organization from French criticisms of Americanization chiefly aimed at the Marshall Plan. This dissertation demonstrates that AAF was part of an independent, robust private voluntary relief sphere that contributed to Europe’s recovery, and helped citizens in the United States and France come to terms with the transition from war to peace.%%%%Thesis%%%%Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)%%%%This dissertation contributes to literature on postwar philanthropy and Franco-American relations. It examines American Aid to France (AAF), one of hundreds of U.S. private voluntary relief organizations founded during the Second World War to help devastated civilians. Operating from 1944 to 1956, AAF’s efforts to provide emergency supplies, rehabilitative services, and assist in the reconstruction of Liberated France was a significant private affirmation of the Franco-American alliance during a period of increasingly tense international relations. Private voluntary relief organizations have been overlooked in scholarship in favour of larger agencies such as the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), which has resulted in a considerable emphasis on transnationalism in the literature on postwar relief. Examining Franco-American relations through the prism of AAF’s relief reveals that a dynamic alternative network of private assistance, which operated firmly outside of the transnational relief movement,…

52 citations

DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: Aksamit et al. as mentioned in this paper investigated the establishment and development of training programs by two British faith-based voluntary relief organizations, the Friends Ambulance Unit (FAU) and the Friends Relief Service (FRS), during the Second World War and explored the implementation of learned skills by members of those organizations working during the immediate postwar period in the British Occupation Zone in Germany.
Abstract: Training Friends and Overseas Relief: The Friends Ambulance Unit and the Friends Relief Service, 1939 to 1948 Nerissa K. Aksamit This transnational case study investigates the establishment and development of training programs by two British faith-based voluntary relief organizations, the Friends Ambulance Unit (FAU) and the Friends Relief Service (FRS), during the Second World War and explores the implementation of learned skills by members of those organizations working during the immediate postwar period in the British Occupation Zone in Germany. It contributes new perspectives to scholarship on humanitarianism as it highlights both the continuities and ruptures in the approaches to and practices of humanitarian aid. It identifies the Quaker traditions that shaped the work of the FAU and FRS—particularly the core principles of promoting self-help, impartiality, democratic structures, and internationalism—as they delivered relief and fostered the rebuilding of communities in war-torn northern Germany. It demonstrates how small voluntary organizations integrated their values into the new relief structures of planning-mindedness, professionalization and international collaboration that also characterized the larger relief organizations. Although the FAU and FRS shared in their convictions of pacifism, goodwill, and humanitarian service, the two organizations conceptualized their role in relief differently and reflected those differences in their respective training programs and to a substantial extent in their postwar service. The FAU focused on the “first stage” of emergency relief that focused on working alongside military bodies to provide medical and material aid to both civilians and the military. In contrast, the FRS focused on the “second and third stages” that centered on providing impartial relief and rehabilitation to civilian populations that did not require assistance or direction from the military. To provide aid in the “second and third stages,” the FRS trained volunteers for postwar emergency relief and rehabilitation as well as how to foster reconciliation among all populations impacted by the war. Training programs for both the FAU and FRS believed that by integrating past experiences as well as contemporary developments to the approach and practice of humanitarian aid, their relief teams would provide efficient and effective relief in the postwar period. By retaining their core principles and traditional approaches to relief work as well as adopting new professional methods to dispense aid, the relief teams sent to the British Occupation Zone in 1945 exhibited an impressive and unique flexibility as they worked with and alongside displaced populations, camp victims, refugees, and Germans in a landscape engulfed with destruction and displacement.

33 citations


Cites background from "Outcast Europe. Refugees and Relief..."

  • ...Steinert argues the British pursuit of a “far-sighted policy of advance planning” during wartime, including the support of COBRSA and the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) as coordinating bodies, 11 Steinert, “British Humanitarian Assistance: Wartime Planning and Postwar Realities”; Hilary Footitt and Simona Tobia, WarTalk: Foreign Languages and the British War Effort in Europe, 1940-47 (New York and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillian, 2013); Paulmann, “Conjunctures in the History of International Humanitarian Aid during the Twentieth Century”; Shephard, “‘Becoming Planning Minded’: The Theory and Practice of Relief 1940-1945”; Reinisch, “Introduction: Relief in the Aftermath of War”; Kurt Jürgensen, “British Occupation Policy after 1945 and the Problem of ‘Re-Educating Germany,’” History 68, no. 223 (1983): 225–44; Matthew Frank, “Working for the Germans: British Voluntary Societies and the German Refugee Crisis, 1945-50,” Historical Research 82, no. 215 (2009); Sharif Gemie et al., Outcast Europe: Refugees and Relief Workers in an Era of Total War 1936-48 (New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012); Peter Gatrell, The Making of the Modern Refugee (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)....

    [...]

  • ...18 Jennifer Carson, “The Friends Relief Service - Faith into Action: Humanitarian Assistance to Displaced Persons Camps in Germany, 1945-1948” (University of Manchester, 2009), 17, 116–27, 162–74; Gemie et al., Outcast Europe: Refugees and Relief Workers in an Era of Total War 1936-48, 174–75; Fiona Reid and Sharif Gemie, “The Friends Relief Service and Displaced People in Europe After the Second World War, 1945-48,” Quaker Studies 17, no. 2 (2013): 236–38....

    [...]

  • ...Scholars have scrutinized and assessed these two components of postwar humanitarianism, “relief” and “rehabilitation,” to distinguish the actions of humanitarian aid with the former considered material and physical relief—the provision of foodstuff, clothing, housing, and medical assistance—to 18 Jennifer Carson, “The Friends Relief Service - Faith into Action: Humanitarian Assistance to Displaced Persons Camps in Germany, 1945-1948” (University of Manchester, 2009), 17, 116–27, 162–74; Gemie et al., Outcast Europe: Refugees and Relief Workers in an Era of Total War 1936-48, 174–75; Fiona Reid and Sharif Gemie, “The Friends Relief Service and Displaced People in Europe After the Second World War, 1945-48,” Quaker Studies 17, no. 2 (2013): 236–38....

    [...]

  • ...215 (2009); Sharif Gemie et al., Outcast Europe: Refugees and Relief Workers in an Era of Total War 1936-48 (New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012); Peter Gatrell, The Making of the Modern Refugee (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). 12 Reinisch, “Introduction: Relief in the Aftermath of War”; Jessica Reinisch, “‘We Shall Rebuild Anew a Powerful Nation’: UNRRA, Internationalism and National Reconstruction in Poland,” Journal of Contemporary History 43, no. 3 (2008): 451–76; Shephard, “‘Becoming Planning Minded’: The Theory and Practice of Relief 1940-1945”; Steinert, “British Humanitarian Assistance: Wartime Planning and Postwar Realities....

    [...]

  • ...Sharif Gemie, Fiona Reid, and Laure Humbert argue the UNRRA, as a new professionalized organization, incorporated a highly bureaucratic approach to aid that on one hand reflected the approaches by organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, yet on the other hand, in practice only complicated reporting regarding on-going relief and rehabilitation programs and could not generate similar documentation that echoed those of the ICRC.14 In her study on refugees, Liisa Malkki argues that the post-1945 period witnessed the development of standardized and globalized methods of mass displacement management....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyze how the Dutch government, civil servants, the Dutch Homeland Security Department, newspapers and employers framed the displaced persons issue and why debates on the DP issue changed so rapidly within a short period of time.
Abstract: After the Second World War, Dutch authorities allowed 8,000 displaced persons (DPs) to come to the Netherlands, but only 3,904 came, and 25 per cent of them returned to camp life in Germany. This article seeks to explain why debates on the DP issue changed so rapidly within a short period of time. In earlier publications, it has been claimed that ‘selling’ DPs as workers helped to solve the DP issue. This strategy did not work for the Netherlands. This article analyses how the DP issue was framed by organisations, the Dutch government, civil servants, the Dutch Homeland Security Department, newspapers and employers.

13 citations

References
More filters
Dissertation
09 Sep 2019
TL;DR: The authors traces the mobilization of Canadian associations helping refugees during the Second World War and provides an intermediate perspective on Canadian assistance and reception throughout the conflict, between the history of migration policy and the study of population movements.
Abstract: This thesis traces the mobilization of Canadian associations helping refugees during the Second World War. The study of this collective mobilization - the refuge - sheds light on Canada's willingness to help in the face of the dangers and persecutions threatening refugees between December 1938 and October 1945. Based on the sources of the two main refugee actors in the refuge - the Canadian National Committee on Refugees (CNCR) and the committees of the Canadian Jewish Congress (CJC) - the thesis provides an intermediate perspective on Canadian assistance and reception throughout the conflict, between the history of migration policy and the study of population movements. By following the rhythm of the refuge, the thesis retraces the complex structure of collective mobilization made up of about ten organizations opposed by ideological, political and territorial rivalries. By pulling the threads out of this "associative knot bag", the study of the refuge highlights the categorization of the refugee in a Canada that does not distinguish them from traditional migrants. Faced with the government's refusal to admit refugees to Canada, collective mobilization does not remain isolated from the rest of the Canadian population and seeks its support to open Canada's borders to persecuted people. The shelter then developed two propaganda messages reflecting internal collaboration in collective mobilization, notably between the CJC's fundraising committee - the United Jewish Refugee and Relief Agencies - and the CNCR. Faced with the restrictive policy of the Canadian government, the shelter develops remote relief, participating in humanitarian aid carried out by American organizations, and determines an assistance strategy based on discretion. Its purpose is to bypass Canadian migration rules and prepare for the reception of potential refugees. The arrival of the refugees then appears as the highest point of the refuge.

95 citations

Dissertation
30 Nov 2017
TL;DR: The role of exile in the work of the Spanish Republican Arturo Barea (1897-1957) is explored in this article, where the authors suggest that, linked to the movements that exile generates (physical, social and intellectual), the concept of "transnational" can be used as an analytical tool with which to interrogate Barea's work and its interpretations.
Abstract: This thesis explores the role of exile in the work of the Spanish Republican Arturo Barea (1897-1957). It suggests that, linked to the movements that exile generates (physical, social and intellectual), the concept of ‘transnational’ can be used as an analytical tool with which to interrogate Barea’s work and its interpretations. It was during his exile in Britain that Barea became a professional writer, a literary critic and a broadcaster for the BBC. He published his autobiographical trilogy The Forging of a Rebel, edited by T.S. Eliot, in London between 1941 and 1946. This work was immediately translated into several languages, but was only printed in Spanish in its Argentinian edition of 1951, and was not published in Spain until 1977. Through a combined reading of the trilogy alongside a larger body of fictional and non-fictional work the thesis offers a detailed historical analysis of the first context of production and reception of Barea’s writing in Britain, focusing on the period of 1938-1945. It highlights the challenges and opportunities of exile as a transnational and cosmopolitan experience, and demonstrates the different ways in which the homeland and the host state intersect in Barea’s work. Barea’s writings are read here as exercises of cross-cultural translation in which Spain, its people and the Spanish Civil War were construed for a British – and later international – public, while Britain, its people and their role in the Second World War were also interpreted for a Latin American audience. This thesis emphasizes the historical importance of the informal intellectual networks, the publishing landscape, and the ‘corporate cosmopolitanism’ of the BBC as the institutional sites in which Barea developed his work. A transnational and cosmopolitan approach can offer an avenue to analyse Spanish Republican exile cultural products in a wider historical setting.

55 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: The American Aid to France (AAF) as mentioned in this paper was a private voluntary relief organization that provided emergency supplies, rehabilitative services, and assisted in the reconstruction of France following the Second World War.
Abstract: This dissertation contributes to literature on postwar philanthropy and the Franco-American relationship. It examines the private voluntary relief organization, American Aid to France (AAF), which provided emergency supplies, rehabilitative services, and assisted in the reconstruction of France following the Second World War. Unlike other devastated European countries, Charles de Gaulle did not invite the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) to host a program, which limited France’s participation in the transnational relief movement of the immediate postwar period and allowed AAF to become the principal foreign private voluntary aid agency operating in Liberated France. From 1944 to 1956, AAF asserted that its assistance reflected the strength of the Franco-American alliance, and kinship felt between two countries with a shared history of liberal revolution and republicanism. AAF’s statements expressing “goodwill” and “historical friendship” towards France rapidly began to assume a more political tone as Cold War tensions intensified. From 1947 onward, AAF became increasingly outspoken in its support for capitalism, democracy, and international cooperation. These statements were crafted for, and appealed to, U.S. authorities who believed France was the key to containing communism in Europe. In reality, AAF’s main concern was redressing the destruction of Normandy caused by Allied bombing campaigns, and the organization showed no hesitation to work with mayors from across the political spectrum in devastated French communities to achieve this goal. AAF’s private voluntary status shielded the organization from French criticisms of Americanization chiefly aimed at the Marshall Plan. This dissertation demonstrates that AAF was part of an independent, robust private voluntary relief sphere that contributed to Europe’s recovery, and helped citizens in the United States and France come to terms with the transition from war to peace.%%%%Thesis%%%%Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)%%%%This dissertation contributes to literature on postwar philanthropy and Franco-American relations. It examines American Aid to France (AAF), one of hundreds of U.S. private voluntary relief organizations founded during the Second World War to help devastated civilians. Operating from 1944 to 1956, AAF’s efforts to provide emergency supplies, rehabilitative services, and assist in the reconstruction of Liberated France was a significant private affirmation of the Franco-American alliance during a period of increasingly tense international relations. Private voluntary relief organizations have been overlooked in scholarship in favour of larger agencies such as the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), which has resulted in a considerable emphasis on transnationalism in the literature on postwar relief. Examining Franco-American relations through the prism of AAF’s relief reveals that a dynamic alternative network of private assistance, which operated firmly outside of the transnational relief movement,…

52 citations

DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: Aksamit et al. as mentioned in this paper investigated the establishment and development of training programs by two British faith-based voluntary relief organizations, the Friends Ambulance Unit (FAU) and the Friends Relief Service (FRS), during the Second World War and explored the implementation of learned skills by members of those organizations working during the immediate postwar period in the British Occupation Zone in Germany.
Abstract: Training Friends and Overseas Relief: The Friends Ambulance Unit and the Friends Relief Service, 1939 to 1948 Nerissa K. Aksamit This transnational case study investigates the establishment and development of training programs by two British faith-based voluntary relief organizations, the Friends Ambulance Unit (FAU) and the Friends Relief Service (FRS), during the Second World War and explores the implementation of learned skills by members of those organizations working during the immediate postwar period in the British Occupation Zone in Germany. It contributes new perspectives to scholarship on humanitarianism as it highlights both the continuities and ruptures in the approaches to and practices of humanitarian aid. It identifies the Quaker traditions that shaped the work of the FAU and FRS—particularly the core principles of promoting self-help, impartiality, democratic structures, and internationalism—as they delivered relief and fostered the rebuilding of communities in war-torn northern Germany. It demonstrates how small voluntary organizations integrated their values into the new relief structures of planning-mindedness, professionalization and international collaboration that also characterized the larger relief organizations. Although the FAU and FRS shared in their convictions of pacifism, goodwill, and humanitarian service, the two organizations conceptualized their role in relief differently and reflected those differences in their respective training programs and to a substantial extent in their postwar service. The FAU focused on the “first stage” of emergency relief that focused on working alongside military bodies to provide medical and material aid to both civilians and the military. In contrast, the FRS focused on the “second and third stages” that centered on providing impartial relief and rehabilitation to civilian populations that did not require assistance or direction from the military. To provide aid in the “second and third stages,” the FRS trained volunteers for postwar emergency relief and rehabilitation as well as how to foster reconciliation among all populations impacted by the war. Training programs for both the FAU and FRS believed that by integrating past experiences as well as contemporary developments to the approach and practice of humanitarian aid, their relief teams would provide efficient and effective relief in the postwar period. By retaining their core principles and traditional approaches to relief work as well as adopting new professional methods to dispense aid, the relief teams sent to the British Occupation Zone in 1945 exhibited an impressive and unique flexibility as they worked with and alongside displaced populations, camp victims, refugees, and Germans in a landscape engulfed with destruction and displacement.

33 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyze how the Dutch government, civil servants, the Dutch Homeland Security Department, newspapers and employers framed the displaced persons issue and why debates on the DP issue changed so rapidly within a short period of time.
Abstract: After the Second World War, Dutch authorities allowed 8,000 displaced persons (DPs) to come to the Netherlands, but only 3,904 came, and 25 per cent of them returned to camp life in Germany. This article seeks to explain why debates on the DP issue changed so rapidly within a short period of time. In earlier publications, it has been claimed that ‘selling’ DPs as workers helped to solve the DP issue. This strategy did not work for the Netherlands. This article analyses how the DP issue was framed by organisations, the Dutch government, civil servants, the Dutch Homeland Security Department, newspapers and employers.

13 citations