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Journal ArticleDOI

Outcomes Associated with Serum Calcium Level in Men with Non-Dialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease

01 Mar 2010-Clinical Journal of The American Society of Nephrology (American Society of Nephrology)-Vol. 5, Iss: 3, pp 468-476

TL;DR: Clinical trials are warranted to determine whether maintaining normal serum calcium can improve outcomes in patients with NDD CKD, and higher serum calcium is associated with increased long-term mortality, and lower calcium isassociated with increased short-term death in patients in the time-varying models.

AbstractBackground and objectives: Elevated serum calcium has been associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients, but it is unclear whether the same is true in non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) chronic kidney disease (CKD). Outcomes associated with low serum calcium are also not well-characterized. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We examined associations of baseline, time-varying, and time-averaged serum calcium with all-cause mortality in a historic prospective cohort of 1243 men with moderate and advanced NDD CKD by using Cox models. Results: The association of serum calcium with mortality varied according to the applied statistical models. Higher baseline calcium and time-averaged calcium were associated with higher mortality (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.13, 1.53); P Conclusions: Higher serum calcium is associated with increased long-term mortality (as reflected by the baseline and time-averaged models), and lower serum calcium is associated with increased short-term mortality (as reflected by the time-varying models) in patients with NDD CKD. Clinical trials are warranted to determine whether maintaining normal serum calcium can improve outcomes in these patients.

Topics: Kidney disease (54%), Calcium (52%), Hazard ratio (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A major role is suggested for elevated P in promoting osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation of VSMC, whereas elevated Ca has a predominant role in promoting VSMC apoptosis and vesicle release.
Abstract: Vascular calcification contributes to the high risk of cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Dysregulation of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) metabolism is common in CKD patients and drives vascular calcification. In this article, we review the physiological regulatory mechanisms for Ca and P homeostasis and the basis for their dysregulation in CKD. In addition, we highlight recent findings indicating that elevated Ca and P have direct effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that promote vascular calcification, including stimulation of osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation, vesicle release, apoptosis, loss of inhibitors, and extracellular matrix degradation. These studies suggest a major role for elevated P in promoting osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation of VSMC, whereas elevated Ca has a predominant role in promoting VSMC apoptosis and vesicle release. Furthermore, the effects of elevated Ca and P are synergistic, providing a major stimulus for vascular calcification in CKD. Unraveling the complex regulatory pathways that mediate the effects of both Ca and P on VSMCs will ultimately provide novel targets and therapies to limit the destructive effects of vascular calcification in CKD patients.

661 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: FGF23 has recently emerged as one of the most powerful predictors of adverse outcomes in patients with CKD and ESRD and its physiology and pathophysiology is reviewed, and putative mechanisms of action responsible for its negative effects are described and potential therapeutic strategies to treat these are described.
Abstract: Traditional risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity are paradoxically associated with better outcomes in dialysis patients, and the few trials of interventions targeting modifiable traditional risk factors have yielded disappointing results in this patient population. Non-traditional risk factors such as inflammation, anemia and abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism have been proposed as potential explanations for the excess mortality seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but without clear understanding of what the most important pathophysiologic mechanisms of these risk factors are, which ones might be ideal treatment targets and which therapeutic interventions may be effective and safe in targeting them. Among the novel risk factors, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) has recently emerged as one of the most powerful predictors of adverse outcomes in patients with CKD and ESRD. FGF23 is a hormone produced by osteoblasts/osteocytes in bone that acts on the kidney to regulate phosphate and vitamin D metabolism through activation of FGF receptor/α-Klotho co-receptor complexes. It is possible that elevated FGF23 may exert its negative impact through distinct mechanisms of action independent from its role as a regulator of phosphorus homeostasis. Elevated circulating FGF23 concentrations have been associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and it has been suggested that FGF23 exerts a direct effect on the myocardium. While it is possible that ‘off target’ effects of FGF23 present in very high concentrations could induce LVH, this possibility is controversial, since α-klotho is not expressed in the myocardium. Another possibility is that FGF23's effect on the heart is mediated indirectly, via ‘on target’ activation of other humoral pathways. We will review the physiology and pathophysiology of FGF23, the outcomes associated with elevated FGF23 levels, and describe putative mechanisms of action responsible for its negative effects and potential therapeutic strategies to treat these.

94 citations


Cites background from "Outcomes Associated with Serum Calc..."

  • ...Abnormalities of bone and mineral metabolism associated with increased mortality in CKD include hyperphosphatemia [11, 12], hypo- and hypercalcemia [13], hypo- and hyperparathyroidism [14] and hyperphosphatasemia [15]; these have recently been grouped under the umbrella term of CKDrelated mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) [16]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By understanding better the molecular pathways and genetic circuitry responsible for the pathological mineralization process novel drug targets may be identified and exploited to combat and reduce the detrimental effects of vascular calcification on human health.
Abstract: Vascular calcification has severe clinical consequences and is considered an accurate predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in arteries and cardiac valves. However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone formation. In this article, we outline the current understanding of key mechanisms governing vascular calcification and highlight the clinical consequences. By understanding better the molecular pathways and genetic circuitry responsible for the pathological mineralization process novel drug targets may be identified and exploited to combat and reduce the detrimental effects of vascular calcification on human health.

90 citations


Cites background from "Outcomes Associated with Serum Calc..."

  • ...A number of clinical studies have also shown an association between elevated serum calcium and increased risk of myocardial infarction and vascular calcification in both CKD patients and in the general population (Yamada et al., 2007; Kovesdy et al., 2010; Larsson et al., 2010; West et al., 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Whereas in hemodialysis patients cumulatively high or low calcium levels are associated with higher death risk, subtle but meaningful interactions with phosphorus, PTH, paricalcitol dose and race exist.
Abstract: Background: The outcome-predictability of baseline and instantaneously changing serum calcium in hemodialysis patients has been examined. We investigated the mortality-predictabilit

76 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Dec 2013-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality ofLife are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improvequality of life.
Abstract: Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90) were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) and Physical Composite Summary (PCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0–100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30%) of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m2) and more than 80% (n=77) achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL) recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80%) and protein (n=68,75%) recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1±19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0±8.6 and 39.6±8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000) and lower serum calcium (p=0.004), while higher blood flow (p=0.000), higher serum creatinine (p=0.000) and lower protein intake (p=0.006) were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality of life.

62 citations


Cites background from "Outcomes Associated with Serum Calc..."

  • ...Several studies have reported that elevated serum calcium was associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients because it increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases [50,51]....

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  • ...There are limited studies on the effects of low serum calcium on mental health status or mortality [17,50,52]....

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  • ...Therefore, for patients on HD, serum calcium in the low-normal range is important to minimise the complications associated with high serum calcium and to improve quality of life [49-51]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this study was to develop an equation from MDRD Study data that could improve the prediction of GFR from serum creatinine concentration, and major clinical decisions in general medicine, geriatrics, and oncology are made by using the Cockcroft-Gault formula and other formulas to predict the level of renal function.
Abstract: The serum creatinine concentration is widely used as an index of renal function, but this measure is affected by factors other than the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This study examined an equa...

13,947 citations


"Outcomes Associated with Serum Calc..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...(30) and was categorized according to the staging system introduced by...

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Journal Article
Abstract: Introduction: Chronic kidney disease as a public health problem. Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure, with poor outcomes and high cost. There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. Increasing evidence, accrued in the past decades, indicates that the adverse outcomes of chronic kidney disease, such as kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature death, can be prevented or delayed. Earlier stages of chronic kidney disease can be detected through laboratory testing. Treatment of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease is effective in slowing the progression toward kidney failure. Initiation of treatment for cardiovascular risk factors at earlier stages of chronic kidney disease should be effective in reducing cardiovascular disease events both before and after the onset of kidney failure. Unfortunately, chronic kidney disease is "under-diagnosed" and "under-treated" in the United States, resulting in lost opportunities for prevention. One reason is the lack of agreement on a definition and classification of stages in the progression of chronic kidney disease. A clinically applicable classification would be based on laboratory evaluation of the severity of kidney disease, association of level of kidney function with complications, and stratification of risks for loss of kidney function and development of cardiovascular disease. Charge to the K/DOQI work group on chronic kidney disease. In 2000, the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) Advisory Board approved development of clinical practice guidelines to define chronic kidney disease and to classify stages in the progression of chronic kidney disease. The Work Group charged with developing the guidelines consisted of experts in nephrology, pediatric nephrology, epidemiology, laboratory medicine, nutrition, social work, gerontology, and family medicine. An Evidence Review Team, consisting of nephrologists and methodologists, was responsible for assembling the evidence. Defining chronic kidney disease and classifying the stages of severity would provide a common language for communication among providers, patients and their families, investigators, and policy-makers and a framework for developing a public health approach to affect care and improve outcomes of chronic kidney disease. A uniform terminology would permit: 1. More reliable estimates of the prevalence of earlier stages of disease and of the population at increased risk for development of chronic kidney disease 2. Recommendations for laboratory testing to detect earlier stages and progression to later stages 3. Associations of stages with clinical manifestations of disease 4. Evaluation of factors associated with a high risk of progression from one stage to the next or of development of other adverse outcomes 5. Evaluation of treatments to slow progression or prevent other adverse outcomes. Clinical practice guidelines, clinical performance measures, and continuous quality improvement efforts could then be directed to stages of chronic kidney disease. The Work Group did not specifically address evaluation and treatment for chronic kidney disease. However, this guideline contains brief reference to diagnosis and clinical interventions and can serve as a "road map" linking other clinical practice guidelines and pointing out where other guidelines need to be developed. Eventually, K/DOQI will include interventional guidelines. The first three of these, on bone disease, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure management are currently under development. Other guidelines on cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients and kidney biopsy will be initiated in the Winter of 2001. This report contains a summary of background information available at the time the Work Group began its deliberations, the 15 guidelines and the accompanying rationale, suggestions for clinical performance measures, a clinical approach to chronic kidney disease using these guidelines, and appendices to describe methods for the review of evidence. The guidelines are based on a systematic review of the literature and the consensus of the Work Group. The guidelines have been reviewed by the K/DOQI Advisory Board, a large number of professional organizations and societies, selected experts, and interested members of the public and have been approved by the Board of Directors of the NKF. Framework. The Work Group defined "chronic kidney disease" to include conditions that affect the kidney, with the potential to cause either progressive loss of kidney function or complications resulting from decreased kidney function. Chronic kidney disease was thus defined as the presence of kidney damage or decreased level of kidney function for three months or more, irrespective of diagnosis. The target population includes individuals with chronic kidney disease or at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease. The majority of topics focus on adults (age ≥18 years). Many of the same principles apply to children as well. In particular, the classification of stages of disease and principles of diagnostic testing are similar. A subcommittee of the Work Group examined issues related to children and participated in development of the first six guidelines of the present document. However, there are sufficient differences between adults and children in the association of GFR with signs and symptoms of uremia and in stratification of risk for adverse outcomes that these latter issues are addressed only for adults. A separate set of guidelines for children will have to be developed by a later Work Group. The target audience includes a wide range of individuals: those who have or are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease (the target population) and their families; health care professionals caring for the target population; manufacturers of instruments and diagnostic laboratories performing measurements of kidney function; agencies and institutions planning, providing or paying for the health care needs of the target population; and investigators studying chronic kidney disease. There will be only brief reference to clinical interventions, sufficient to provide a basis for other clinical practice guidelines relevant to the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Subsequent K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines will be based on the framework developed here. Definition of chronic kidney disease. Why "Kidney"? The word "kidney" is of Middle English origin and is immediately understood by patients, their families, providers, health care professionals, and the lay public of native English speakers. On the other hand, "renal" and "nephrology," derived from Latin and Greek roots, respectively, commonly require interpretation and explanation. The Work Group and the NKF are committed to communicating in language that can be widely understood, hence the preferential use of "kidney" throughout these guidelines. The term "End-Stage Renal Disease" (ESRD) has been retained because of its administrative usage in the United States referring to patients treated by dialysis or transplantation, irrespective of their level of kidney function. Why Develop a New Classification? Currently, there is no uniform classification of the stages of chronic kidney disease. A review of textbooks and journal articles clearly demonstrates ambiguity and overlap in the meaning of current terms. The Work Group concluded that uniform definitions of terms and stages would improve communication between patients and providers, enhance public education, and promote dissemination of research results. In addition, it was believed that uniform definitions would enhance conduct of clinical research. Why Base a New Classification System on Severity of Disease? Adverse outcomes of kidney disease are based on the level of kidney function and risk of loss of function in the future. Chronic kidney disease tends to worsen over time. Therefore, the risk of adverse outcomes increases over time with disease severity. Many disciplines in medicine, including related specialties of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and transplantation, have adopted classification systems based on severity to guide clinical interventions, research, and professional and public education. Such a model is essential for any public health approach to disease. Why Classify Severity as the Level of GFR? The level of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely accepted as the best overall measure of kidney function in health and disease. Providers and patients are familiar with the concept that "the kidney is like a filter." GFR is the best measure of the kidneys' ability to filter blood. In addition, expressing the level of kidney function on a continuous scale allows development of patient and public education programs that encourage individuals to "Know your number!" The term "GFR" is not intuitively evident to anyone. Rather, it is a learned term, which allows the ultimate expression of the complex functions of the kidney in one single numerical expression. Conversely, numbers are an intuitive concept and easily understandable by everyone.

10,265 citations


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Abstract: In what case do you like reading so much? What about the type of the vitamin d the calcium homeostatic steroid hormone book? The needs to read? Well, everybody has their own reason why should read some books. Mostly, it will relate to their necessity to get knowledge from the book and want to read just to get entertainment. Novels, story book, and other entertaining books become so popular this day. Besides, the scientific books will also be the best reason to choose, especially for the students, teachers, doctors, businessman, and other professions who are fond of reading.

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TL;DR: Hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism were significantly associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and fracture-related hospitalization, and the population attributable risk percentage for disorders of mineral metabolism was 17.5%, owing largely to the high prevalence of hyperph phosphatemia.
Abstract: Mortality rates in ESRD are unacceptably high. Disorders of mineral metabolism (hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, and secondary hyperparathyroidism) are potentially modifiable. For determining associations among disorders of mineral metabolism, mortality, and morbidity in hemodialysis patients, data on 40,538 hemodialysis patients with at least one determination of serum phosphorus and calcium during the last 3 mo of 1997 were analyzed. Unadjusted, case mix-adjusted, and multivariable-adjusted relative risks of death were calculated for categories of serum phosphorus, calcium, calcium x phosphorus product, and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) using proportional hazards regression. Also determined was whether disorders of mineral metabolism were associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, infection-related, fracture-related, and vascular access-related hospitalization. After adjustment for case mix and laboratory variables, serum phosphorus concentrations >5.0 mg/dl were associated with an increased relative risk of death (1.07, 1.25, 1.43, 1.67, and 2.02 for serum phosphorus 5.0 to 6.0, 6.0 to 7.0, 7.0 to 8.0, 8.0 to 9.0, and >/=9.0 mg/dl). Higher adjusted serum calcium concentrations were also associated with an increased risk of death, even when examined within narrow ranges of serum phosphorus. Moderate to severe hyperparathyroidism (PTH concentrations >/=600 pg/ml) was associated with an increase in the relative risk of death, whereas more modest increases in PTH were not. When examined collectively, the population attributable risk percentage for disorders of mineral metabolism was 17.5%, owing largely to the high prevalence of hyperphosphatemia. Hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism were significantly associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and fracture-related hospitalization. Disorders of mineral metabolism are independently associated with mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and fracture in hemodialysis patients.

2,324 citations


"Outcomes Associated with Serum Calc..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Some of the same studies have also suggested that extremely low calcium levels may themselves be deleterious (2,3), which has ultimately resulted in recommendations to attain a low-normal serum calcium level in dialysis patients (23)....

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