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MonographDOI

Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood.

TL;DR: A follow-up study of a 1955 cohort of births (614 births) on Kauai island in Hawaii was conducted at birth age one and two years age 10 years age 18 years and 31-32 years.
Abstract: This study was a follow-up study of a 1955 cohort of births (614 births) on Kauai island in Hawaii. Follow-up was conducted at birth age one and two years age 10 years age 18 years and 31-32 years. The final sample in adulthood was 505 persons. The sample population was comprised of three ethnic groups (Japanese Filipino and part and full Hawaiian) and 54% grew up in poverty. Births were scored for complications as mild moderate or severe. The interviews conducted with mothers postpartum and at one and two years focused on maternal educational level socioeconomic status and family stability; environmental setting was evaluated as favorable to unfavorable on a five-point scale. The 10 year evaluation assessed school work and school behavioral problems mental abilities and stressful life events and illnesses occurring over the preceding 8 years. The home environment was evaluated on the level of educational stimulation emotional support and socioeconomic status. At 18 years a psychological inventory of self-assurance and interpersonal adequacy was conducted and community records were checked for serious mental health or criminal problems. Quality of life of the home environment was also assessed. The follow-up at age 31-32 years assessed the quality of adult adaptation from community records and interview questions which were self-evaluations of personal success satisfaction with family and social life and psychological well-being. Most of the sample led ordinary lives. Some of the stressful life events in childhood and adolescence were associated with coping problems in adulthood.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical appraisal of resilience, a construct connoting the maintenance of positive adaptation by individuals despite experiences of significant adversity, concludes that work on resilience possesses substantial potential for augmenting the understanding of processes affecting at-risk individuals.
Abstract: This paper presents a critical appraisal of resilience, a construct connoting the maintenance of positive adaptation by individuals despite experiences of significant adversity. As empirical research on resilience has burgeoned in recent years, criticisms have been levied at work in this area. These critiques have generally focused on ambiguities in definitions and central terminology; heterogeneity in risks experienced and competence achieved by individuals viewed as resilient; instability of the phenomenon of resilience; and concerns regarding the usefulness of resilience as a theoretical construct. We address each identified criticism in turn, proposing solutions for those we view as legitimate and clarifying misunderstandings surrounding those we believe to be less valid. We conclude that work on resilience possesses substantial potential for augmenting the understanding of processes affecting at-risk individuals. Realization of the potential embodied by this construct, however, will remain constrained without continued scientific attention to some of the serious conceptual and methodological pitfalls that have been noted by skeptics and proponents alike.

7,392 citations


Cites background from "Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Chil..."

  • ...The first of these guiding perspectives is that identified by Garmezy (1985) and Werner and Smith (1982, 1992), in which salient protective and vulnerability processes affecting at-risk children are viewed as operating at three broad levels....

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  • ...Subsequent research led to the delineation of three sets of factors implicated in the development of resilience: (1) attributes of the children themselves, (2) aspects of their families, and (3) characteristics of their wider social environments (Masten & Garmezy, 1985; Werner & Smith, 1982, 1992)....

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  • ...…expanded to include multiple adverse conditions such as socioeconomic disadvantage and associated risks (Garmezy, 1991, 1995; Rutter, 1979; Werner & Smith, 1982, 1992), parental mental illness (Masten & Coatsworth, 1995, 1998), maltreatment (Beeghly & Cicchetti, 1994; Cicchetti &…...

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  • ...…are two critical conditions: (1) exposure to significant threat or severe adversity; and (2) the achievement of positive adaptation despite major assaults on the developmental process (Garmezy, 1990; Luthar & Zigler, 1991; Masten, Best, & Garmezy, 1990; Rutter, 1990; Werner & Smith, 1982, 1992)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Connor‐Davidson Resilience scale (CD‐RISC) demonstrates that resilience is modifiable and can improve with treatment, with greater improvement corresponding to higher levels of global improvement.
Abstract: Resilience may be viewed as a measure of stress coping ability and, as such, could be an important target of treatment in anxiety, depression, and stress reactions. We describe a new rating scale to assess resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a 5-point scale (0–4), with higher scores reflecting greater resilience. The scale was administered to subjects in the following groups: community sample, primary care outpatients, general psychiatric outpatients, clinical trial of generalized anxiety disorder, and two clinical trials of PTSD. The reliability, validity, and factor analytic structure of the scale were evaluated, and reference scores for study samples were calculated. Sensitivity to treatment effects was examined in subjects from the PTSD clinical trials. The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and factor analysis yielded five factors. A repeated measures ANOVA showed that an increase in CD-RISC score was associated with greater improvement during treatment. Improvement in CD-RISC score was noted in proportion to overall clinical global improvement, with greatest increase noted in subjects with the highest global improvement and deterioration in CD-RISC score in those with minimal or no global improvement. The CDRISC has sound psychometric properties and distinguishes between those with greater and lesser resilience. The scale demonstrates that resilience is modifiable and can improve with treatment, with greater improvement corresponding to higher levels of global improvement. Depression and Anxiety 18:76–82, 2003. & 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

6,854 citations


Cites background from "Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Chil..."

  • ...Research over the last 20 years has demonstrated that resilience is a multidimensional characteristic that varies with context, time, age, gender, and cultural origin, as well as within an individual subjected to dif ferent life circumstances [e.g., Garmezy, 1985; Garmezy and Rutter, 1985; Rutter et al., 1985; Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Werner and Smith, 1992]....

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  • ...…characteristic that varies with context, time, age, gender, and cultural origin, as well as within an individual subjected to dif ferent life circumstances [e.g., Garmezy, 1985; Garmezy and Rutter, 1985; Rutter et al., 1985; Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Werner and Smith, 1992]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of resilience suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems.
Abstract: The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity. The most surprising conclusion emerging from studies of these children is the ordinariness of resilience. An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of these phenomena suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems. The conclusion that resilience is made of ordinary rather than extraordinary processes offers a more positive outlook on human development and adaptation, as well as direction for policy and practice aimed at enhancing the development of children at risk for problems and psychopathology.

5,961 citations


Cites methods from "Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Chil..."

  • ...The Kauai study by Werner and Smith (1982, 1992) has this design, as do the Rochester resilience studies of Cowen, Wyman, and colleagues (Cowen, Lotyczewski, & Weissberg, 1984; Cowen et al,, 1997; Cowen, Wyman, Work, & Parker, 1990; Wyman et al,, 1999)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Signals are drawn from studies of naturally occurring resilience among children at risk because of disadvantage or trauma and also from efforts to deliberately alter the course of competence through early childhood education and preventive interventions.
Abstract: The development of competence holds great interest for parents and society alike. This article considers implications from research on competence and resilience in children and adolescents for policy and interventions designed to foster better outcomes among children at risk. Foundations of competence in early development are discussed, focusing on the role of attachment relationships and self-regulation. Results from studies of competence in the domains of peer relations, conduct, school, work, and activities are highlighted. Lessons are drawn from studies of naturally occurring resilience among children at risk because of disadvantage or trauma and also from efforts to deliberately alter the course of competence through early childhood education and preventive interventions. Converging evidence suggests that the same powerful adaptive systems protect development in both favorable and unfavorable environments.

3,034 citations


Cites background from "Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Chil..."

  • ...Resilience has been studied in a wide variety of situations throughout the world, including war, living with parents who have a severe mental illness, family violence, poverty, natural disasters, and in situations with many other risk factors and stressors (Garmezy, 1985; Haggerty, Sherrod, Garmezy, & Rutter, 1994; Luthar & Zigler, 1991; Masten, Best, & Garmezy, 1990; Rutter, 1990; Werner & Smith, 1982, 1992; Wright & Masten, 1997; Zimmerman & Arunkumar, 1994)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mediational analyses revealed that the experience of positive emotions contributed, in part, to participants' abilities to achieve efficient emotion regulation, demonstrated by accelerated cardiovascular recovery from negative emotional arousal and by finding positive meaning in negative circumstances.
Abstract: Theory indicates that resilient individuals “bounce back” from stressful experiences quickly and effectively. Few studies, however, have provided empirical evidence for this theory. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (B. L. Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) is used as a framework for understanding psychological resilience. The authors used a multimethod approach in 3 studies to predict that resilient people use positive emotions to rebound from, and find positive meaning in, stressful encounters. Mediational analyses revealed that the experience of positive emotions contributed, in part, to participants’ abilities to achieve efficient emotion regulation, demonstrated by accelerated cardiovascular recovery from negative emotional arousal (Studies 1 and 2) and by finding positive meaning in negative circumstances (Study 3). Implications for research on resilience and positive emotions are discussed.

2,948 citations


Cites background from "Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Chil..."

  • ...Additional evidence suggests that high-resilient people proactively cultivate their positive emotionality by strategically eliciting positive emotions through the use of humor ( Werner & Smith, 1992 ), relaxation techniques (Demos, 1989; Wolin & Wolin, 1993), and optimistic thinking (Kumpfer, 1999)....

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  • ...Additional evidence suggests that high-resilient people proactively cultivate their positive emotionality by strategically eliciting positive emotions through the use of humor (Werner & Smith, 1992), relaxation techniques (Demos, 1989; Wolin & Wolin, 1993), and optimistic thinking (Kumpfer, 1999)....

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