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Journal ArticleDOI

Oxide Semiconductor Thin‐Film Transistors: A Review of Recent Advances

12 Jun 2012-Advanced Materials (WILEY‐VCH Verlag)-Vol. 24, Iss: 22, pp 2945-2986

TL;DR: The recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin-film transistors (TFT) is reviewed, with special emphasis on solution-processed andp-type, and the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology are summarizeed.

AbstractTransparent electronics is today one of the most advanced topics for a wide range of device applications. The key components are wide bandgap semiconductors, where oxides of different origins play an important role, not only as passive component but also as active component, similar to what is observed in conventional semiconductors like silicon. Transparent electronics has gained special attention during the last few years and is today established as one of the most promising technologies for leading the next generation of flat panel display due to its excellent electronic performance. In this paper the recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin-film transistors (TFT) is reviewed, with special emphasis on solution-processed and p-type, and the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology are summarizeed. After a short introduction where the main advantages of these semiconductors are presented, as well as the industry expectations, the beautiful history of TFTs is revisited, including the main landmarks in the last 80 years, finishing by referring to some papers that have played an important role in shaping transparent electronics. Then, an overview is presented of state of the art n-type TFTs processed by physical vapour deposition methods, and finally one of the most exciting, promising, and low cost but powerful technologies is discussed: solution-processed oxide TFTs. Moreover, a more detailed focus analysis will be given concerning p-type oxide TFTs, mainly centred on two of the most promising semiconductor candidates: copper oxide and tin oxide. The most recent data related to the production of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices based on n- and p-type oxide TFT is also be presented. The last topic of this review is devoted to some emerging applications, finalizing with the main conclusions. Related work that originated at CENIMAT|I3N during the last six years is included in more detail, which has led to the fabrication of high performance n- and p-type oxide transistors as well as the fabrication of CMOS devices with and on paper.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is emerging as a viable candidate for certain classes of power electronics, solar blind UV photodetectors, solar cells, and sensors with capabilities beyond existing technologies due to its large bandgap. It is usually reported that there are five different polymorphs of Ga2O3, namely, the monoclinic (β-Ga2O3), rhombohedral (α), defective spinel (γ), cubic (δ), or orthorhombic (e) structures. Of these, the β-polymorph is the stable form under normal conditions and has been the most widely studied and utilized. Since melt growth techniques can be used to grow bulk crystals of β-GaO3, the cost of producing larger area, uniform substrates is potentially lower compared to the vapor growth techniques used to manufacture bulk crystals of GaN and SiC. The performance of technologically important high voltage rectifiers and enhancement-mode Metal-Oxide Field Effect Transistors benefit from the larger critical electric field of β-Ga2O3 relative to either SiC or GaN. However, the absence of clear demonstrations of p-type doping in Ga2O3, which may be a fundamental issue resulting from the band structure, makes it very difficult to simultaneously achieve low turn-on voltages and ultra-high breakdown. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in the growth, processing, and device performance of the most widely studied polymorph, β-Ga2O3. The role of defects and impurities on the transport and optical properties of bulk, epitaxial, and nanostructures material, the difficulty in p-type doping, and the development of processing techniques like etching, contact formation, dielectrics for gate formation, and passivation are discussed. Areas where continued development is needed to fully exploit the properties of Ga2O3 are identified.

880 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Review surveys the uniqueness and universality of MOs versus other unconventional electronic materials in terms of materials chemistry and physics, electronic characteristics, thin-film fabrication strategies and selected applications in thin- film transistors, solar cells, diodes and memories.
Abstract: Optical transparency, tunable conducting properties and easy processability make metal oxides key materials for advanced optoelectronic devices. This Review discusses recent advances in the synthesis of these materials and their use in applications. Metal oxides (MOs) are the most abundant materials in the Earth's crust and are ingredients in traditional ceramics. MO semiconductors are strikingly different from conventional inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and III–V compounds with respect to materials design concepts, electronic structure, charge transport mechanisms, defect states, thin-film processing and optoelectronic properties, thereby enabling both conventional and completely new functions. Recently, remarkable advances in MO semiconductors for electronics have been achieved, including the discovery and characterization of new transparent conducting oxides, realization of p-type along with traditional n-type MO semiconductors for transistors, p–n junctions and complementary circuits, formulations for printing MO electronics and, most importantly, commercialization of amorphous oxide semiconductors for flat panel displays. This Review surveys the uniqueness and universality of MOs versus other unconventional electronic materials in terms of materials chemistry and physics, electronic characteristics, thin-film fabrication strategies and selected applications in thin-film transistors, solar cells, diodes and memories.

833 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Review focuses on the analysis of new approaches and results in the field of solution combustion synthesis (SCS) obtained during recent years, emphasizing the chemical mechanisms that are responsible for rapid self-sustained combustion reactions.
Abstract: Solution combustion is an exciting phenomenon, which involves propagation of self-sustained exothermic reactions along an aqueous or sol–gel media. This process allows for the synthesis of a variety of nanoscale materials, including oxides, metals, alloys, and sulfides. This Review focuses on the analysis of new approaches and results in the field of solution combustion synthesis (SCS) obtained during recent years. Thermodynamics and kinetics of reactive solutions used in different chemical routes are considered, and the role of process parameters is discussed, emphasizing the chemical mechanisms that are responsible for rapid self-sustained combustion reactions. The basic principles for controlling the composition, structure, and nanostructure of SCS products, and routes to regulate the size and morphology of the nanoscale materials are also reviewed. Recently developed systems that lead to the formation of novel materials and unique structures (e.g., thin films and two-dimensional crystals) with unusual...

596 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Transparent electronics is today one of the most advanced topics for a wide range of device applications. The key components are wide bandgap semiconductors, where oxides of different origins play an important role, not only as passive component but also as active component, similar to what is observed in conventional semiconductors like silicon. Transparent electronics has gained special attention during the last few years and is today established as one of the most promising technologies for leading the next generation of flat panel display due to its excellent electronic performance. In this paper the recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin-film transistors (TFT) is reviewed, with special emphasis on solution-processed and p-type, and the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology are summarizeed. After a short introduction where the main advantages of these semiconductors are presented, as well as the industry expectations, the beautiful history of TFTs is revisited, including the main landmarks in the last 80 years, finishing by referring to some papers that have played an important role in shaping transparent electronics. Then, an overview is presented of state of the art n-type TFTs processed by physical vapour deposition methods, and finally one of the most exciting, promising, and low cost but powerful technologies is discussed: solution-processed oxide TFTs. Moreover, a more detailed focus analysis will be given concerning p-type oxide TFTs, mainly centred on two of the most promising semiconductor candidates: copper oxide and tin oxide. The most recent data related to the production of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices based on n- and p-type oxide TFT is also be presented. The last topic of this review is devoted to some emerging applications, finalizing with the main conclusions. Related work that originated at CENIMAT|I3N during the last six years is included in more detail, which has led to the fabrication of high performance n- and p-type oxide transistors as well as the fabrication of CMOS devices with and on paper.

529 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this review, recent progress in materials and devices for future wearable sensor technologies for bio and medical applications are reported.
Abstract: Printable electronics present a new era of wearable electronic technologies. Detailed technologies consisting of novel ink semiconductor materials, flexible substrates, and unique processing methods can be integrated to create flexible sensors. To detect various stimuli of the human body, as well as specific environments, unique electronic devices formed by "ink-based semiconductors" onto flexible and/or stretchable substrates have become a major research trend in recent years. Materials such as inorganic, organic, and hybrid semiconductors with various structures (i.e., 1D, 2D and 3D) with printing capabilities have been considered for bio and medical applications. In this review, we report recent progress in materials and devices for future wearable sensor technologies.

464 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
25 Nov 2004-Nature
TL;DR: A novel semiconducting material is proposed—namely, a transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor from the In-Ga-Zn-O system (a-IGZO)—for the active channel in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs), which are fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate sheets and exhibit saturation mobilities and device characteristics are stable during repetitive bending of the TTFT sheet.
Abstract: Transparent electronic devices formed on flexible substrates are expected to meet emerging technological demands where silicon-based electronics cannot provide a solution. Examples of active flexible applications include paper displays and wearable computers1. So far, mainly flexible devices based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)2,3,4,5 and organic semiconductors2,6,7,8,9,10 have been investigated. However, the performance of these devices has been insufficient for use as transistors in practical computers and current-driven organic light-emitting diode displays. Fabricating high-performance devices is challenging, owing to a trade-off between processing temperature and device performance. Here, we propose to solve this problem by using a novel semiconducting material—namely, a transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor from the In-Ga-Zn-O system (a-IGZO)—for the active channel in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs). The a-IGZO is deposited on polyethylene terephthalate at room temperature and exhibits Hall effect mobilities exceeding 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is an order of magnitude larger than for hydrogenated amorphous silicon. TTFTs fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate sheets exhibit saturation mobilities of 6–9 cm2 V-1 s-1, and device characteristics are stable during repetitive bending of the TTFT sheet.

6,692 citations


Book
04 Jul 1990
Abstract: Preface to Third Edition. 1 Resistivity. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Two-Point Versus Four-Point Probe. 1.3 Wafer Mapping. 1.4 Resistivity Profiling. 1.5 Contactless Methods. 1.6 Conductivity Type. 1.7 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 1.1 Resistivity as a Function of Doping Density. Appendix 1.2 Intrinsic Carrier Density. References. Problems. Review Questions. 2 Carrier and Doping Density. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Capacitance-Voltage (C-V). 2.3 Current-Voltage (I-V). 2.4 Measurement Errors and Precautions. 2.5 Hall Effect. 2.6 Optical Techniques. 2.7 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). 2.8 Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). 2.9 Lateral Profiling. 2.10 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 2.1 Parallel or Series Connection? Appendix 2.2 Circuit Conversion. References. Problems. Review Questions. 3 Contact Resistance and Schottky Barriers. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Metal-Semiconductor Contacts. 3.3 Contact Resistance. 3.4 Measurement Techniques. 3.5 Schottky Barrier Height. 3.6 Comparison of Methods. 3.7 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 3.1 Effect of Parasitic Resistance. Appendix 3.2 Alloys for Contacts to Semiconductors. References. Problems. Review Questions. 4 Series Resistance, Channel Length and Width, and Threshold Voltage. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 PN Junction Diodes. 4.3 Schottky Barrier Diodes. 4.4 Solar Cells. 4.5 Bipolar Junction Transistors. 4.6 MOSFETS. 4.7 MESFETS and MODFETS. 4.8 Threshold Voltage. 4.9 Pseudo MOSFET. 4.10 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 4.1 Schottky Diode Current-Voltage Equation. References. Problems. Review Questions. 5 Defects. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Generation-Recombination Statistics. 5.3 Capacitance Measurements. 5.4 Current Measurements. 5.5 Charge Measurements. 5.6 Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). 5.7 Thermally Stimulated Capacitance and Current. 5.8 Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS). 5.9 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 5.1 Activation Energy and Capture Cross-Section. Appendix 5.2 Time Constant Extraction. Appendix 5.3 Si and GaAs Data. References. Problems. Review Questions. 6 Oxide and Interface Trapped Charges, Oxide Thickness. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Fixed, Oxide Trapped, and Mobile Oxide Charge. 6.3 Interface Trapped Charge. 6.4 Oxide Thickness. 6.5 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 6.1 Capacitance Measurement Techniques. Appendix 6.2 Effect of Chuck Capacitance and Leakage Current. References. Problems. Review Questions. 7 Carrier Lifetimes. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Recombination Lifetime/Surface Recombination Velocity. 7.3 Generation Lifetime/Surface Generation Velocity. 7.4 Recombination Lifetime-Optical Measurements. 7.5 Recombination Lifetime-Electrical Measurements. 7.6 Generation Lifetime-Electrical Measurements. 7.7 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 7.1 Optical Excitation. Appendix 7.2 Electrical Excitation. References. Problems. Review Questions. 8 Mobility. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Conductivity Mobility. 8.3 Hall Effect and Mobility. 8.4 Magnetoresistance Mobility. 8.5 Time-of-Flight Drift Mobility. 8.6 MOSFET Mobility. 8.7 Contactless Mobility. 8.8 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 8.1 Semiconductor Bulk Mobilities. Appendix 8.2 Semiconductor Surface Mobilities. Appendix 8.3 Effect of Channel Frequency Response. Appendix 8.4 Effect of Interface Trapped Charge. References. Problems. Review Questions. 9 Charge-based and Probe Characterization. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Background. 9.3 Surface Charging. 9.4 The Kelvin Probe. 9.5 Applications. 9.6 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM). 9.7 Strengths and Weaknesses. References. Problems. Review Questions. 10 Optical Characterization. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Optical Microscopy. 10.3 Ellipsometry. 10.4 Transmission. 10.5 Reflection. 10.6 Light Scattering. 10.7 Modulation Spectroscopy. 10.8 Line Width. 10.9 Photoluminescence (PL). 10.10 Raman Spectroscopy. 10.11 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 10.1 Transmission Equations. Appendix 10.2 Absorption Coefficients and Refractive Indices for Selected Semiconductors. References. Problems. Review Questions. 11 Chemical and Physical Characterization. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Electron Beam Techniques. 11.3 Ion Beam Techniques. 11.4 X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Techniques. 11.5 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 11.1 Selected Features of Some Analytical Techniques. References. Problems. Review Questions. 12 Reliability and Failure Analysis. 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Failure Times and Acceleration Factors. 12.3 Distribution Functions. 12.4 Reliability Concerns. 12.5 Failure Analysis Characterization Techniques. 12.6 Strengths and Weaknesses. Appendix 12.1 Gate Currents. References. Problems. Review Questions. Appendix 1 List of Symbols. Appendix 2 Abbreviations and Acronyms. Index.

6,419 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Many materials systems are currently under consideration as potential replacements for SiO2 as the gate dielectric material for sub-0.1 μm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology. A systematic consideration of the required properties of gate dielectrics indicates that the key guidelines for selecting an alternative gate dielectric are (a) permittivity, band gap, and band alignment to silicon, (b) thermodynamic stability, (c) film morphology, (d) interface quality, (e) compatibility with the current or expected materials to be used in processing for CMOS devices, (f) process compatibility, and (g) reliability. Many dielectrics appear favorable in some of these areas, but very few materials are promising with respect to all of these guidelines. A review of current work and literature in the area of alternate gate dielectrics is given. Based on reported results and fundamental considerations, the pseudobinary materials systems offer large flexibility and show the most promise toward success...

5,532 citations


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Abstract: Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have lived to see great improvements in recent years. This review presents new insight into conduction mechanisms and performance characteristics, as well as opportunities for modeling properties of OTFTs. The shifted focus in research from novel chemical structures to fabrication technologies that optimize morphology and structural order is underscored by chapters on vacuum-deposited and solution-processed organic semiconducting films. Finally, progress in the growing field of the n-type OTFTs is discussed in ample detail. The Figure, showing a pentacene film edge on SiO2, illustrates the morphology issue.

4,714 citations


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TL;DR: An outlook is presented on what will be required to drive this young photovoltaic technology towards the next major milestone, a 10% power conversion efficiency, considered by many to represent the efficiency at which OPV can be adopted in wide-spread applications.
Abstract: Solution-processed bulk-heterojunction solar cells have gained serious attention during the last few years and are becoming established as one of the future photovoltaic technologies for low-cost power production. This article reviews the highlights of the last few years, and summarizes today's state-of-the-art performance. An outlook is given on relevant future materials and technologies that have the potential to guide this young photovoltaic technology towards the magic 10% regime. A cost model supplements the technical discussions, with practical aspects any photovoltaic technology needs to fulfil, and answers to the question as to whether low module costs can compensate lower lifetimes and performances.

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