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Journal ArticleDOI

Pain and temperature processing in dementia: a clinical and neuroanatomical analysis

01 Nov 2015-Brain (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 138, Iss: 11, pp 3360-3372

TL;DR: Using a semi-structured caregiver questionnaire and MRI voxel-based morphometry in patients with frontotemporal degeneration or Alzheimer’s disease, Fletcher et al. show that symptoms are underpinned by atrophy in a distributed thalamo-temporo-insular network implicated in somatosensory processing.

AbstractSymptoms suggesting altered processing of pain and temperature have been described in dementia diseases and may contribute importantly to clinical phenotypes, particularly in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum, but the basis for these symptoms has not been characterized in detail. Here we analysed pain and temperature symptoms using a semi-structured caregiver questionnaire recording altered behavioural responsiveness to pain or temperature for a cohort of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (n = 58, 25 female, aged 52-84 years, representing the major clinical syndromes and representative pathogenic mutations in the C9orf72 and MAPT genes) and a comparison cohort of patients with amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 20, eight female, aged 53-74 years). Neuroanatomical associations were assessed using blinded visual rating and voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain magnetic resonance images. Certain syndromic signatures were identified: pain and temperature symptoms were particularly prevalent in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (71% of cases) and semantic dementia (65% of cases) and in association with C9orf72 mutations (6/6 cases), but also developed in Alzheimer's disease (45% of cases) and progressive non-fluent aphasia (25% of cases). While altered temperature responsiveness was more common than altered pain responsiveness across syndromes, blunted responsiveness to pain and temperature was particularly associated with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (40% of symptomatic cases) and heightened responsiveness with semantic dementia (73% of symptomatic cases) and Alzheimer's disease (78% of symptomatic cases). In the voxel-based morphometry analysis of the frontotemporal lobar degeneration cohort, pain and temperature symptoms were associated with grey matter loss in a right-lateralized network including insula (P < 0.05 corrected for multiple voxel-wise comparisons within the prespecified anatomical region of interest) and anterior temporal cortex (P < 0.001 uncorrected over whole brain) previously implicated in processing homeostatic signals. Pain and temperature symptoms accompanying C9orf72 mutations were specifically associated with posterior thalamic atrophy (P < 0.05 corrected for multiple voxel-wise comparisons within the prespecified anatomical region of interest). Together the findings suggest candidate cognitive and neuroanatomical bases for these salient but under-appreciated phenotypic features of the dementias, with wider implications for the homeostatic pathophysiology and clinical management of neurodegenerative diseases.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review aims to clarify the often confusing terminology of FTD, and outline the various clinical features and diagnostic criteria of sporadic and familial FTD syndromes.
Abstract: The term frontotemporal dementia (FTD) describes a clinically, genetically and pathologically diverse group of neurodegenerative disorders. Symptoms of FTD can present in individuals in their 20s through to their 90s, but the mean age at onset is in the sixth decade. The most common presentation is with a change in personality and impaired social conduct (behavioural variant FTD). Less frequently patients present with language problems (primary progressive aphasia). Both of these groups of patients can develop motor features consistent with either motor neuron disease (usually the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis variant) or parkinsonism (most commonly a progressive supranuclear palsy or corticobasal syndrome). In about a third of cases FTD is familial, with mutations in the progranulin, microtubule-associated protein tau and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 genes being the major causes. Mutations in a number of other genes including TANK-binding kinase 1 are rare causes of familial FTD. This review aims to clarify the often confusing terminology of FTD, and outline the various clinical features and diagnostic criteria of sporadic and familial FTD syndromes. It will also discuss the current major challenges in FTD research and clinical practice, and potential areas for future research. This review clarifies the terminology of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and summarizes the various clinical features and most recent diagnostic criteria of sporadic and familial FTD syndromes. It also discusses the current major challenges in FTD research and clinical practice, and highlights potential areas for future research.

93 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A clinical approach to the progressive aphasias is presented, based on the experience of these disorders and directed at non-specialists, and a prospect for future progress is concluded, emphasising generic information processing deficits and novel pathophysiological biomarkers.
Abstract: The primary progressive aphasias are a heterogeneous group of focal 'language-led' dementias that pose substantial challenges for diagnosis and management Here we present a clinical approach to the progressive aphasias, based on our experience of these disorders and directed at non-specialists We first outline a framework for assessing language, tailored to the common presentations of progressive aphasia We then consider the defining features of the canonical progressive nonfluent, semantic and logopenic aphasic syndromes, including 'clinical pearls' that we have found diagnostically useful and neuroanatomical and other key associations of each syndrome We review potential diagnostic pitfalls and problematic presentations not well captured by conventional classifications and propose a diagnostic 'roadmap' After outlining principles of management, we conclude with a prospect for future progress in these diseases, emphasising generic information processing deficits and novel pathophysiological biomarkers

93 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is possible therefore that FTLD is a reflection of dysfunction within lysosomal/proteasomal systems resulting in failure to remove potentially neurotoxic aggregates, which ultimately overwhelm capacity to function.
Abstract: Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) is a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that affect principally the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. There are three major associated clinical syndromes, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD) and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA); three principal histologies, involving tau, TDP-43 and FUS proteins; and mutations in three major genes, MAPT, GRN and C9orf72, along with several other less common gene mutations. All three clinical syndromes can exist separately or in combination with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). SD is exclusively a TDP-43 proteinopathy, and PNFA may be so, with both showing tight clinical, histological and genetic inter-relationships. bvFTD is more of a challenge with overlapping histological and genetic features, involvement of any of the three aggregating proteins, and changes in any of the three major genes. However, when ALS is present, all cases show a clear histological phenotype with TDP-43 aggregated proteins, and familial forms are associated with expansions in C9orf72. TDP-43 and FUS are nuclear carrier proteins involved in the regulation of RNA metabolism, whereas tau protein - the product of MAPT - is responsible for the assembly/disassembly of microtubules, which are vital for intracellular transport. Mutations in TDP-43 and FUS genes are linked to clinical ALS rather than FTLD (with or without ALS), suggesting that clinical ALS may be a disorder of RNA metabolism. Conversely, the protein products of GRN and C9orf72, along with those of the other minor genes, appear to form part of the cellular protein degradation machinery. It is possible therefore that FTLD is a reflection of dysfunction within lysosomal/proteasomal systems resulting in failure to remove potentially neurotoxic (TDP-43 and tau) aggregates, which ultimately overwhelm capacity to function. Spread of aggregates along distinct pathways may account for the different clinical phenotypes, and patterns of progression of disease.

85 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Given the multifactorial nature of pain in patients with ALS, different treatments have been suggested, ranging from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, drugs for neuropathic pain, opioids, and cannabinoids, to physical therapy strategies and preventive assistive devices.
Abstract: Pain is a largely neglected symptom in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) although it is reported by most of these patients. It occurs at all stages of the disease and can be an onset symptom preceding motor dysfunction. Pain is correlated with a deterioration in patients' quality of life and increased prevalence of depression. In the later stages of ALS, pain can be severe enough to require increased use of sedative and analgesic drugs, and is among the events that predict clinical deterioration and death. The site of pain depends on the pain type or underlying mechanism (eg, painful cramps, nociceptive pain, or neuropathic pain). Given the multifactorial nature of pain in patients with ALS, different treatments have been suggested, ranging from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, drugs for neuropathic pain, opioids, and cannabinoids, to physical therapy strategies and preventive assistive devices. Further understanding of the pathophysiology is crucial to drive assessment in clinical trials of therapeutic strategies targeted at specific mechanisms and studies of individualised therapies.

56 citations


Cites background from "Pain and temperature processing in ..."

  • ...Using MRI voxel-based morphometry analysis pain and temperature symptoms were associated to a right-lateralized network including anterior temporal cortex, posterior thalamus and insula, indicating an altered processing of somatosensory signals.(69) Such failure to interpret pain and temperature variations can put patients at risk of injuries....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The changes and similarities between disorders might provide novel insights into the human neural correlates of physiological functioning and could provide biomarkers to aid in the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and in treatment trials.
Abstract: The effects of neurodegenerative syndromes extend beyond cognitive function to involve key physiological processes, including eating and metabolism, autonomic nervous system function, sleep, and motor function. Changes in these physiological processes are present in several conditions, including frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease and the parkinsonian plus conditions. Key neural structures that mediate physiological changes across these conditions include neuroendocrine and hypothalamic pathways, reward pathways, motor systems and the autonomic nervous system. In this Review, we highlight the key changes in physiological processing in neurodegenerative syndromes and the similarities in these changes between different progressive neurodegenerative brain conditions. The changes and similarities between disorders might provide novel insights into the human neural correlates of physiological functioning. Given the evidence that physiological changes can arise early in the neurodegenerative process, these changes could provide biomarkers to aid in the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and in treatment trials.

51 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex into standard gyral-based neuroanatomical regions is both anatomically valid and reliable and may be useful for both morphometric and functional studies of the cerebral cortex.
Abstract: In this study, we have assessed the validity and reliability of an automated labeling system that we have developed for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on magnetic resonance images into gyral based regions of interest (ROIs). Using a dataset of 40 MRI scans we manually identified 34 cortical ROIs in each of the individual hemispheres. This information was then encoded in the form of an atlas that was utilized to automatically label ROIs. To examine the validity, as well as the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the automated system, we used both intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and a new method known as mean distance maps, to assess the degree of mismatch between the manual and the automated sets of ROIs. When compared with the manual ROIs, the automated ROIs were highly accurate, with an average ICC of 0.835 across all of the ROIs, and a mean distance error of less than 1 mm. Intra- and inter-rater comparisons yielded little to no difference between the sets of ROIs. These findings suggest that the automated method we have developed for subdividing the human cerebral cortex into standard gyral-based neuroanatomical regions is both anatomically valid and reliable. This method may be useful for both morphometric and functional studies of the cerebral cortex as well as for clinical investigations aimed at tracking the evolution of disease-induced changes over time, including clinical trials in which MRI-based measures are used to examine response to treatment.

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"Pain and temperature processing in ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...1 (Desikan et al., 2006; Jenkinson et al., 2012) to fit the group mean template brain image....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: DARTEL has been applied to intersubject registration of 471 whole brain images, and the resulting deformations were evaluated in terms of how well they encode the shape information necessary to separate male and female subjects and to predict the ages of the subjects.
Abstract: This paper describes DARTEL, which is an algorithm for diffeomorphic image registration. It is implemented for both 2D and 3D image registration and has been formulated to include an option for estimating inverse consistent deformations. Nonlinear registration is considered as a local optimisation problem, which is solved using a Levenberg-Marquardt strategy. The necessary matrix solutions are obtained in reasonable time using a multigrid method. A constant Eulerian velocity framework is used, which allows a rapid scaling and squaring method to be used in the computations. DARTEL has been applied to intersubject registration of 471 whole brain images, and the resulting deformations were evaluated in terms of how well they encode the shape information necessary to separate male and female subjects and to predict the ages of the subjects.

5,944 citations


"Pain and temperature processing in ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Preprocessing of patients’ brain magnetic resonance images for VBM was performed using New Segment (Ashburner and Friston, 2005) and the DARTEL (Ashburner, 2007) toolbox of SPM8 (www....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two distinct networks typically coactivated during functional MRI tasks are identified, anchored by dorsal anterior cingulate and orbital frontoinsular cortices with robust connectivity to subcortical and limbic structures, and an “executive-control network” that links dorsolateral frontal and parietal neocortices.
Abstract: Variations in neural circuitry, inherited or acquired, may underlie important individual differences in thought, feeling, and action patterns. Here, we used task-free connectivity analyses to isolate and characterize two distinct networks typically coactivated during functional MRI tasks. We identified a "salience network," anchored by dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and orbital frontoinsular cortices with robust connectivity to subcortical and limbic structures, and an "executive-control network" that links dorsolateral frontal and parietal neocortices. These intrinsic connectivity networks showed dissociable correlations with functions measured outside the scanner. Prescan anxiety ratings correlated with intrinsic functional connectivity of the dACC node of the salience network, but with no region in the executive-control network, whereas executive task performance correlated with lateral parietal nodes of the executive-control network, but with no region in the salience network. Our findings suggest that task-free analysis of intrinsic connectivity networks may help elucidate the neural architectures that support fundamental aspects of human behavior.

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  • ...More anterior insular regions are also targeted in PNFA, providing a candidate locus for altered homeostatic awareness in this syndrome (Seeley et al., 2009)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New findings suggest a fundamental role for the AIC (and the von Economo neurons it contains) in awareness, and thus it needs to be considered as a potential neural correlate of consciousness.
Abstract: The anterior insular cortex (AIC) is implicated in a wide range of conditions and behaviours, from bowel distension and orgasm, to cigarette craving and maternal love, to decision making and sudden insight. Its function in the re-representation of interoception offers one possible basis for its involvement in all subjective feelings. New findings suggest a fundamental role for the AIC (and the von Economo neurons it contains) in awareness, and thus it needs to be considered as a potential neural correlate of consciousness.

4,654 citations


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  • ...Such noisy processing might involve degraded temporal scheduling of salient sensory and emotional signals, a key function attributed to anterior insula that is vulnerable in FTLD (Wiener and Coslett, 2008; Craig, 2009; Henley et al., 2014)....

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  • ...Together these networks have a core role in regulation of bodily homeostasis: current neurobiological formulations emphasize convergent processing of somatic and visceral pain and thermoregulatory signals as functionally interdependent aspects of interoception (Craig, 2002, 2009)....

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  • ...…labelled lines have been incorporated by current models that emphasize the intimate association of pain and thermal information and their integration as joint aspects of interoception, salient sensory phenomena that are potentially critical for signalling body homeostasis (Craig, 2002, 2009)....

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  • ...…neural networks that are engaged jointly by these diverse phenomena and reaffirms the primacy of the thalamo-insular linkage in regulating the interface between homeostatic and environmental contingencies, reward and punishment (Craig, 2002, 2009; Perry et al., 2014; Zhou and Seeley, 2014)....

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  • ...This region may be involved in generating subjective psychological states via projections to anterior insula, anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and prefrontal cortices and in programming coherent autonomic effector responses (Craig, 2002, 2009; Grecucci et al., 2013; Zhou and Seeley, 2014)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Functional anatomical work has detailed an afferent neural system in primates and in humans that represents all aspects of the physiological condition of the physical body that might provide a foundation for subjective feelings, emotion and self-awareness.
Abstract: As humans, we perceive feelings from our bodies that relate our state of well-being, our energy and stress levels, our mood and disposition. How do we have these feelings? What neural processes do they represent? Recent functional anatomical work has detailed an afferent neural system in primates and in humans that represents all aspects of the physiological condition of the physical body. This system constitutes a representation of 'the material me', and might provide a foundation for subjective feelings, emotion and self-awareness.

4,181 citations


"Pain and temperature processing in ..." refers background or methods or result in this paper

  • ...The present evidence suggests a model for synthesizing neurodegenerative disease effects on these cortical operations that is consistent both with data from normal neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging work and the effects of focal brain lesions (Craig, 2002, 2009; Borsook, 2012)....

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  • ...…interpretation, as under most circumstances thermal comfort or distress reflects the degree of perceived mismatch between one’s own body temperature and the environment; temperature sensibility might therefore be regarded as a probe of interoceptive signal processing par excellence (Craig, 2002)....

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  • ...Peripheral somatic and visceral sensory afferents conveying pain and thermal information relay via postero-lateral thalamic nuclei to somatosensory cortex (Brodmann area 3a) and dorsal posterior insula (Craig, 2002)....

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  • ...Temperature sensibility is mediated by a closely overlapping network (Craig, 2002; Moulton et al., 2012)....

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  • ...Together these networks have a core role in regulation of bodily homeostasis: current neurobiological formulations emphasize convergent processing of somatic and visceral pain and thermoregulatory signals as functionally interdependent aspects of interoception (Craig, 2002, 2009)....

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