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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12967-021-02745-1

Panaxydol attenuates ferroptosis against LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Translational Medicine (BioMed Central)-Vol. 19, Iss: 1, pp 1-14
Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induces uncontrolled and self-amplified pulmonary inflammation, and has high morbidity and mortality rates in critically ill patients. In recent years, many bioactive ingredients extracted from herbs have been reported to effectively ameliorate ALI/ARDS via different mechanisms. Ferroptosis, categorized as regulated necrosis, is more immunogenic than apoptosis and contributes to the progression of ALI. In this study, we examined the impact of panaxydol (PX), isolated from the roots of Panax ginseng, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. In vivo, the role of PX on LPS-induced ALI in mice was tested by determination of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema and ferroptosis. In vitro, BEAS-2B cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which PX functions via determination of inflammation, ferroptosis and their relationship. Administration of PX protected mice against LPS-induced ALI, including significantly ameliorated lung pathological changes, and decreased the extent of lung edema, inflammation, and ferroptosis. In vitro, PX inhibited LPS-induced ferroptosis and inflammation in bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B cells. The relationship between ferroptosis and inflammation was investigated. The results showed that ferroptosis mediated inflammation in LPS-treated BEAS-2B cells, and PX might ameliorate LPS-induced inflammation via inhibiting ferroptosis. Meanwhile, PX could upregulate Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and selective inhibition of Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway significantly abolished the anti-ferroptotic and anti-inflammatory functions of PX in LPS-treated cells. PX attenuates ferroptosis against LPS-induced ALI via Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and is a promising novel therapeutic candidate for ALI.

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Topics: Lung injury (55%)
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13 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOM11040589
16 Apr 2021-
Abstract: Heme-oxygenase is the enzyme responsible for degradation of endogenous iron protoporphyirin heme; it catalyzes the reaction’s rate-limiting step, resulting in the release of carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions, and biliverdin (BV), which is successively reduced in bilirubin (BR) by biliverdin reductase. Several studies have drawn attention to the controversial role of HO-1, the enzyme inducible isoform, pointing out its implications in cancer and other diseases development, but also underlining the importance of its antioxidant activity. The contribution of HO-1 in redox homeostasis leads to a relevant decrease in cells oxidative damage, which can be reconducted to its cytoprotective effects explicated alongside other endogenous mechanisms involving genes like TIGAR (TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator), but also to the therapeutic functions of heme main transformation products, especially carbon monoxide (CO), which has been shown to be effective on GSH levels implementation sustaining body’s antioxidant response to oxidative stress. The aim of this review was to collect most of the knowledge on HO-1 from literature, analyzing different perspectives to try and put forward a hypothesis on revealing yet unknown HO-1-involved pathways that could be useful to promote development of new therapeutical strategies, and lay the foundation for further investigation to fully understand this important antioxidant system.

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Topics: Heme oxygenase (64%), Biliverdin reductase (61%), Heme (55%) ... show more

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/JIR.S307081
Wenting Xu1, Huimin Deng2, Song Hu3, Song Hu2  +11 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Ferroptosis is a new type of programmed cell death characterized by intracellular iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation that leads to oxidative stress and cell death. The metabolism of iron, lipids, and amino acids and multiple signalling pathways precisely regulate the process of ferroptosis. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that ferroptosis participates in the occurrence and progression of various pathological conditions and diseases, such as infections, neurodegeneration, tissue ischaemia-reperfusion injury and immune diseases. Recent studies have also indicated that ferroptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary infection and asthma. Herein, we summarize the latest knowledge on the regulatory mechanism of ferroptosis and its association with iron, lipid and amino acid metabolism as well as several signalling pathways. Furthermore, we review the contribution of ferroptosis to the pathogenesis of lung diseases and discuss ferroptosis as a novel therapeutic target for various lung diseases.

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Topics: Lung injury (58%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10040897
Jae-Won Lee1, Wanjoo Chun2, Hee Jae Lee2, Jae-Hong Min3  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
14 Apr 2021-Cells
Abstract: Macrophages play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses of organ systems, including the lungs, to particles and pathogens. Cumulative results show that macrophages contribute to the development and progression of acute or chronic inflammatory responses through the secretion of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and the activation of transcription factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases, such as acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ARDS related to COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)), allergic asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This review summarizes the functions of macrophages and their associated underlying mechanisms in the development of ALI, ARDS, COVID-19-related ARDS, allergic asthma, COPD, and IPF and briefly introduces the acute and chronic experimental animal models. Thus, this review suggests an effective therapeutic approach that focuses on the regulation of macrophage function in the context of inflammatory lung diseases.

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Topics: ARDS (59%), Lung injury (59%), Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (57%) ... show more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.YMETH.2021.04.007
09 Apr 2021-Methods
Abstract: Infectious diseases are a global health problem affecting billions of people. Developing rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools is key for successful patient management and curbing disease spread. Currently available diagnostics are very specific and sensitive but time-consuming and require expensive laboratory settings and well-trained personnel; thus, they are not available in resource-limited areas, for the purposes of large-scale screenings and in case of outbreaks and epidemics. Developing new, rapid, and affordable point-of-care diagnostic assays is urgently needed. This review focuses on CRISPR-based technologies and their perspectives to become platforms for point-of-care nucleic acid detection methods and as deployable diagnostic platforms that could help to identify and curb outbreaks and emerging epidemics. We describe the mechanisms and function of different classes and types of CRISPR-Cas systems, including pros and cons for developing molecular diagnostic tests and applications of each type to detect a wide range of infectious agents. Many Cas proteins (Cas3, Cas9, Cas12, Cas13, Cas14 etc.) have been leveraged to create highly accurate and sensitive diagnostic tools combined with technologies of signal amplification and fluorescent, potentiometric, colorimetric, lateral flow assay detection and other. In particular, the most advanced platforms -- SHERLOCK/v2, DETECTR, CARMEN or CRISPR-Chip -- enable detection of attomolar amounts of pathogenic nucleic acids with specificity comparable to that of PCR but with minimal technical settings. Further developing CRISPR-based diagnostic tools promises to dramatically transform molecular diagnostics, making them easily affordable and accessible virtually anywhere in the world. The burden of socially significant diseases, frequent outbreaks, recent epidemics (MERS, SARS and the ongoing COVID-19) and outbreaks of zoonotic viruses (African Swine Fever Virus etc.) urgently need the developing and distribution of express-diagnostic tools. Recently devised CRISPR-technologies represent the unprecedented opportunity to reshape epidemiological surveillance and molecular diagnostics.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMED.2021.651552
Mengdi Qu1, Hao Zhang1, Zhaoyuan Chen1, Xingfeng Sun1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Ferroptosis is a newly discovered type of regulated cell death that is different from apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Ferroptosis is characterized by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, which induces cell death. Iron, lipid and amino acid metabolism is associated with ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is involved in the pathological development of various diseases, such as neurological diseases and cancer. Recent studies have shown that ferroptosis is also closely related to acute lung injury (ALI)/ acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), suggesting that it can be a novel therapeutic target. This article mainly introduces the metabolic mechanism related to ferroptosis and discusses its role in ALI/ARDS to provide new ideas for the treatment of these diseases.

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Topics: Lung injury (53%)

1 Citations


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41 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2012.03.042
25 May 2012-Cell
Abstract: Nonapoptotic forms of cell death may facilitate the selective elimination of some tumor cells or be activated in specific pathological states. The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death that we term ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon intracellular iron, but not other metals, and is morphologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. We identify the small molecule ferrostatin-1 as a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis in cancer cells and glutamate-induced cell death in organotypic rat brain slices, suggesting similarities between these two processes. Indeed, erastin, like glutamate, inhibits cystine uptake by the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x(c)(-)), creating a void in the antioxidant defenses of the cell and ultimately leading to iron-dependent, oxidative death. Thus, activation of ferroptosis results in the nonapoptotic destruction of certain cancer cells, whereas inhibition of this process may protect organisms from neurodegeneration.

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Topics: Programmed cell death (53%), SLC7A11 (52%), Cancer cell (50%) ... show more

3,349 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00134-012-2682-1
Niall D. Ferguson1, Eddy Fan1, Luigi Camporota2, Massimo Antonelli3  +12 moreInstitutions (11)
Abstract: Our objective was to revise the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using a conceptual model incorporating reliability and validity, and a novel iterative approach with formal evaluation of the definition. The European Society of Intensive Care Medicine identified three chairs with broad expertise in ARDS who selected the participants and created the agenda. After 2 days of consensus discussions a draft definition was developed, which then underwent empiric evaluation followed by consensus revision. The Berlin Definition of ARDS maintains a link to prior definitions with diagnostic criteria of timing, chest imaging, origin of edema, and hypoxemia. Patients may have ARDS if the onset is within 1 week of a known clinical insult or new/worsening respiratory symptoms. For the bilateral opacities on chest radiograph criterion, a reference set of chest radiographs has been developed to enhance inter-observer reliability. The pulmonary artery wedge pressure criterion for hydrostatic edema was removed, and illustrative vignettes were created to guide judgments about the primary cause of respiratory failure. If no risk factor for ARDS is apparent, however, objective evaluation (e.g., echocardiography) is required to help rule out hydrostatic edema. A minimum level of positive end-expiratory pressure and mutually exclusive PaO2/FiO2 thresholds were chosen for the different levels of ARDS severity (mild, moderate, severe) to better categorize patients with different outcomes and potential responses to therapy. This panel addressed some of the limitations of the prior ARDS definition by incorporating current data, physiologic concepts, and clinical trials results to develop the Berlin definition, which should facilitate case recognition and better match treatment options to severity in both research trials and clinical practice.

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Topics: ARDS (53%)

870 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE25986
Evanna L. Mills, Dylan G. Ryan1, Hiran A. Prag2, Dina Dikovskaya3  +35 moreInstitutions (9)
05 Apr 2018-Nature
Abstract: WebTreatment of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages with the cell-permeable itaconate derivative 4-octyl itaconate activates the anti-inflammatory transcription factor Nrf2 by alkylating key cysteine residues on the KEAP1 protein.

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553 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2017.21907
20 Feb 2018-JAMA
Abstract: Importance Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening form of respiratory failure that affects approximately 200 000 patients each year in the United States, resulting in nearly 75 000 deaths annually. Globally, ARDS accounts for 10% of intensive care unit admissions, representing more than 3 million patients with ARDS annually. Objective To review advances in diagnosis and treatment of ARDS over the last 5 years. Evidence Review We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2012 to 2017 focusing on randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical practice guidelines. Articles were identified for full text review with manual review of bibliographies generating additional references. Findings After screening 1662 citations, 31 articles detailing major advances in the diagnosis or treatment of ARDS were selected. The Berlin definition proposed 3 categories of ARDS based on the severity of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg 2 /Fio 2 ≤300 mm Hg), moderate (100 mm Hg 2 /Fio 2 ≤200 mm Hg), and severe (Pao 2 /Fio 2 ≤100 mm Hg), along with explicit criteria related to timing of the syndrome’s onset, origin of edema, and the chest radiograph findings. The Berlin definition has significantly greater predictive validity for mortality than the prior American-European Consensus Conference definition. Clinician interpretation of the origin of edema and chest radiograph criteria may be less reliable in making a diagnosis of ARDS. The cornerstone of management remains mechanical ventilation, with a goal to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Aspirin was not effective in preventing ARDS in patients at high-risk for the syndrome. Adjunctive interventions to further minimize VILI, such as prone positioning in patients with a Pao 2 /Fio 2 ratio less than 150 mm Hg, were associated with a significant mortality benefit whereas others (eg, extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal) remain experimental. Pharmacologic therapies such as β 2 agonists, statins, and keratinocyte growth factor, which targeted pathophysiologic alterations in ARDS, were not beneficial and demonstrated possible harm. Recent guidelines on mechanical ventilation in ARDS provide evidence-based recommendations related to 6 interventions, including low tidal volume and inspiratory pressure ventilation, prone positioning, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, higher vs lower positive end-expiratory pressure, lung recruitment maneuvers, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Conclusions and Relevance The Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome addressed limitations of the American-European Consensus Conference definition, but poor reliability of some criteria may contribute to underrecognition by clinicians. No pharmacologic treatments aimed at the underlying pathology have been shown to be effective, and management remains supportive with lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Guidelines on mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome can assist clinicians in delivering evidence-based interventions that may lead to improved outcomes.

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Topics: ARDS (60%), Mechanical ventilation (56%), Respiratory failure (54%) ... show more

542 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1415518111
Abstract: Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated necroptosis is thought to be the pathophysiologically predominant pathway that leads to regulated necrosis of parenchymal cells in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and loss of either Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) or caspase-8 is known to sensitize tissues to undergo spontaneous necroptosis. Here, we demonstrate that renal tubules do not undergo sensitization to necroptosis upon genetic ablation of either FADD or caspase-8 and that the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) does not protect freshly isolated tubules from hypoxic injury. In contrast, iron-dependent ferroptosis directly causes synchronized necrosis of renal tubules, as demonstrated by intravital microscopy in models of IRI and oxalate crystal-induced acute kidney injury. To suppress ferroptosis in vivo, we generated a novel third-generation ferrostatin (termed 16-86), which we demonstrate to be more stable, to metabolism and plasma, and more potent, compared with the first-in-class compound ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1). Even in conditions with extraordinarily severe IRI, 16-86 exerts strong protection to an extent which has not previously allowed survival in any murine setting. In addition, 16-86 further potentiates the strong protective effect on IRI mediated by combination therapy with necrostatins and compounds that inhibit mitochondrial permeability transition. Renal tubules thus represent a tissue that is not sensitized to necroptosis by loss of FADD or caspase-8. Finally, ferroptosis mediates postischemic and toxic renal necrosis, which may be therapeutically targeted by ferrostatins and by combination therapy.

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Topics: Necroptosis (65%), FADD (58%), Programmed cell death (53%) ... show more

476 Citations