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Parapanteles rooibos , n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae): the first record of the genus from the African continent

TL;DR: This publication describes Parapanteles rooibos n.
Abstract: Currently Parapanteles Ashmead (1900) has been recorded only from the Australian and American continents. However, in this publication we describe Parapanteles rooibos n. sp. from the African continent. We also provide information about its ecology and biology. The species may ultimately prove to be an important natural enemy of Isturgia exerraria (Prout) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae), an herbivore of the commercially produced shrub Aspalatus linearis (Fabaceae), from which rooibos tea is made. A hyperparasitoid, Pediobius sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is recorded. A key to the four currently known Parapanteles species is included to facilitate species identification.

Summary (1 min read)

Introduction

  • The present composition of Parapanteles Ashmead (1900) includes two Neotropical species: Parapanteles aletiae and P. paradoxus .
  • Parapanteles paradoxus was originally recorded from Costa Rica, and P. aletiae was recorded from the southeastern United States (Mason 1981, p. 104).
  • Parapanteles masoni VALERIO ET AL.2 © 2005 Magnolia Press 855 ZOOTAXA (Austin & Dangerfield 1992) was later described and reported as the only known species from the Australian continent.
  • Currently, species in Parapanteles are known to parasitize larvae in Notodontidae, Noctuidae, and Arctiidae (Riley 1869, Mason 1981, Jacobson 1991) but the overall knowledge of host utilization is poor.

Material and Methods

  • The terminology for surface sculpture follows Harris (1979), and wing venation terminology is a variation of the Comstock-Needham system used by Sharkey and Wharton (1997, Fig. 15).
  • All other morphological terminology used in the species description is that of Austin & Dangerfield (1992).
  • Photographs for the holotype were taken using a Philips XL30 ESEM-FEG electron microscope at the Beckman Imaging Technology Group Microscopy Suite (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).
  • Female genitalia were mounted in Euparal (BioQuip Products) after overnight immersion in 10% KOH and exposure to 80% and 99% alcohol.

Description

  • Wings hyaline; forewing with veins translucent except pterostigma, 2RS, 2M, r and C+SC+R (basal 1/4 whitish yellow) brownish-yellow; hindwing veins translucent except basal area of C+SC+R, as well as distal tip of R1, brownish yellow.
  • The parasitoid seems to have a strong preference for L2 larvae of the host.
  • The cocoons were normally observed on the perimeter of the upper parts of the host plant.
  • Average day temperature in the observation field rises from 23°C in October to 35°C in February.

Discussion

  • With the description of P. rooibos, Parapanteles shows a more extensively Gondwanan distribution: America (especially South and Central), Africa and the Australasian region.
  • The faunal composition for the genus still appears to be far from completely known (Mason 1981; Shaw 1995).
  • The authors have seen a number of additional species from Central America that will be included in a revision being prepared by the first author.
  • Species of Parapanteles were previously recorded as only attacking larvae in Noctuidae and Notodontidae (Riley 1869; Mason 1981), but the current recording from larvae in Geometridae demonstrate a wider breadth of host range.
  • Notodontids and noctuids are macrolepidopterans feeding externally on plant tissue and the larvae are typically characterized by dense protective setae.

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Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

855
Accepted by S. Kambhampati: 31 Jan. 2005; published: 11 Feb. 2005
1
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN
1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2005 Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 855: 18 (2005)
www.mapress.com
/zootaxa/
Parapanteles rooibos, n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgas-
trinae): the first record of the genus from the African continent
A. A. VALERIO
1,2
, J. B. WHITFIELD
1
& M. KOLE
3
1
Current Address: Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA.
Emails: avalerio@life.uiuc.edu, jwhitfie@life.uiuc.edu.
2
Central American Institute of Biological Research and Conservation (CIBRC). P.O. Box 2398-2050 San
Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, Costa Rica. avalerio_13@hotmail.com.
3
Current Address: ENTOCARE CV, Biologische Gewasbescherming, Haagsteeg 4, P. O. Box 162,
6700 AD Wageningen, the Netherlands. m.kole@entocare.nl
Abstract
Currently Parapanteles Ashmead (1900) has been recorded only from the Australian and American
continents. However, in this publication we describe Parapanteles rooibos n. sp. from the African
continent. We also provide information about its ecology and biology. The species may ultimately
prove to be an important natural enemy of Isturgia exerraria (Prout) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae:
Ennominae), an herbivore of the commercially produced shrub Aspalatus linearis (Fabaceae), from
which rooibos tea is made. A hyperparasitoid, Pediobius sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is
recorded. A key to the four currently known Parapanteles species is included to facilitate species
identification.
Keywords: Braconidae, Microgastrinae, Parapanteles, taxonomy, Afrotropical region, host
records, biology
Introduction
The present composition of Parapanteles Ashmead (1900) includes two Neotropical spe-
cies: Parapanteles aletiae (Riley) and P. paradoxus (Muesebeck). During the decades fol-
lowing Ashmead’s generic description, these species were typically assigned to the genus
Apanteles until Masons (1981) revision of the subfamily Microgastrinae; he revived Ash-
mead’s generic name.
Parapanteles paradoxus was originally recorded from Costa Rica, and P. aletiae was
recorded from the southeastern United States (Mason 1981, p. 104). Parapanteles masoni

VALERIO ET AL.
2 © 2005
Magnolia Press
855
ZOOTAXA
(Austin & Dangerfield 1992) was later described and reported as the only known species
from the Australian continent.
Currently, species in Parapanteles are known to parasitize larvae in Notodontidae,
Noctuidae, and Arctiidae (Riley 1869, Mason 1981, Jacobson 1991) but the overall knowl-
edge of host utilization is poor. An ongoing study of caterpillars and their parasitoids in
Costa Rica by D. Janzen, W. Halllwachs and associates has produced many more records
and species, but mostly from undescribed species of Parapanteles currently being revised
by the first author.
The objectives of the present paper are to describe the first recorded Parapanteles spe-
cies from Africa (South Africa), to increase the biological knowledge of the genus with a
review of the ecology and biology of this disjunct species, and to make the name available
for ongoing studies of herbivores on rooibos and their parasitoids by the third author and
others.
Material and Methods
The morphological terminology used in the species description is that of Huber & Sharkey
(1993), Schuh (1989) and Mason (1981), except for that of the propodeum which is used
sensu Townes (1969, Fig. E). The terminology for surface sculpture follows Harris (1979),
and wing venation terminology is a variation of the Comstock-Needham system used by
Sharkey and Wharton (1997, Fig. 15). All other morphological terminology used in the
species description is that of Austin & Dangerfield (1992).
Photographs for the holotype were taken using a Philips XL30 ESEM-FEG electron
microscope at the Beckman Imaging Technology Group Microscopy Suite (University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Wing illustrations were traced in Adobe Illustrator 10
after digital photographs were taken using a JVC GC-QX5HD digital still camera mounted
on a Leica MZ12.5 stereomicroscope.
Female genitalia were mounted in Euparal (BioQuip Products) after overnight immer-
sion in 10% KOH and exposure to 80% and 99% alcohol. The mounted female genital
capsule was projected using a microprojector and its image was traced on paper and later
inked to create the final illustration.
Key to the known females of Parapanteles Ashmead
1) African; propodeum with a very inconspicuous posterior areola, the posterolateral areas
and center of areola nitid, anterior portion of propodeum with a fine confused rugulose
sculpturing (Fig. 1F); body mainly black ..P. rooibos Valerio, Whitfield & Kole, n. sp.
- Australian or New World .............................................................................................2
2) Australian; propodeal areola open anteriorly and propodeum devoid of other sculpture

© 2005 Magnolia Press 3
A NEW PARAPANTELES
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ZOOTAXA
except for areolar transversal carina and posterior 1/2 of spiracular carina; ovipositor
sheaths short and mainly concealed by hypopygium; head and alitrunk black .............
......................................................................................P. masoni Austin & Dangerfield
- New World; areola completely formed by carinae and well defined, if not obviously
defined then areolar region slightly sunken and covered by confused rugulose sculp-
turing .............................................................................................................................3
3) Legs yellow except coxae, hind leg trochanters and proximal area of femur as well as
proximal end of tibia brownish yellow, metasoma totally deep brown; palpus, tegula
and pterostigma whitish; wings hyaline with veins whitish ...............P. aletiae (Riley)
- Legs (except proximal 1/2 of hind coxae and tarsal claws brownish yellow) light yel-
low as most of metasoma (except anterior tergites and distal end of metasoma); wings
hyaline with veins brownish-yellow ................................... P. paradoxus (Muesebeck)
Description
Parapanteles rooibos n. sp. Valerio, Whitfield & Kole
(Figs. 1A–H, 2A & B)
Female. Body length = 2.05–2.40 mm.
Body color. Palpus yellowish (except basal segment) as distal 1/2 of fore femur, fore
tibia and tarsomeres, distal tip of mid femur as well as basal 1/5 of mid tibia, hind tibia
basal tip, distal half of mandibles and ovipositor; tarsal claws dark brown; compound eyes
silver; ocelli dark orange; spurs of hind tibia and anterior pleura of metasoma whitish yel-
low; remainder body as black as ovipositor sheaths. Wings hyaline; forewing with veins
translucent except pterostigma, 2RS, 2M, r and C+SC+R (basal 1/4 whitish yellow)
brownish-yellow; hindwing veins translucent except basal area of C+SC+R, as well as dis-
tal tip of R1, brownish yellow.
Head. Head height/width = 1.28–1.30; compound eye height/width = 1.55–1.75; ten-
torial pit distance/distance from tentorial pit to compound eye = 1.83–1.86; clypeus width/
height = 1.88–2; vertex width/distance between anterior ocelli and edge of torulus = 2.54–
2.57; first flagellomere length/width = 2.00–2.24; length of first flagellomere/length sec-
ond flagellomere = 1; length of first flagellomere/length of third flagellomere = 1; distal
flagellomere length/subdistal flagellomere length = 1.33; distal flagellomere length/width
= 1.50–1.60; malar space height/basal width of mandible = 1.25–1.43; ocell-ocular dis-
tance/lateral ocelli distance = 0.90.
Clypeus and face with shallow, fine and dense punctation, upper area of face with
punctures more shallow and broad than other areas; frons and vertex with scrobal areas
nitid, lateral and distal area with fine, shallow and dense punctate sculpture; genae (except
ocular ring) and basal 2/3 of postgena with coarser and more confused punctate sculpture
than vertex; rest of postgena nitid.

VALERIO ET AL.
4 © 2005
Magnolia Press
855
ZOOTAXA
FIGURE 1. Parapanteles rooibos n.sp. wing venation (A), male genitalia (B), metasoma lateral
view (C), mesosoma dorsal view (D), female genitalia (E), propodeum dorsal view (F), metasomal
tergites dorsal view (G) and mesosoma lateral view (H).
Mesosoma. Mesosoma length/width = 1.28. Propleuron with scattered punctate
sculpturing on anterior 1/4, central 1/2 with dense punctate sculpture, posterior 1/4 with
few punctations but mainly nitid; pronotum anterolaterally with sparse well defined scro-

© 2005 Magnolia Press 5
A NEW PARAPANTELES
855
ZOOTAXA
biculate sculpture, lateral upper groove with fine well defined scrobiculate sculpture, ven-
tral lateral groove with more confused scrobiculate sculpture and narrower than upper
groove, distal edge at midheight and dorsal edge with confused punctate sculpturing, area
between grooves nitid; mesonotum (fig. 1D) with dense and well defined punctate sculp-
turing which almost reaches the scutellar groove, scutellar groove crossed by 13 to 16
small and poorly defined costulae of approximately same width except shorter at extreme
lateral edges; scutellum with dense and well defined punctate sculpturing, lateral areas
with well defined costulate sculpture becoming coarser towards posterior edge; anterior
edge of lunules with short and poorly defined ridges some of which do not cross entirety of
trough; mesopleuron (Fig. 1H) with anterior 1/2 and posterior edge punctate and most of
posterior 1/2 nitid, dorsal area with less defined and bigger punctate sculpture mesally,
sternaulus appearing as a nearly smooth longitudinal depression; metanotal axillae mainly
nitid and with a few short and narrow ridges emerging from distal edge; metapleuron with
conspicuous central pit, sculptured peripherally but mostly nitid; propodeum (fig. 1F) with
posterolateral areas and most of areola nitid, areola weakly cristate and visible although
poorly defined by carinae, anterior mediolongitudinal carinal area and transverse carinae
weakly cristate and with confused rugulose sculpturing extending from them to anterior
lateral areas, spiracular carina poorly defined, spiracular area mainly nitid except for some
punctate sculpture.
Legs. Hind femur length/width = 3.07–3.30; hind tibia length/hind femur length =
1.16–1.26.
Fore telotarsus shorter than basitarsus in length, with thick elongate hook-like seta
ventrally on posterior 1/2, with smooth and bare concave area underneath seta; hind telo-
tarsus ventrally with a set of elongate and conspicuous setae; tarsal claws simple with long
and thin seta just basal to tarsal hook.
Wings (Fig. 1A). Forewing length = 2.10–2.25 mm; 1CUa length/2Cub length = 0.81–
0.92; 1M length/ m-cu length = 1.60–1.77; pterostigma length/height = 0.98–1.00. Hind-
wing: 1M length/2M length = 1.64–1.73; 1M length/M+CU length = 1.20–1.30; length r-
m/length Cua = 0.66–0.75; 1RSa length/2r-m = 1.50–1.57.
Metasoma. First tergum length/distal width = 1.20–1.27; second tergum length/distal
width = 0.3–0.36; third tergum length/distal width = 0.34–0.35. Hypopygium length =
0.31–0.40 mm.
First metasomal tergum with very faint confused punctate sculpturing throughout
except anterior 1/2 almost nitid medially (Fig. 1G); second metasomal tergum with little
sculpturing present, mainly as smooth as remaining terga; ovipositor approximately 0.6x
as long as hind tibia length (Figs. 1C, 1 E).
Male. Similar to females in general size, coloration and features. Male genitalia
shown in Fig. 1B.
Material examined. Holotype, female, “South Africa, Cederberg region, October
2003, Col. M. Kole.” Paratypes: six females and one male with same data as holotype.

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References
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DOI
31 Dec 1979

859 citations


"Parapanteles rooibos , n. sp. (Hyme..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...The terminology for surface sculpture follows Harris (1979), and wing venation terminology is a variation of the Comstock-Needham system used by Sharkey and Wharton (1997, Fig....

    [...]

  • ...The terminology for surface sculpture follows Harris (1979), and wing venation terminology is a variation of the Comstock-Needham system used by Sharkey and Wharton (1997, Fig. 15). All other morphological terminology used in the species description is that of Austin & Dangerfield (1992). Photographs for the holotype were taken using a Philips XL30 ESEM-FEG electron microscope at the Beckman Imaging Technology Group Microscopy Suite (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)....

    [...]

  • ...Apanteles until Mason’s (1981) revision of the subfamily Microgastrinae; he revived Ashmead’s generic name....

    [...]

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TL;DR: The subfamily Microgastrinae is redefined; Cardiochilinae and Miracinae are placed as separate subfamilies and Twenty new species are described and about 350 new combinations are given.
Abstract: The subfamily Microgastrinae is redefined; Cardiochilinae and Miracinae are placed as separate subfamilies. The Microgastrinae are divided into five tribes and 51 genera, 23 of which are new. The first two tribes, Apantelini and Microgastrini, have characteristically long ovipositor and are almost all solitary parasites of Microlepidoptera. The other three tribes, Forniciini, Cotesiini and Microplitini, have short ovipositor and are almost all parasites of Macrolepidoptera, usually gregarious. The genera Pseudapanteles, Parapanteles, Glyptapanteles and Protapanteles of Ashmead, Cotesia Cameron, Dolichogenidea and Diolcogaster Viereck are revived from synonymy, and the following new genera are described: Alphomelon, Choeras, Clarkinella, Deuterixys, Distatrix, Exix, Exoryza, Exulonyx, Iconella, Illidops, Nyereria, Papanteles, Paroplitis, Pelicope, Pholetesor, Rasivalva, Rhygoplitis, Sathon, Teremys, Venanides, Venanus, Wilkinsonellus, Xenogaster. Twenty new species are described and about 350 new combinations are given.

234 citations


"Parapanteles rooibos , n. sp. (Hyme..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Species of Parapanteles were previously recorded as only attacking larvae in Noctuidae and Notodontidae (Riley 1869; Mason 1981), but the current recording from larvae in Geometridae demonstrate a wider breadth of host range....

    [...]

  • ...Currently, species in Parapanteles are known to parasitize larvae in Notodontidae, Noctuidae, and Arctiidae (Riley 1869, Mason 1981, Jacobson 1991) but the overall knowledge of host utilization is poor....

    [...]

  • ...The morphological terminology used in the species description is that of Huber & Sharkey (1993), Schuh (1989) and Mason (1981), except for that of the propodeum which is used sensu Townes (1969, Fig....

    [...]

  • ...Parapanteles paradoxus was originally recorded from Costa Rica, and P. aletiae was recorded from the southeastern United States (Mason 1981, p. 104)....

    [...]

  • ...However, the faunal composition for the genus still appears to be far from completely known (Mason 1981; Shaw 1995)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Interestingly, hymenoptera of costa rica that you really wait for now is coming, and it's significant to wait for the representative and beneficial books to read.
Abstract: Interestingly, hymenoptera of costa rica that you really wait for now is coming. It's significant to wait for the representative and beneficial books to read. Every book that is provided in better way and utterance will be expected by many peoples. Even you are a good reader or not, feeling to read this book will always appear when you find it. But, when you feel hard to find it as yours, what to do? Borrow to your friends and don't know when to give back it to her or him.

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Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What are the contributions mentioned in the paper "Parapanteles rooibos, n. sp. (hymenoptera: braconidae: microgas- trinae): the first record of the genus from the african continent" ?

However, in this publication the authors describe Parapanteles rooibos n. sp. from the African continent. The authors also provide information about its ecology and biology.