Parasites component community in wild population of Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823 and Mesonauta acora Castelnau, 1855, cichlids from the Brazilian Amazon
Summary (2 min read)
- In the Amazon basin, several Cichlidae species are of great importance to recreational fisheries, aquaculture and the aquarium trade.
- Mesonauta acora Castelnau, 1855 (acar a-barbela), is a cichlid endemic to Brazil, occurring in the Amazon, Tocantins and Xingu river basins.
- Therefore, knowledge of parasites can aid in comprehending host-parasite relationships with the environment (Rakauskas and Blazevicius, 2009; TavaresDias et al., 2013, 2014; Neves et al., 2015), thus acting as an important tool for biodiversity evaluations.
- The aim of the present study was thus to compare the component community of parasites in P. scalare and M. acora from Igarap e Fortaleza basin, a tributary of the Amazon River system in northern Brazil.
Materials and methods
- Area of study and fish collection procedures.
- The floodplain is periodically covered by floodwaters rich in nutrients due to the rapid decomposition of grasses and animal remains or the humus layers of the forest, thus leading to high growth rates for the vegetation and invertebrate biomass (insects, zooplanktonic crustaceans and mollusks), which are then consumed by the fish (Gama and Halboth, 2004; Neves et al., 2015).
- All fish were caught using hand nets and gillnets with mesh sizes of 10–25 mm, and then transported live to the Health Laboratory of Aquatic Organisms from Embrapa Amap a, Macap a (AP).
- In the Igarap e Fortaleza basin, the mean water temperature, dissolved oxygen level, pH, electric conductivity, turbidity and total dissolved solids were determined using a multi-parameter sensor (model U-52, Horiba).
- The dispersion index (DI) and discrepancy index (D) were calculated using the Quantitative Parasitology 3.0 software, to detect the distribution pattern of parasite infracommunities (R ozsa et al., 2000) among species with prevalence >10%.
- Water quality was similar during collection of the fish (Table 1).
- From M. acora, 73 686 parasites were collected, which also belonged to five taxa: three Ciliophora, one Monogenoidea, two Nematoda, one Digenea and one Acanthocephala.
- In both hosts, the dominant species were the protozoa I. multifiliis , followed by Tripartiella sp. and Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 .
- In addition, the greatest diversity was of helminth species, which include larvae (Table 2).
- For M. acora, no correlation was found between the abundance of parasites and the length and weight of the hosts (Table 5).
- A narrow 3-month time window was used in this first study on parasite diversity in wild P. scalare and M. acora.
- For M. acora, the size of the hosts did not influence the parasite abundance or diversity parameters.
- A similar and low parasitism was observed in P. scalare and M. acora by G. spectabilis, indicating that these fish are paratenic hosts of this acanthocephalan.
- In summary, the main factors responsible for structuring the parasite community in P. scalare and M. acora were principally the behavior of these hosts and the availability of endoparasite infections in the environment, although for P. scalare the size of this host was also an important factor.
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Cites background from "Parasites component community in wi..."
...…ivanovae Gil-Pertierra (2009) Colastiné River, Argentina Gil-Pertierra (2009) Gibsoniela mandube Woodland ( 1935) Amazon River (AM), Brazil Rego (1992) Gibsoniela mandube Woodland (1935) Paraná River (PR), Brazil Takemoto et al. (2009) Ageneiella brevifilis Chambrier and Vaucher (1999)…...
"Parasites component community in wi..." refers background in this paper
...that has a broad geographic distribution in South America, including Peru, Colombia, Guiana and Brazil (Cacho et al., 1999; Korzelecka-Orkisz et al., 2012; Froese and Pauly, 2015)....
...acora is composed of insects, aquatic invertebrates (Froese and Pauly, 2015) and algae, which makes this species of fish omnivorous....
..., 2011), as well as crustaceans (Froese and Pauly, 2015)....
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The aim of the present study was to compare the component parasite communities of the Pterophyllum scalare and Mesonauta acora cichlids in the Amazon River system in northern Brazil. Of the P. scalare specimens examined, 97. 6 % were parasitized by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tripartiella sp., Trichodina nobilis, Gussevia spiralocirra, Posthodiplostomum sp., Capillaria pterophylli, Ichthyouris sp. and Gorytocephalus spectabilis. This was the first study on the parasite diversity in wild P. scalare and M. acora.