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Journal ArticleDOI

Parasites of some penaeid shrimps with emphasis on reared hosts

01 Jan 1973-Aquaculture (Elsevier)-Vol. 2, Iss: 2, pp 105-140
TL;DR: Information is presented about parasites and commensals of penaeid shrimps, allowing those who rear shrimp and those who are interested in associated organisms of shrimp to have a better knowledge of the organisms that are or may be associated with brown, white, and pinkShrimps.
About: This article is published in Aquaculture.The article was published on 1973-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 127 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Shrimp.

Summary (2 min read)

Introduction

  • Since parasites and diseases of shrimps threaten the productivity of rearing facilities, this study will help those concerned with rearing shrimp.
  • Emphasis is placed on the brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus Ives, and the white shrimp, P. setiferus (L.), also called P. fluviatilis Say (for discussions on nomenclature see articles by Gunter, 1962; Holthuis, 1962; Perez Farfante, 1969), from the northern Gulf of Mexico.
  • The pink shrimp, P. duorarum Burkenroad, is also included.
  • Many parasites of commercial penaeids were described or reviewed by Kruse (1959) and Hutton et al. (1959), and their presence in cultural pink shrimp in southern Florida was reported by Villella et al. (1970).

Brown and white shrimps

  • Brown, white, and pink shrimps compose a large fishery in the Gulf of Mexico.
  • The adult pink shrimp are less often found in low salinity habitats than the other two.
  • The white shrimp, in contrast, is caught in muddy, sandy bottoms less than 18 meters deep between September and December.
  • Unexplainable natural fluctuations in numbers of shrimp occur for all three species with a portion probably attributable to disease.
  • Gunter and Edwards (1969) did show a correlation with rainfall and the catch of white shrimp in Texas.

Materials and Methods

  • The majority of shrimp that were examined were from 0.25-acre ponds on Grand Terre Island, Louisiana, where, between 1969 and 1972, the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission conducted several different rearing experiments with white and brown shrimps.
  • In the case of a colonial ciliate on the gill filaments, a convention was adopted: A few scattered colonies were considered a very light infestation and given an intensity value of 1.0.
  • Commission personnel fixed samples of the shrimp that were used to stock ponds at Grand Terre and the brown shrimp harvested 16–17 July 1971 in l0% formalin; all other shrimp were examined fresh.
  • Material from other rearing experiments was also examined.
  • The cages were made from vinyl-coated hardware cloth about 0.9 m in diameter by 1.2 m high and described by Swingle (1971).

Parasites and Diseases

  • Common reported parasites and diseases Microsporideans cause the most conspicuous diseases.
  • During this study, it was observed in white shrimp from Barataria Bay, Louisiana.
  • There are reports of isolated infections by other parasites.

Unreported parasites and diseases

  • Several other organisms that infested shrimp, but had not been previously described or reported, were encountered during this study.
  • The muscular portion, 177–180 μ long, had an internal cuticular lining and was surrounded with a poorly developed nerve ring; the glandular portion, 123–139 μ long, included a portion projecting into the prominent intestine.
  • The same or a similar species was also in shrimp from Ocean Springs, Mississippi, and Dauphin Island, Alabama.
  • I also observed other free-living nematodes alive in shrimp.
  • According to Drouet (personal communication) and Sharp (1969b), the species grows on various plants and animals in both fresh and marine habitats.

Incidence and Intensity

  • Summarized data for parasites observed in shrimp from Grand Terre Island and adjacent water between 1970 and 1972 appear in Tables 1, 3, and 5, with corresponding information on the hosts in Tables 2 and 4.
  • Every shrimp in sampled natural populations of both species was infected with N. penaeus, but usually with about 25 gametocysts and 50 trophozoites.
  • The most obvious was the presence in either one or two shrimps in ponds D-14, D-13, D-11, D-10, and D-1 of the microsporidean Thelohania penaei.
  • The shrimp used to stock the ponds had an infestation of Zoothamnium sp. on the exoskeleton similar to that on the gills.
  • The unusual microsporidean infections were discussed earlier.

Discussion

  • The mean values of infestation with Zoothamnium sp. in the shrimp surviving a short term of stress are less than those of dead shrimp, suggesting the rate of infestation influences survival.
  • The fourth replication, the one that indicated a relationship, differed from the earlier three in that shrimp were maintained in two containers before the experiment was started, and, consequently, there were no initial deaths.
  • In any event, if a relationship exists between mortality and stressed infested shrimp, a relationship also suggested by Johnson et al. (in press), it is probably complex.
  • Messrs. W. Ralph Latapie, Jr., Davidson A. Neal, and Malcolm L. Leatherman of the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission provided specimens, in addition to working space and living facilities.
  • Various people generously donated time to identify or examine specimens.

Effects of Parasites

  • A parasite by definition lives at the expense of the host, but it should be stressed that some organisms associated with shrimp are commensal and do not harm the host.
  • But some parasites do severely harm their hosts.
  • Presumably, parasites of shrimp such as Zoothamnium sp., Thynnascaris sp., Prochristianella penaei, Parachristianella dimegacantha, Opecoeloides fimbriatus, and the different microsporideans could cause substantial mortalities in young shrimp.
  • The mean values for those dead after being stressed in four replications were all greater than those for the other groups, with the surviving shrimp having the lowest mean values.

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Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most important diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp have had viral or bacterial etiologies, but a few important diseases have fungal and protozoan agents as their cause as mentioned in this paper.

447 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant interaction between population and salinity level (two-way ANOVA, P=0.035) indicated that the IHHN-positive population had relatively lower growth at the high salinities level.

253 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study examines the world's major marine and brackish water aquaculture production industries and provides estimates of the potential economic costs attributable to a range of key parasite pathogens using 498 specific events for the purposes of illustration and estimation of costs.
Abstract: Parasites have a major impact on global finfish and shellfish aquaculture, having significant effects on farm production, sustainability and economic viability. Parasite infections and impacts can, according to pathogen and context, be considered to be either unpredictable/sporadic or predictable/regular. Although both types of infection may result in the loss of stock and incur costs associated with the control and management of infection, predictable infections can also lead to costs associated with prophylaxis and related activities. The estimation of the economic cost of a parasite event is frequently complicated by the complex interplay of numerous factors associated with a specific incident, which may range from direct production losses to downstream socio-economic impacts on livelihoods and satellite industries associated with the primary producer. In this study, we examine the world's major marine and brackish water aquaculture production industries and provide estimates of the potential economic costs attributable to a range of key parasite pathogens using 498 specific events for the purposes of illustration and estimation of costs. This study provides a baseline resource for risk assessment and the development of more robust biosecurity practices, which can in turn help mitigate against and/or minimise the potential impacts of parasite-mediated disease in aquaculture.

202 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study of the mechanism of invasion should provide fundamental insights into the biology of these ubiquitous intracellular pathogens that can be integrated into studies aimed at treating or controlling microsporidiosis.
Abstract: Microsporidia are obligate intracellular pathogens related to Fungi. These organisms have a unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which upon appropriate environmental stimulation rapidly discharges out of the spore, pierces a host cell's membrane, and serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into the host cell. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that microsporidia are related to the Fungi, being either a basal branch or sister group. Despite the description of microsporidia over 150 years ago, we still lack an understanding of the mechanism of invasion, including the role of various polar tube proteins, spore wall proteins, and host cell proteins in the formation and function of the invasion synapse. Recent advances in ultrastructural techniques are helping to better define the formation and functioning of the invasion synapse. Over the past 2 decades, proteomic approaches have helped define polar tube proteins and spore wall proteins as well as the importance of posttranslational modifications such as glycosylation in the functioning of these proteins, but the absence of genetic techniques for the manipulation of microsporidia has hampered research on the function of these various proteins. The study of the mechanism of invasion should provide fundamental insights into the biology of these ubiquitous intracellular pathogens that can be integrated into studies aimed at treating or controlling microsporidiosis.

159 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An approximately complete list of the known protozoan associates (exclusive of a few aberrant forms like Amallocystis) of decapods is presented and a few taxonomic changes are suggested.
Abstract: SYNOPSIS. An approximately complete list of the known protozoan associates (exclusive of a few aberrant forms like Amallocystis) of decapods is presented. A few taxonomic changes are suggested. Host, site of infection and geographic location are mentioned. Some comments on pathogenicity are made.

111 citations


"Parasites of some penaeid shrimps w..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Other infections from India and Africa were cited by Sprague and Couch (1971)....

    [...]

  • ...Most common of these is Nematopsis penaeus Sprague, 1954, which, according to Kruse (1966a, 1966b) and Sprague and Couch (1971), who discussed hosts in addition to pink, brown, and white shrimps, may be more than one similar species....

    [...]

  • ...Sindermann and Rosenfield (1967), Sprague (1970), and Sprague and Couch (1971) discuss some of the parasites....

    [...]

  • ...Sprague and Couch (1971) discussed other possible hosts of N. nelsoni, as well as other protozoans found in decapod crustaceans....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three species of Western Atlantic penaeid shrimps-Penaeus setijerus, P. axtecus, and P. duorarum-were allowed a free choice among five types of substrates in partitioned experimental troughs and results indicate attraction to substrate aside from the possible attraction to food.
Abstract: Three species of Western Atlantic penaeid shrimps-Penaeus setijerus, P. axtecus, and P. duorarum-were allowed a free choice among five types of substrates in partitioned experimental troughs. The substrates used were beach sand, shell-sand, muddy sand, sandy mud, and loose peat. Each species was tested separately, and each experiment was replicated once. Results of the experiments showed that distribution of the shrimps on the different substrates was not random. In each experiment departures from the expected distribution were statistically significant. I’. duorarum occurred most often on shell-sand. P. aztecus and P. setijerus were found most frequently on the softer, muddier substrates-loose peat, sandy mud, and muddy sand. Food content in the bottom materials may have been a confounding factor, but the results indicate attraction to substrate aside from the possible attraction to food. Water volume, or pore space, and the compaction of bottom materials, may influence the degree of burrowing. The geographic and bathymetric distribution of Penaeus setif erus (Linn .) , P. aztecus Ives, and P. duorarum Burkenroad in the Western Atlantic is rather well known (Burkenroad 1939, Broad 1950, Springer and Bullis 1954, Hildebrand 1954, 1955, and others). Local patterns of distribution are known in detail for certain well-studied areas, but the influence of environmental factors on these patterns is still not understood. The role of salinity has been discussed as a limiting factor in estuarine nursery areas (Burkcnroad 1939, Gunter 1950, Hildebrand and Gunter 1953, Gunter and Hildebrand 1954, Williams 1955a, b), but the role of such factors as cover, temperature, food, turbidity, and substrate has been treated with less thoroughness. Williams (1955a) discussed the influence of cover on estuarine distribution, and others have considered the subject briefly. Temperature has been treated chiefly in relation to winter kill or low temperature tolerance (Gunter and Hildebrand 1951, Williams 1955a, Lindner and Anderson 1956). Food habits have been considered in general terms which are l I wish to thank Dr. Bernard Pasternack, Dept. of Biostatistics, University of Nort,h Carolina for counsel in planning the statistical approach to this problem, and my colIeagues for counsel and criticism of the manuscript. reviewed in the discussion below. Effects of turbidity have received casual mention by a number of writers, and records concerning relationships between the species and substrates have chiefly dealt with abundance of shrimp and trawlability of bottoms. Among animals so closely associated with the bottom as are littoral penaeids it appears that nature of the substrate may have an important influence on distribution. Many observations attest to this, for it is common knowledge among shrimp fishermen and others that these species are often found on certain types of bottom. However, at other times these mobile animals may search widely for food or cover and be in a measure independent of bottom type, especially during the migration from estuaries to the sea. Factual knowledge of these relationships is not well established. It is not known whether distribution may largely be governed by the nature of the substrate independent of the food supply, or whether favored habitats are those which harbor food regardless of substrate composition. The possibility of species attraction to bottom type has not been

88 citations


"Parasites of some penaeid shrimps w..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Young white shrimp apparently prefer softer substrata than the other species (Williams, 1958)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: One type of Beneckea was present in all cases of shell disease encountered, making this organism suspect of being the causative agent.
Abstract: The occurrence of shell disease in three species of penaeid shrimp is reported. Chitinoclastic bacteria isolated from lesions on these shrimp and from lesions on the blue crab were classified as members of the genera Beneckea, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas. One type of Beneckea was present in all cases of shell disease encountered, making this organism suspect of being the causative agent.

78 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two very dissimilar specimens were collected from this host; the pars prostatica in the smaller specimen was proportionately longer than that of the larger specimen; this difference was found also to be true with the testes.
Abstract: HosT: Epinephelus merra Bloch (new host record). LOCATION: Stomach. LOCALITY: Nha Trang Bay, South Viet Nam (new locality record). DiscussioN: Two very dissimilar specimens were collected from this host. One specimen was 1.30 long and contained very few eggs; the other was 2.6 long and gravid. In both specimens the ecsomas were completely invaginated. The larger specimen agrees with the material collected by Manter (1954) from fish from New Zealand, and with the single specimen collected by Yamaguti (1953) from Macassar, Celebes. In the smaller specimen the genital pore opens ventral to the anterior portion of the pharynx, whereas in the larger specimen it is ventral to the esophagus. The pars prostatica in the smaller specimen was proportionately longer than that of the larger specimen; this difference was found also to be true with the testes.

67 citations


"Parasites of some penaeid shrimps w..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Hutton (1964) reported a ciliate identified as Epistylis sp. from pink shrimp in various localities in Florida, but that identification should be confirmed....

    [...]

Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What have the authors contributed in "Parasites of some penaeid shrimps with emphasis on reared hosts" ?

Information is presented about parasites and commensals of penaeid shrimps, allowing those who rear shrimps and those who are interested in associated organisms of shrimp to have a better knowledge of the organisms that are or may be associated with brown, white, and pink shrimps. It covers common and rare organisms and diseases, primarily in the northern Gulf of Mexico, listing several previously unreported species including an undescribed gregarine, a larval nematode ( Spirocarnallanus pereirai ), a commensal nematode ( Leptolaimus sp. ), a leech ( Myzobdella lugubris ), a bluegreen alga ( Schizothrix calcicola ), a hydroid ( Obelia bicuspidata ), and others. A possible relationship between the peritrich ciliate, Zoothamnium sp., and predilection to mortality following stress is discussed.