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Journal ArticleDOI

Participatory Approach in Decision Making Processes for Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean Basin

TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative analysis of different policy options for water resources management in three south-eastern Mediterranean countries is presented, where three local case studies, the valuation objectives and the applied methodology are developed as a general replicable framework suitable for implementation in other decision-making processes.
Abstract: This paper deals with the comparative analysis of different policy options for water resources management in three south-eastern Mediterranean countries. The applied methodology follows a participatory approach throughout its implementation and is supported by the use of three different software packages dealing with water allocation budget, water quality simulation, and Multi Criteria Analysis, respectively. The paper briefly describes the general objectives of the SMART project and then presents the three local case studies, the valuation objectives and the applied methodology - developed as a general replicable framework suitable for implementation in other decision-making processes. All the steps needed for a correct implementation are therefore described. Following the conceptualisation of the problem, the choice of the appropriate indicators as well as the calculation of their weighting and value functions are detailed. The paper concludes with the results of the Multi Criteria and the related Sensitivity Analyses performed, showing how the different policy responses under consideration can be assessed and furthermore compared through case studies thanks to their relative performances. The adopted methodology was found to be an effective operational approach for bridging scientific modelling and policy making by integrating the model outputs in a conceptual framework that can be understood and utilised by non experts, thus showing concrete potential for participatory decision making.

Summary (6 min read)

1.1 Objectives of the SMART project

  • This project focused during its three year duration on the comparative assessment of different policy options for water management in five case studies, one for each of the following Mediterranean countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Turkey.
  • The coastal zones of the Mediterranean are undergoing rapid development with growing and conflicting demands on the natural resources, and at the same time they are subject to an often irreversible degradation of these resources.
  • Water resources and the related land use issues are a key element for the sustainable development of coastal regions.
  • The approach is based on a multi-sectoral integration of quantitative and qualitative analysis, combining advanced tools of quantitative systems engineering using numerical simulation models, with methods of environmental, socio-economic and policy impact assessment using rule-based expert systems technology and interactive decision support methods.
  • A common methodology for policy design, evaluation, and decision making has been developed and tested in a set of parallel case studies, in each of the participating Mediterranean countries.

1.2 SMART case studies

  • As easily understandable from the title, the project concerns particular coastal zones of the eastern Mediterranean area and more particularly 5 Case Studies (CS) in as many Mediterranean countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Turkey.
  • Unfortunately, suitable data for a comprehensive Comparative Analysis were finally available in only 3 out of the 5 CS; these coastal areas and their main characteristics are described qualitatively hereafter.

1.2.1 Lebanese Case Study

  • The Lebanese CS named “Abou Ali river basin” addresses an area stretching along the northern Lebanese coast covering Tripoli City to the north, the second largest in Lebanon, southward to the town of Batroun.
  • The interested coastline length is about 4 30km while its width varies between 8-12 km inland.
  • The area typifies the Lebanese coast: it consists of a narrow plain followed inland by a series of foothills, plateau, then rising through steep slopes to the coastal mountain chain.
  • It is crossed by a river (Abou Ali) passing through Tripoli and another minor one (like El-Jawz) near Batroun, with intermittent streams, dendrite drainage and dry wadis.
  • The climate is hot sub- humid at the coast becoming milder inland.

1.2.2 Jordan Case Study

  • The only coastal area in Jordan is the Gulf of Aqba, name of the CS, populated by 150,000 people, where the shoreline amounts to about 45 km.
  • In 2000, the Aqba area was declared a duty free zone in order to attract new investors in trade and industry.
  • On the water quality side, seepage from irrigated areas resulting from excess irrigation near the coast of Aqba is already present while the planned industrial activities will soon certainly affect the water discharging in the Gulf of Aqba.
  • The total area is comparatively small, leading to a high concentration of potentially conflicting economic activities (ie. tourism vs industry) along the coast and thus competition for space in addition to the competition for water.

1.2.3 Turkish Case Study

  • The Turkish case study focuses on two major and closely related areas in western Anatolia, along the Aegean Sea: the first one is the Gediz River Basin while the second one is the neighbouring city of Izmir.
  • In the basin, water scarcity is a significant problem, evidenced as water shortages due basically to competition for water among various uses.
  • The main use is irrigation with a total command area of 110,000 hectares followed by domestic and fast growing industrial demand in the coastal zone.
  • This problem reflects not only a regional character but also national significance, as Izmir is the third largest city in the country and an important harbour along the Aegean.
  • Moreover, the seaward fringe of the Gediz Delta is an important nature reserve and has recently been designated as a Ramsar site to protect rare bird species.

1.3.1 Physical conditions

  • Even though the case studies analysed have different settings they are all concerned with similar issues.
  • The Turkish CS reports that this problem became relevant since the recent ‘90s droughts, mainly because of competition among different users, while the Jordan CS enhances how this is a structural problem due to the particular location of the gulf of Aqba which already relies on water transported from a distance of over 100 km.
  • On the contrary, the occurrence of floods appears to be moderately relevant for two of the case studies, Lebanon and Turkey, while Jordan does not give importance to this issue.
  • Concerning the coastal interactions, these are always significant: river Abou-Ali in the Lebanese CS seems to bring more and more sediments, solid and liquid pollution in the years, leading to the building of sandy beaches mixed with debris.

1.3.2 Water demand

  • Concerning the water demand, the agricultural sector is by far the major water demander in two of the case studies while in Jordan one the main users is the industrial sector.
  • For the first sector, the Lebanon and Turkey CS signal the same scarce attention paid to the drainage systems and to the quality of the return flows leading to surface water contamination and groundwater salinisation.
  • The tourism sector is reported to be relevant for the gulf of Aqba and partially for North Lebanon (also depending on the political stability of the region).
  • Going more into detail, the domestic sector critically threatens the groundwater principally because of the fast growing population which mainly relies on this resource across all the analysed case studies.
  • The seaward fringe of the Gediz Delta is in fact an important nature reserve and has recently been designated as a Ramsar site to protect rare bird species while the gulf of Aqba is particularly rich in coral reef and needs clean water without sediments.

1.3.3 Water supply

  • Concerning water supply, the sources are rather different across the case studies.
  • In Tripoli’s region, the mismanagement of surface water in the area leads to the already mentioned diffusion of private wells affecting the local groundwater reserves and forcing authorities to import the water from other areas, which implies higher costs on the citizen.
  • In the Turkish CS, the source greatly varies according to use: for the domestic and industrial sectors almost all the needs are abstracted from groundwater while the intensive irrigation activities in the basin are mainly supported by three reservoirs and water pumped by cooperatives.
  • Finally, for what concerns the infrastructures, beside the consistent losses due to old networks and bad maintenance noticed in all the CS, all of these areas are concerned with reservoirs and all of them with heavy infrastructures.

1.4 Objectives of the valuation

  • In all of the case studies analysed, water demand, supply and quality are, as shown, critical issues to which the policy world has to answer with suitable instruments.
  • The methodology presented hereafter has tested a participatory approach taking advantage of the quantitative information available thanks to the indicators provided by simulation models and processed within a multi-criteria analysis Decision Support System.
  • The models were subsequently run to simulate alternative scenarios affected by policy responses that may be implemented to remediate or mitigate the critical issues and inserted again as input in the models to evaluate how well these solutions fit the problem, and with respect to one another.

2.1 The conceptual framework

  • The DPSIR conceptual framework (extension of the PSR model developed by OECD) proposed by the European Environmental Agency European Commission (EEA, 1999) to aid the understanding of the cause-effect relationships between the different interacting components of social, economic and environmental issues faced in natural resource management, are nowadays a reference in the sector of environmental studies.
  • The DPSIR consists of nodes representing different elements of the system: the Driving forces represent natural and social processes which lead to environmental problems, e.g. energy, agriculture, industry and waste management.
  • The Impact indicators refer to the consequence of an environment state change.
  • The result of an impact, such as air pollution, is followed by many effects (global warming, loss of biodiversity) at various temporal and spatial scales (extinction of same animal species).
  • The policy Responses can finally be considered as driving factors which may or can change D and P (differently according to the scenarios) as input indicators to the models, thus modifying subsequently S and I indicators.

2.2 The elaboration procedure

  • As previously mentioned, for the elaboration of the trends and quantitative estimations, the SMART project took advantage of three software packages developed or distributed by partners of the project: LUC, WaterWare and Telemac.
  • LUC calculates dynamic development (annual time step) of land use over decades, and estimates regional water use as a function of land use.
  • Moreover, a simulation system includes: a rainfall-runoff model, an irrigation water 1 http://www.ess.co.at/WATERWARE.
  • The TELEMAC numerical modelling system is based on a finite element technique, utilising an unstructured triangular mesh with size to be adjusted to represent in detail any important bathymetry or shoreline features such as channels, tidal flats, etc. mDSS is a computerised decision support system that addresses complex decision problems dealt within water resource management.

2.3.1 Indicators and conceptual framework

  • During the SMART project indications for a set of relevant indicators were collected from partners through a guided exercise aimed at analysing the cause-effect relationships that ultimately lead to a certain condition related to the water system, which was perceived to be either acceptable or problematic for each case study.
  • The exercise was also used to provide estimates for the variables that were perceived to be important for characterising the scenarios.
  • In particular, variables defining scenarios represent both Driving forces (i.e. climatic and population) and Pressures (i.e. water demand and pollution), while sustainability indicators to be used for the comparative analysis are State and Impact indicators.
  • This can obviously be very different for each of the case studies, and a standardised framework is therefore needed to perform a comparative analysis also across countries.

2.3.2 Scenario simulation and comparative analysis

  • In order to perform a meaningful and informative comparative analysis and answer the above questions, case studies will be compared on the basis of the results of models running with comparable assumptions, i.e. the same scenarios (Baseline, BAU, OPTIMISTIC and PESSIMISTIC) and the same type of responses (WDM, WSM and WQM).
  • The main operative steps to perform the comparative analysis are represented in the graph below.
  • In practice not all the theoretical combinations were suitable to provide variations in model setting and outputs.
  • 12 According to the DPSIR framework, SMART scenarios (BAU, optimistic and pessimistic) were defined in terms of D and P indicators.
  • In particular, scenarios include only Driving Forces, i.e. “external” variables - like precipitation patterns, population growth and general economic trends - that are not linked to the implementation of policies explicitly targeting water issues.

2.3.3 Participative multi-criteria analysis

  • The individual performances of the policy options under consideration were aggregated using the multi-criteria approaches (MCA) implemented in mDss: a simple but robust structure, covering a range of decision-makers’ attitudes and decision-making styles.
  • In order to elicit the weights, various methodologies are available but to raise the acceptability of the proposed solutions, a panel of experts may be involved, as was done in this case.
  • The rank order of a criterion expresses the importance a single participant wants to ascribe to that criterion: the first criterion in the ranking is the least important and the last criterion in the ranking is the most important.
  • In order to allow participants to express strong preference between criteria, another set of cards (white cards) is introduced.
  • Before performing the MCA with the weighted criteria, it is necessary to attribute them a value function in order to overcome the incoherence related to the unit and magnitude of the criteria.

3.2.1 Separate and Collective elicitation

  • During the workshop, the participants were asked to perform the criteria ranking using the Simos methodology twice: first for the groups of macro-criteria (environmental, economic and social criteria groups) separately, and in succession, for all criteria together.
  • The difference between the weights elicited in such a way would give a clue about a cognitive shortcoming, called splitting bias frequently reported in the literature.
  • The existence of the splitting bias means in their case that different weights can be yielded, depending on the way criteria are organised.
  • As expected, the criteria weights differed considerably.
  • When all criteria were considered together, the weights of the economic criteria were generally overestimated and the weights of environmental and social criteria underestimated (Table 3).

3.2.2 Inconsistencies

  • As mentioned, a considerable inconsistency was observed between the two exercises of the weight elicitation.
  • The inconsistencies can be generally classified into three classes: i. strong inconsistency – the preference between two criteria a and b was opposite.
  • There have been two cases (14%) of strong inconsistency.
  • The most constant judgement of the importance of a criterion, in the case of nonhierarchical criteria arrangement, yielded the only social criterion – the “No. of days with restricted domestic supply”, followed by “economic efficiency” and “D/S agriculture”.
  • The environmental criteria (especially “global quality”) showed the most 15 varying preference judgements across the experts.

3.2.3 Correlation

  • Both Spearman's rank correlation and Kendall's tau coefficient have been applied to analyse the relations between the criteria.
  • This could not be generalised for all the criteria in these sub-groups, indicating a rather complex preference system hardly reducible to stereotypes such as antagonism between economically and environmentally oriented people.
  • The only significant correlation of this type was between criteria “D/S tourism” and “D/S environment”.
  • A negative correlation was also found within economic sub-groups, namely between the criteria “D/S industry” and “Economic efficiency”.
  • Given the small sample size only 18 pairs of experts (out of n(n-1)/2 = 91) show a statistically significant correlation.

3.3 Aggregated performance

  • The multi-criteria decision functionality implemented in mDss allows the system to model users’ preferences and to aggregate the performances of considered options with regard to the decision criteria.
  • The situation in each case study is unique, nevertheless the same preferences – internalised in the value functions applied to transform the expected outcomes of the policy options and the criteria weights – were the same in all case studies.
  • This explains the high correlation between both case studies.
  • In the Jordan case, the most preferred option is ABAU which ranks very low in other case studies.

4. Conclusions

  • The methodology originally developed for the Comparative Analysis was shown to be fully operational, providing a comprehensive assessment of the different policy options available for each case study.
  • This approach allows to share the whole assessment process of the different policy options also with non-experts of DSS tools (e.g. policy makers).
  • Starting from the conceptualisation in the DPSIR framework, passing through the choice of the criteria, the elicitation of their relative weighting and value functions, the Mulino-DSS tool allows to process all the relevant information and finally to perform an MCA in a transparent and intuitive way.
  • Having pointed this out, the final result is a ranking of the preferred policy options for each of the case studies; this comparison moreover allowed a further analysis across CS, highlighting how similar policy responses were preferable in different CS.
  • Several of the methods implemented allow the decision-maker to focus on various aspects of the decision problem and are useful to guide the decision process.

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Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
Corso Magenta, 63, 20123 Milano (I), web site: www.feem.it, e-mail: working.papers@feem.it
Participatory Approach in
Decision Making Processes
for Water Resources
Management in the
Mediterranean Basin
Carlo Giupponi, Jaroslav Mysiak and Jacopo Crimi
NOTA DI LAVORO 101.2006
AUGUST 2006
NRM – Natural Resources Management
Carlo Giupponi, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and
Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Università degli Studi di Milano
Jaroslav Mysiak and Jacopo Crimi, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei

Participatory Approach in Decision Making Processes for Water
Resources Management in the Mediterranean Basin
Summary
This paper deals with the comparative analysis of different policy options for water
resources management in three south-eastern Mediterranean countries. The applied
methodology follows a participatory approach throughout its implementation and is
supported by the use of three different software packages dealing with water allocation
budget, water quality simulation, and Multi Criteria Analysis, respectively. The paper
briefly describes the general objectives of the SMART project and then presents the
three local case studies, the valuation objectives and the applied methodology -
developed as a general replicable framework suitable for implementation in other
decision-making processes. All the steps needed for a correct implementation are
therefore described. Following the conceptualisation of the problem, the choice of the
appropriate indicators as well as the calculation of their weighting and value functions
are detailed. The paper concludes with the results of the Multi Criteria and the related
Sensitivity Analyses performed, showing how the different policy responses under
consideration can be assessed and furthermore compared through case studies thanks to
their relative performances. The adopted methodology was found to be an effective
operational approach for bridging scientific modelling and policy making by integrating
the model outputs in a conceptual framework that can be understood and utilised by non
experts, thus showing concrete potential for participatory decision making.
Keywords: Scientific Advice, Policy-Making, Participatory Modelling, Decision
Support
JEL classification Q01, Q25, Q28, Q5
This paper is based on the work carried out by FEEM for the EU funded project
SMART concluded in August 2005 (Sustainable Management of Scarce Resources in the
Coastal Zone – Contract No. ICA3-CT-2002-10006) in collaboration with the EU
funded Coordination Action Nostrum-Dss (Network on Governance, Science and
Technology for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Mediterranean-The
role of Dss tools – Contract No. INCO-CT-2004-509158).
Address for correspondence:
Carlo Giupponi
Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale
Università degli Studi di Milano
Via Celoria, 2
20133 Milano
Italia
Phone: +39 0250316596
Fax: +39 0250316575
Email: carlo.giupponi@unimi.it

2
Table of Contents
1.
Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
1.1 Objectives of the SMART project---------------------------------------------------------------- 3
1.2 SMART case studies------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
1.3 Local issues ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
1.4 Objectives of the valuation------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6
2. Methodology ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
2.1 The conceptual framework------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7
2.2 The elaboration procedure------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
2.3 Comparative Analysis of policy responses ----------------------------------------------------- 9
3. Application of the methodology-----------------------------------------------------------------13
3.1 Value functions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13
3.2 Simos procedure-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------13
3.3 Aggregated performance -------------------------------------------------------------------------15
4. Conclusions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17
References------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18

3
1. Introduction
1.1 Objectives of the SMART project
This project focused during its three year duration on the comparative assessment of
different policy options for water management in five case studies, one for each of the
following Mediterranean countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Turkey.
The coastal zones of the Mediterranean are undergoing rapid development with growing
and conflicting demands on the natural resources, and at the same time they are subject
to an often irreversible degradation of these resources. Water resources and the related
land use issues are a key element for the sustainable development of coastal regions.
They illustrate the dependency of the usually dynamic and fast growing coastal areas on
their resource catchment. This project had to explore methods and tools for long-term
policy analysis and strategic decision support for integrated coastal development with
special emphasis on water resources and land use, and the resource balance between the
coastal region and the inland areas.
The approach is based on a multi-sectoral integration of quantitative and qualitative
analysis, combining advanced tools of quantitative systems engineering using numerical
simulation models, with methods of environmental, socio-economic and policy impact
assessment using rule-based expert systems technology and interactive decision support
methods. Water resources modelling including both quantitative and qualitative aspects
provided the framework for policy scenarios, exploring different development
strategies, the consequences and implications of demographic, socio-economic, and
technological development, and the interaction of these driving forces towards long-
term sustainability of the coastal regions and their hinterland.
A common methodology for policy design, evaluation, and decision making has been
developed and tested in a set of parallel case studies, in each of the participating
Mediterranean countries. Lessons from the comparative analysis of these case studies
will help to ensure a generic and generally applicable methodology, and at the same
time help to foster inter-regional contacts and the exchange of experience.
1.2 SMART case studies
As easily understandable from the title, the project concerns particular coastal zones of
the eastern Mediterranean area and more particularly 5 Case Studies (CS) in as many
Mediterranean countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Turkey. Unfortunately,
suitable data for a comprehensive Comparative Analysis were finally available in only 3
out of the 5 CS; these coastal areas and their main characteristics are described
qualitatively hereafter.
1.2.1 Lebanese Case Study
The Lebanese CS named “Abou Ali river basin” addresses an area stretching along the
northern Lebanese coast covering Tripoli City to the north, the second largest in
Lebanon, southward to the town of Batroun. The interested coastline length is about

4
30km while its width varies between 8-12 km inland. The area typifies the Lebanese
coast: it consists of a narrow plain followed inland by a series of foothills, plateau, then
rising through steep slopes to the coastal mountain chain. It is crossed by a river (Abou
Ali) passing through Tripoli and another minor one (like El-Jawz) near Batroun, with
intermittent streams, dendrite drainage and dry wadis. The climate is hot sub- humid at
the coast becoming milder inland.
1.2.2 Jordan Case Study
The only coastal area in Jordan is the Gulf of Aqba, name of the CS, populated by
150,000 people, where the shoreline amounts to about 45 km. The region is semi-arid to
arid and only about 10% of the total area (90,000 km3) receives above 350 mm of
rainfall per year. In 2000, the Aqba area was declared a duty free zone in order to attract
new investors in trade and industry. This development will increase demand for water
for the growing population and future industrial activities. Water supply to the Aqba
region is derived from the Red Sea Basin (5.0 MCM groundwater) and the adjacent
Dissi aquifer system (20 MCM) plus a great part of treated wastewater.
On the water quality side, seepage from irrigated areas resulting from excess irrigation
near the coast of Aqba is already present while the planned industrial activities will
soon certainly affect the water discharging in the Gulf of Aqba.
The total area is comparatively small, leading to a high concentration of potentially
conflicting economic activities (ie. tourism vs industry) along the coast and thus
competition for space in addition to the competition for water.
1.2.3 Turkish Case Study
The Turkish case study focuses on two major and closely related areas in western
Anatolia, along the Aegean Sea: the first one is the Gediz River Basin while the second
one is the neighbouring city of Izmir. In the basin, water scarcity is a significant
problem, evidenced as water shortages due basically to competition for water among
various uses. The main use is irrigation with a total command area of 110,000 hectares
followed by domestic and fast growing industrial demand in the coastal zone. The
second issue investigated is the sustainable management of water resources in the Izmir
urban and rural areas where coastal interactions are significant. This problem reflects
not only a regional character but also national significance, as Izmir is the third largest
city in the country and an important harbour along the Aegean. There are also strong
interactions between the basin and the Izmir rural area, as the Izmir metropolitan area
consumes a significant portion of the groundwater resources of the Gediz catchment
without feeding it back to the basin. There are also two important industrial areas in the
zone: the largest is in the Nif Valley immediately east of Izmir in the Kemalpasa
municipality while in the western edge of the city of Manisa an important industrial
estate is also growing.
Moreover, the seaward fringe of the Gediz Delta is an important nature reserve and has
recently been designated as a Ramsar site to protect rare bird species. Originally, the
area received excess water from the Gediz River for much of the year, but since the ‘90s
droughts, with restrictions on irrigation releases, the reserve suffers from water
shortages. This setting, coupled with difficulties to establish an appropriate and well

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Cites background from "Participatory Approach in Decision ..."

  • ...Pressure on the mound is reaching critical levels and extraction is exceeding recharge rates with a consequent decrease in the groundwater levels and in many locations the watertable is very close to the surface (due to the combined effects of low rainfall, reduced recharge, pine maturation, land use changes and increasing abstract). As a result, many of the area’s significant environmental features are dependent on accessing the watertable for their survival. Water levels are being impacted by climate change (Xu [2008]), and this is expected to become more severe (e....

    [...]

  • ...Furthermore, dynamic simulation is much more transparent compared to optimisation techniques, which allows the user to understand the interaction and relationships among the different variables, especially the variables related to people. Apart from the difficulty of merging data and pieces of information of a diverse nature (often qualitative and incomplete) two other reasons prevail. The first is the need to comply with vast numbers of rules and regulations that are related to water resources planning and management but often are not provided in an integrated, harmonised and rational framework. The second reason is the increasing claim for community participation in decision-making processes. In summary, our view is that the most fruitful approach is to use computer-based tools (DSS) to predict and assess the effects of any actions by performing an integrated analysis of environmental and socio-economic aspects. This forecasting exercise may rely on a broad set of tools ranging from expert systems, expert-based value functions and empirical equations to complex mathematical models. All or most of these tools can be integrated into one computer-based tool to facilitate and support the multi-agency framework and trade-offs analysis. In addition, the DSS assists the process of communicating the results with stakeholders, government and the community (Zaman et al [2009], and Elmahdi and McFarlane [2009])....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used two German panel data bases, the establishment panel of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) and the Mannheim Innovation Panel (MIP) of the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), to explore the determinants of environmental innovations.
Abstract: In most cases, empirical analyses of environmental innovations based on firm-level data relied on survey data for one point in time. These surveys, especially designed for the analysis of environmental innovations, are useful because they allow for the inclusion of many explanatory variables such as different policy instruments or the influence of stake-holders and pressure groups. On the other hand, it is not possible to address the dynamic character of the environmental innovation process. This paper uses two German panel data bases, the establishment panel of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) and the Mannheim Innovation Panel (MIP) of the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), to explore the determinants of environmental innovations. These data bases were not specifically collected to analyze environmental issues, but they contain questions that allow the identification of environmental innovations. We use discrete choice models for each of the data bases to analyze hypotheses derived from the theoretical (environmental) innovation literature. The econometric estimations show that the improvement of the technological capabilities ("knowledge capital") by R&D or further education measures triggers environmental innovations - this result is confirmed by both data bases and both methods to measure environmental innovation. The hypothesis that "Innovation breeds innovation" is confirmed by the analysis of the MIP data. General and environmental innovative firms in the past are more likely to innovate in the present. Environmental regulation, environmental management tools and general organizational changes and improvements trigger environmental innovation, a result that has also been postulated by the famous Porter-hypothesis. Environmental management tools especially help to detect cost-savings (specifically material and energy savings). Following our econometric results, cost-savings are an important driving force of environmental innovation.

1,184 citations

01 Jan 2000

842 citations


"Participatory Approach in Decision ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...…Use Change model based on several components: a set of well-defined land use classes - according to CORINE Land Cover classification (CEC, 1994; Bossard et al, 2000) - and transitional classes for long-term projections; a matrix of a priori transition probabilities; a set of rules, one set for…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this paper is to explain why the above method needs to be revised, and to propose a new version that takes into account a new kind of information from the DM and changes certain computing rules of the former method.

567 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, audiences and students were asked to respond to virtual decision and game situations at gametheory.tau.ac.il. Several thousand observations were collected and the response time for each answer was recorded.
Abstract: Lecture audiences and students were asked to respond to virtual decision and game situations at gametheory.tau.ac.il. Several thousand observations were collected and the response time for each answer was recorded. There were significant differences in response time across responses. It is suggested that choices made instinctively, that is, on the basis of an emotional response, require less response time than choices that require the use of cognitive reasoning.

449 citations