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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Particle swarm optimization

06 Aug 2002-Vol. 4, pp 1942-1948
TL;DR: A concept for the optimization of nonlinear functions using particle swarm methodology is introduced, and the evolution of several paradigms is outlined, and an implementation of one of the paradigm is discussed.
Abstract: A concept for the optimization of nonlinear functions using particle swarm methodology is introduced. The evolution of several paradigms is outlined, and an implementation of one of the paradigms is discussed. Benchmark testing of the paradigm is described, and applications, including nonlinear function optimization and neural network training, are proposed. The relationships between particle swarm optimization and both artificial life and genetic algorithms are described.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: AutoDock Vina achieves an approximately two orders of magnitude speed‐up compared with the molecular docking software previously developed in the lab, while also significantly improving the accuracy of the binding mode predictions, judging by tests on the training set used in AutoDock 4 development.
Abstract: AutoDock Vina, a new program for molecular docking and virtual screening, is presented. AutoDock Vina achieves an approximately two orders of magnitude speed-up compared with the molecular docking software previously developed in our lab (AutoDock 4), while also significantly improving the accuracy of the binding mode predictions, judging by our tests on the training set used in AutoDock 4 development. Further speed-up is achieved from parallelism, by using multithreading on multicore machines. AutoDock Vina automatically calculates the grid maps and clusters the results in a way transparent to the user.

20,059 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the classical engineering design problems and real application prove that the proposed GWO algorithm is applicable to challenging problems with unknown search spaces.

10,082 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper analyzes a particle's trajectory as it moves in discrete time, then progresses to the view of it in continuous time, leading to a generalized model of the algorithm, containing a set of coefficients to control the system's convergence tendencies.
Abstract: The particle swarm is an algorithm for finding optimal regions of complex search spaces through the interaction of individuals in a population of particles. This paper analyzes a particle's trajectory as it moves in discrete time (the algebraic view), then progresses to the view of it in continuous time (the analytical view). A five-dimensional depiction is developed, which describes the system completely. These analyses lead to a generalized model of the algorithm, containing a set of coefficients to control the system's convergence tendencies. Some results of the particle swarm optimizer, implementing modifications derived from the analysis, suggest methods for altering the original algorithm in ways that eliminate problems and increase the ability of the particle swarm to find optima of some well-studied test functions.

8,287 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Optimization results prove that the WOA algorithm is very competitive compared to the state-of-art meta-heuristic algorithms as well as conventional methods.

7,090 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behaviour of honey bee swarm that is used for optimizing multivariable functions and the results showed that ABC outperforms the other algorithms.
Abstract: Swarm intelligence is a research branch that models the population of interacting agents or swarms that are able to self-organize. An ant colony, a flock of birds or an immune system is a typical example of a swarm system. Bees' swarming around their hive is another example of swarm intelligence. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behaviour of honey bee swarm. In this work, ABC algorithm is used for optimizing multivariable functions and the results produced by ABC, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Algorithm (PSO) and Particle Swarm Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (PS-EA) have been compared. The results showed that ABC outperforms the other algorithms.

6,377 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: Names of founding work in the area of Adaptation and modiication, which aims to mimic biological optimization, and some (Non-GA) branches of AI.
Abstract: Name of founding work in the area. Adaptation is key to survival and evolution. Evolution implicitly optimizes organisims. AI wants to mimic biological optimization { Survival of the ttest { Exploration and exploitation { Niche nding { Robust across changing environments (Mammals v. Dinos) { Self-regulation,-repair and-reproduction 2 Artiicial Inteligence Some deenitions { "Making computers do what they do in the movies" { "Making computers do what humans (currently) do best" { "Giving computers common sense; letting them make simple deci-sions" (do as I want, not what I say) { "Anything too new to be pidgeonholed" Adaptation and modiication is root of intelligence Some (Non-GA) branches of AI: { Expert Systems (Rule based deduction)

32,573 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
04 Oct 1995
TL;DR: The optimization of nonlinear functions using particle swarm methodology is described and implementations of two paradigms are discussed and compared, including a recently developed locally oriented paradigm.
Abstract: The optimization of nonlinear functions using particle swarm methodology is described. Implementations of two paradigms are discussed and compared, including a recently developed locally oriented paradigm. Benchmark testing of both paradigms is described, and applications, including neural network training and robot task learning, are proposed. Relationships between particle swarm optimization and both artificial life and evolutionary computation are reviewed.

14,477 citations


"Particle swarm optimization" refers background in this paper

  • ...For more in-depth information on the variants please see references [1, 6, 3]....

    [...]

  • ...This difference means that this version of the algorithm is slower to converge on a solution but it has a better coverage of the search space while also being less susceptible to local minima[1]....

    [...]

  • ...With this algorithm the main parameterization needed regards the acceleration multipliers and the maximum velocity (velocity clamping) that even though not referenced in the original presentation of the algorithm, when the Local version was introduced by the same author he mentions it for both versions as a way to limit particles flying out of the search space[1]....

    [...]

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1987
TL;DR: In this article, an approach based on simulation as an alternative to scripting the paths of each bird individually is explored, with the simulated birds being the particles and the aggregate motion of the simulated flock is created by a distributed behavioral model much like that at work in a natural flock; the birds choose their own course.
Abstract: The aggregate motion of a flock of birds, a herd of land animals, or a school of fish is a beautiful and familiar part of the natural world. But this type of complex motion is rarely seen in computer animation. This paper explores an approach based on simulation as an alternative to scripting the paths of each bird individually. The simulated flock is an elaboration of a particle systems, with the simulated birds being the particles. The aggregate motion of the simulated flock is created by a distributed behavioral model much like that at work in a natural flock; the birds choose their own course. Each simulated bird is implemented as an independent actor that navigates according to its local perception of the dynamic environment, the laws of simulated physics that rule its motion, and a set of behaviors programmed into it by the "animator." The aggregate motion of the simulated flock is the result of the dense interaction of the relatively simple behaviors of the individual simulated birds.

7,365 citations

Book
01 Jan 1991
TL;DR: This book sets out to explain what genetic algorithms are and how they can be used to solve real-world problems, and introduces the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), and shows how the basic technique may be applied to a very simple numerical optimisation problem.
Abstract: This book sets out to explain what genetic algorithms are and how they can be used to solve real-world problems. The first objective is tackled by the editor, Lawrence Davis. The remainder of the book is turned over to a series of short review articles by a collection of authors, each explaining how genetic algorithms have been applied to problems in their own specific area of interest. The first part of the book introduces the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), explains how it has traditionally been designed and implemented and shows how the basic technique may be applied to a very simple numerical optimisation problem. The basic technique is then altered and refined in a number of ways, with the effects of each change being measured by comparison against the performance of the original. In this way, the reader is provided with an uncluttered introduction to the technique and learns to appreciate why certain variants of GA have become more popular than others in the scientific community. Davis stresses that the choice of a suitable representation for the problem in hand is a key step in applying the GA, as is the selection of suitable techniques for generating new solutions from old. He is refreshingly open in admitting that much of the business of adapting the GA to specific problems owes more to art than to science. It is nice to see the terminology associated with this subject explained, with the author stressing that much of the field is still an active area of research. Few assumptions are made about the reader's mathematical background. The second part of the book contains thirteen cameo descriptions of how genetic algorithmic techniques have been, or are being, applied to a diverse range of problems. Thus, one group of authors explains how the technique has been used for modelling arms races between neighbouring countries (a non- linear, dynamical system), while another group describes its use in deciding design trade-offs for military aircraft. My own favourite is a rather charming account of how the GA was applied to a series of scheduling problems. Having attempted something of this sort with Simulated Annealing, I found it refreshing to see the authors highlighting some of the problems that they had encountered, rather than sweeping them under the carpet as is so often done in the scientific literature. The editor points out that there are standard GA tools available for either play or serious development work. Two of these (GENESIS and OOGA) are described in a short, third part of the book. As is so often the case nowadays, it is possible to obtain a diskette containing both systems by sending your Visa card details (or $60) to an address in the USA.

6,758 citations