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Journal ArticleDOI

Particulate Matter Toxicity Evaluation Using Bioindicators and Comet Assay

01 Jan 2013-Aerosol and Air Quality Research (Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research)-Vol. 13, Iss: 1, pp 172-178

AbstractAtmospheric particulate matter (PM) characterizes the atmospheric air quality. PM particles can adsorb and include several toxic air pollutants of urban areas. The current study aimed to develop an experimental procedure to assess the toxicity of the pollutants on PPM10 by means of the comet assay on earthworms directly exposed to PM10 collecting filters. A particular focus was the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the filter, in spite of their very low concentration in PM, because of their strong mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. A quartz filter exposed to polluted air containing 24.9 mg/g of PM10 and 14.1 μg/g of PAHs was characterized and mechanically reduced into a very fine powder by means of a planetary ball mill. This powder was combined with artificial soil samples allowing treatments at 15 μg/g of PM10 (0.008 μg/g of PAHs), 22.5 μg/g of PM10 (0.012 μg/g of PAHs), 30 μg/g of PM10 (0.016 μg/g of PAHs). Earthworms were exposed to each treatment for seven days, including blank treatments with powdered clean quartz filter, such as phenanthrene (used as the standard), and an untreated soil. DNA damage was observed starting from 0.012 μg/g of PAHs in 22.5 μg/g of PM10. No single PAH was detected or quantified in the bodies of the earthworms after microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and GC-MS analysis. The results demonstrate that even a very low amount of PM10 absorbed by the earthworms had a toxic effect on their immune systems, which could also have been caused by other xenobiotics included into the filter.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This document is intended to be a comprehensive review of what has been published to date on the field of ecotoxicology, aiming at showing the most relevant experimental models used as bioindicator models both in the laboratory and in the field.
Abstract: Since Singh and colleagues, in 1988, launched to the scientific community the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) protocol, or Comet Assay, its uses and applications has been increasing. The thematic areas of its current employment in the evaluation of genetic toxicity are vast, either in vitro or in vivo, both in the laboratory and in the environment, terrestrial or aquatic. It has been applied to a wide range of experimental models: bacteria, fungi, cells culture, arthropods, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and humans. This document is intended to be a comprehensive review of what has been published to date on the field of ecotoxicology, aiming at the following main aspects: (i) to show the most relevant experimental models used as bioindicators both in the laboratory and in the field. Fishes are clearly the most adopted group, reflecting their popularity as bioindicator models, as well as a primary concern over the aquatic environment health. Amphibians are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changes, mainly due to an early aquatic-dependent development stage and a highly permeable skin. Moreover, in the terrestrial approach, earthworms, plants or mammalians are excellent organisms to be used as experimental models for genotoxic evaluation of pollutants, complex mix of pollutants and chemicals, in both laboratory and natural environment. (ii) To review the development and modifications of the protocols used and the cell types (or tissues) used. The most recent developments concern the adoption of the enzyme linked assay (digestion with lesion-specific repair endonucleases) and prediction of the ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage, which is becoming a widespread approach, albeit challenging. For practical/technical reasons, blood is the most common choice but tissues/cells like gills, sperm cells, early larval stages, coelomocytes, liver or kidney have been also used. (iii) To highlight correlations with other biomarkers. (i

83 citations


Cites background from "Particulate Matter Toxicity Evaluat..."

  • ...…et al., 1996), and since then has been extensively revised (Cotelle and Férard, 1999; EspinosaReyes et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2010; Atli Şekeroglu et al., 2011; Lionetto et al., 2012; Andem et al., 2013; Vernile et al., 2013; Fujita et al., 2014; Vasseur and Bonnard, 2014; Zhang et al., 2014)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cluster and PSCF results indicated that local as well as long-transported PM2.5 from the north-west India and Pakistan were mostly pertinent, and re-confirmed that secondary aerosols, soil/road dust, vehicular emissions, biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and industrial emission were dominant contributors to PM 2.5 in Delhi.
Abstract: The present study investigated the comprehensive chemical composition [organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble inorganic ionic components (WSICs), and major & trace elements] of particulate matter (PM2.5) and scrutinized their emission sources for urban region of Delhi. The 135 PM2.5 samples were collected from January 2013 to December 2014 and analyzed for chemical constituents for source apportionment study. The average concentration of PM2.5 was recorded as 121.9 ± 93.2 μg m−3 (range 25.1–429.8 μg m−3), whereas the total concentration of trace elements (Na, Ca, Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Cr, Si, Ti, As, Br, Pb, Fe, Zn, and Mn) was accounted for ∼17% of PM2.5. Strong seasonal variation was observed in PM2.5 mass concentration and its chemical composition with maxima during winter and minima during monsoon seasons. The chemical composition of the PM2.5 was reconstructed using IMPROVE equation, which was observed to be in good agreement with the gravimetric mass. Source apportionment of PM2.5 was carried out using the following three different receptor models: principal component analysis with absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS), which identified five major sources; UNMIX which identified four major sources; and positive matrix factorization (PMF), which explored seven major sources. The applied models were able to identify the major sources contributing to the PM2.5 and re-confirmed that secondary aerosols (SAs), soil/road dust (SD), vehicular emissions (VEs), biomass burning (BB), fossil fuel combustion (FFC), and industrial emission (IE) were dominant contributors to PM2.5 in Delhi. The influences of local and regional sources were also explored using 5-day backward air mass trajectory analysis, cluster analysis, and potential source contribution function (PSCF). Cluster and PSCF results indicated that local as well as long-transported PM2.5 from the north-west India and Pakistan were mostly pertinent.

75 citations


Cites background from "Particulate Matter Toxicity Evaluat..."

  • ...…and Thurston 1987; Pope and Dockery 2006; Mauderly and Chow 2008; Russell and Brunekreef 2009; Tie et al. 2009; Yan et al. 2009; Habre et al. 2011; Vernile et al. 2013), since fine particles have the ability to penetrate much deeper into the lungs and enter into bloodstream through human…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first biomarker relating to genotoxicant exposure in earthworms from multi-contaminated soils reported is DNA adducts measurements, and it has been replaced by DNA breakage measured by the Comet assay, now more commonly used.
Abstract: Pollutant dynamics and bioavailability greatly differ in soil and aquatic systems. Therefore, specific approaches and models are needed to assess the impact of soil contamination to terrestrial ecosystems. Earthworms among other soil inverte- brates have received more attention because of their ecological importance. They represent a dominant part of the soil biomass and are soil engineers regulating important soil processes, notably fertilization. The release in soils of pollutants known for their persistence and/or their toxicity is a concern. Exposure of terrestrial species to pollutants that may alter genomic function has be- come an increasing topic of research in the last decade. Indeed, genome disturbances due to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may impair growth, as well as reproduction and population dynamics in the long term. Despite their importance in gene expres- sion, epigenetic mechanisms are not yet understood in soil invertebrates. Until now, pollutant-induced changes in genome ex- pression in natural biota are still being studied through structural alteration of DNA. The first biomarker relating to genotoxicant exposure in earthworms from multi-contaminated soils reported is DNA adducts measurements. It has been replaced by DNA breakage measured by the Comet assay, now more commonly used. Functional genomic changes are now being explored owing to molecular "omic" technologies. Approaches, objectives and results are overviewed herein. The focus is on studies dealing with genotoxicity and populational effects established from environmentally-relevant experiments and in situ studies (Current Zoology 60 (2): 255-272, 2014).

32 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A combined models was developed and applied to synthetic and ambient PM datasets in our prior works. In this study, multiple combined models, including the PCA/MLR-CMB, Unmix-CMB and PMF-CMB models, were developed and employed to analyzed the synthetic datasets, in order to understand 1) the accuracies of the predictions by multiple combined models; 2) the effect of Fpeak-rotation on the predictions of the PMF-CMB model; and 3) the relationship between the extracted mixed source profiles (in the first stage) and the final predictions. 50 predictions based on different combined model solutions were obtained and compared with the synthetic datasets. The average absolute errors (AAE), cluster analysis (CA), and PCA plots were applied to evaluate the precision of the predictions. These statistical methods showed that the predictions of the PCA/MLR-CMB and PMF-CMB model (with Fpeaks from 0 to 1.0) were satisfactory, those of the Unmix-CMB model were instable (some of them closely approached the synthetic values, while other them deviated from them). Additionally, it was found that the final source contributions had good correlation with their marker concentrations (obtained in the first stage), suggesting that the extracted profiles of the mixed sources can determine the final predictions of combined models.

23 citations


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"Particulate Matter Toxicity Evaluat..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The comet assay directly assesses the breaks of DNA in a single cell acting as an effect biomarker (Fairbairn et al., 1995; Lagadic et al., 1997; Akcha et al., 2004; Siu et al., 2004)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The development of the SCGE assay, existing protocols for the detection and analysis of comets, the relevant underlying principles determining the behaviour of DNA, and the potential applications of the technique are reviewed.
Abstract: The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay is a rapid, simple, visual and sensitive technique for measuring DNA breakage in individual mammalian cells. Here we review the development of the SCGE assay (with particular reference to the alkaline version), existing protocols for the detection and analysis of comets, the relevant underlying principles determining the behaviour of DNA, and the potential applications of the technique.

879 citations