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Journal ArticleDOI

Passage performance and behaviour of wild and stocked cyprinid fish at a sloping weir with a Low Cost Baffle fishway.

01 May 2019-Ecological Engineering (Elsevier)-Vol. 130, pp 67-79
TL;DR: Low-cost baffles (LCB) as mentioned in this paper have been shown to facilitate passage for cyprinid fishes at steep urban weirs that cannot readily be removed, but there is need for design improvements.
About: This article is published in Ecological Engineering.The article was published on 2019-05-01 and is currently open access. It has received 15 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Weir & Population.

Summary (2 min read)

1. Introduction

  • The primary aim of this study was to measure the passage performance and behaviour of four cyprinid species (barbel [Barbus barbus], chub [Squalius cephalus], dace [Leuciscus leuciscus] and roach [Rutilus rutilus]) at a steeply sloping gauging weir with a gradient of 1:3.3 fitted with LCBs.
  • A secondary aim was to determine any differences in the ability of wild (chub, dace and roach) and stocked (barbel and chub) fish as they attempted passage of the weir.
  • The Hogsmill is situated in a highly urbanised area and as such has been classified under the European Union Water Framework Directive (EC; 2000/60/EEC) as being heavily modified and having poor ecological quality.
  • Nevertheless, several reaches have gravel and sand habitat, macrophyte cover and sufficient habitat complexity to support a recovering fish community that includes barbel, chub, dace, roach, gudgeon (Gobio gobio), minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus), pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis), 3-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), stone loach (Barbatula barbatula) and eel (Anguilla anguilla).
  • A survey of the river identified the Environment Agency (EA) Hogsmill flow-gauging weir at Kingston-upon-Thames (51°24'20.77''N, 0°18'7.72''W; Fig. 1 ) as the most downstream of 18 obstructions, including weirs, culverts and bridge footings on the Hogsmill.

2.1. Study Site

  • In non-drowned conditions water velocity on the downstream face approached 2 m s -1 and with the thin water flow (typically < 0.05 m) made fish passage extremely difficult (T. Hull, pers. obs.).
  • To reduce the impact of the gauging weir on fish movement, LCBs were attached to the weir apron in early February, 2017.
  • The LCB arrangement allowed for a fish-passage route (notch width = 250 mm) offset diagonally on the weir apron (Fig. 2 ).
  • National (EA) guidelines requiring the non-obstruction of the weir crest, so as to maintain valid hydrometric calibration and operation as a flow-gauging weir, required that baffle placement on the downstream weir apron avoided the immediate zone downstream of the weir crest.

2.2. Stocked Fish Tagging and Release

  • Fish were transported from Calverton Fish Farm by custom-built fish transporting vehicles fitted with two tanks (300 l).
  • Once the fish had reached the stocking site they were left in the transport tanks for 15 min to settle before river water was added to the tanks to create a 50:50 river water to transport water solution.
  • No mortalities occurred during tagging, recovery or stocking.
  • Stocked fish handling mimicked the current management practices of the UK, enabling for the data to be interpreted in a way that would best inform management practices and decisions.
  • Act 1986 under a Home Office issued licence.

2.4. PIT Logging Station Network

  • Flow velocities were recorded at 0.2 m lateral and longitudinal intervals, beginning 2 m downstream of the weir and finishing 2 m above the weir.
  • Flow measurements were taken using a Valeport Model 801 EM Flow Meter at 10% and 50% water column depths.

2.6. Statistical Analyses

  • To determine if species successfully passed the weir under certain river conditions, an ANOVA was used to compare the percentage stage exceedance (measured at the Worcester Road gauging weir) against species.
  • The same analysis was used to test for any difference in the passage duration of successful attempts between species, grouped by wild or stocked, and the length of time fish remained on the gauging weir apron (i.e. from last detection on A1 to last detection on A2).
  • Tukey post-hoc tests were performed using the lsmeans package (Lenth, 2016) .
  • The detection efficiency for A1 was 98.9% (known to have missed two fish: one stocked chub and one wild chub) and A2 was 90.1% (known to have missed eight fish: 5 stocked chub and 3 wild chub.
  • This may have been a result of the downtime experienced by the antennas due to blown fuses.

4. Discussion

  • The authors conclude that the use of LCBs has substantial potential as a cost-effective retrofit method to improve upstream passage for fluvial cyprinids within lowland rivers that are fragmented by sloping weirs.
  • To ensure fish can complete ascent of gauging weirs, which are difficult to remove for societal reasons and that must have unobstructed crests, design improvements for LCBs and their placement on the weir apron are required.
  • This would provide a clearer picture of the effectiveness and utility of this cheap and novel design.
  • This is particularly important due to the caution required in interpreting this study's results for dace and roach as a result of the low sample sizes attempting passage.
  • Importantly in this study, a substantial proportion of stocked fish were able to ascend the weir and disperse upstream, a finding with important management implications for stock restoration.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the modified multimetric index of biotic integrity (mmIBI) and water pollution index (mmWPI) to understand the imapcts of weir installations on riverine water chemistry and fish assemblages.

26 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Barriers and fishways can act as selection filters, likely the case in this study, and greater consideration needs to be given to supporting natural diversity in populations when proposing fishway designs to mitigate river connectivity problems.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyse the performance of new fishways installed in the river Vesdre (Belgium) in order to test hypotheses of fish migration and connectivity in river networks, but multiple passage performance for potamodromous fish is poorly known.
Abstract: The equipping of barriers with fishways has useful applications for testing hypotheses of fish migration and connectivity in river networks, but multiple passage performance for potamodromous fish is poorly known to date The aim of this study was to analyse the performance of new fishways installed in the river Vesdre (Belgium) Thirty-eight barbel (Barbus barbus; mean: 508 mm, 2133 g) and seven chub (Squalius cephalus; mean: 372 mm, 935 g) were captured by electric fishing and fish pass monitoring and were equipped by RFID-tags and/or radio-transmitters They were translocated downstream of three different fishways (nature-like pool-type, block ramp, and technical pool-type) in the lower course of the Vesdre Detection antennas connected to automatic receivers were placed downstream and upstream of each fishway to evaluate the approaching rate, the overall and adjusted passage efficiencies, the passage delays, temperature, dates and time period The best passage performance and passage delays were observed for the block ramp fishway (88%; 9 h median time to pass) in comparison with pool structures (47 and 73%; 94 and 144 h median time to pass, respectively) The overall passage efficiency was 182 and 294% for two successive fishways, and 182% for three fishways Passages occurred mainly during dark periods at median temperatures of 14 °C (barbel) and 123 °C (chub), and during highly variable flow conditions This study provided evidence of the success rate of the reestablishment of the ecological continuity in the river Vesdre as a result of the construction of improved fish-passage structures

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an indoor flume experiments were carried out to assess the variation of flow field (velocity magnitude, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stress) and bed morphology with the inclusion of deflectors.

6 citations

References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: Copyright (©) 1999–2012 R Foundation for Statistical Computing; permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and permission notice are preserved on all copies.
Abstract: Copyright (©) 1999–2012 R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the R Core Team.

272,030 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...R Core Team, 2014....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a model is described in an lmer call by a formula, in this case including both fixed-and random-effects terms, and the formula and data together determine a numerical representation of the model from which the profiled deviance or the profeatured REML criterion can be evaluated as a function of some of model parameters.
Abstract: Maximum likelihood or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimates of the parameters in linear mixed-effects models can be determined using the lmer function in the lme4 package for R. As for most model-fitting functions in R, the model is described in an lmer call by a formula, in this case including both fixed- and random-effects terms. The formula and data together determine a numerical representation of the model from which the profiled deviance or the profiled REML criterion can be evaluated as a function of some of the model parameters. The appropriate criterion is optimized, using one of the constrained optimization functions in R, to provide the parameter estimates. We describe the structure of the model, the steps in evaluating the profiled deviance or REML criterion, and the structure of classes or types that represents such a model. Sufficient detail is included to allow specialization of these structures by users who wish to write functions to fit specialized linear mixed models, such as models incorporating pedigrees or smoothing splines, that are not easily expressible in the formula language used by lmer.

50,607 citations

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TL;DR: The lsmeans package (Lenth 2016) provides a simple way of obtaining least-squares means and contrasts thereof and supports many models fitted by R (R Core Team 2015) core packages that fit linear or mixed models.
Abstract: Least-squares means are predictions from a linear model, or averages thereof. They are useful in the analysis of experimental data for summarizing the effects of factors, and for testing linear contrasts among predictions. The lsmeans package (Lenth 2016) provides a simple way of obtaining least-squares means and contrasts thereof. It supports many models fitted by R (R Core Team 2015) core packages (as well as a few key contributed ones) that fit linear or mixed models, and provides a simple way of extending it to cover more model classes.

4,656 citations


"Passage performance and behaviour o..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Tukey post-hoc tests were performed using the lsmeans package (Lenth, 2016)....

    [...]

Book
15 Dec 2001
TL;DR: Applied Aspects of Freshwater Fish Migration: the Impact of Mana s Activities On Freshwaterfish Migration.
Abstract: Migration And Spatial Behaviour: Introduction. The Stimulus And Capacity For Migration: Stimuli For Migration, The Capacity For Migration, Piloting, Orientation And Navigation. Types Of Migration: Migrations At The Seasonal And Ontogenetic Scale, Diel Horizontal And Vertical Migrations. Patterns Of Migratory Behaviour In Freshwater Fishes: Arctic And Subarctic Regions, Temperate Regions, Tropical Regions. Taxonomic Analysis Of Migration In Freshwater Fishes, Lampreys Through To Freshwater--Dwelling Flatfishes (In 45 Sections). Methods For Studying The Spatial Behaviour Of Fishes In Fresh--And Brackish Water: Capture Dependent Methods, Capture Independent Methods, Choice Of Methods In Fish Migration Studies. Applied Aspects Of Freshwater Fish Migration: The Impact Of Mana s Activities On Freshwater Fish Migration. Mitigation Of Hazards And Obstacles To Fish Migration, Installation, Monitoring And Efficiency Of Fish Passes. Conclusions. Indexes

908 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the threats to imperiled freshwater fauna in the U.S. were assessed through an experts survey addressing anthropogenic stressors and their sources, which pointed to altered sediment loads and nutrient inputs from agricultural nonpoint pollution; interference from exotic species; and altered hydrologic regimes associated with impoundment operations as the three leading threats nationwide, accompanied by many lesser but still significant threats.
Abstract: Threats to imperiled freshwater fauna in the U.S. were assessed through an experts survey addressing anthropogenic stressors and their sources. Specifically, causes of historic declines and current limits to recovery were identified for 135 imperiled freshwater species of fishes, crayfishes, dragonflies and damselflies, mussels, and amphibians. The survey was designed to identify threats with sufficient specificity to inform resource managers and regulators faced with translating information about predominant biological threats into specific, responsive actions. The findings point to altered sediment loads and nutrient inputs from agricultural nonpoint pollution; interference from exotic species; and altered hydrologic regimes associated with impoundment operations as the three leading threats nationwide, accompanied by many lesser but still significant threats. Variations in threats among regions and among taxa were also evident. Eastern species are most commonly affected by altered sediment loads from agricultural activities, whereas exotic species, habitat removal/damage, and altered hydrologic regimes predominate in the West. Altered sediment loading from agricultural activities and exotic species are dominant problems for both eastern mussels and fishes. However, eastern fishes also appear to be suffering from municipal nonpoint pollution (nutrients and sediments), whereas eastern mussels appear to be more severely affected by altered nutrient impacts from hydroelectric impoundments and agricultural runoff. Our findings suggest that control of nonpoint source pollution associated with agriculture activities should be a very high priority for agricultural producers and governmental support programs. Additonally, the large number of hydropower dams in the U.S. subject to federal re-licensing in coming years suggests a significant opportunity to restore natural hydrologic regimes in the affected rivers. Se estimaron amenazas a la fauna dulceacuicola de los Estados Unidos en riesgo mediante un estudio de expertos enfocado en estresores antropogenicos y sus fuentes. Se identificaron especificamente las causas de disminuciones historicas y los limites actuales para la recuperacion de 135 especies dulceacuicikolas de peces, langostinos, libelulas, mejillones y anfibios en riesgo. El estudio fue disenado para identificar amenazas con suficiente especificidad como para informar a los manejadores de recursos y reguladores que encaran la traduccion de informacion sobre amenazas biologicas predominantes en acciones especificas y sensibles. Los resultados apuntan hacia cargas de sedimentos y entrada de nutrientes alterados por fuentes agriculturales sin puntos de contaminacion; interferencia de especies exoticas y regimenes hidrologicos alterados asociados a operaciones de retencion, como las amenazas mas importantes a nivel nacional, acompanadas por muchas otras menores pero aun significativas amenazas. Tambien fueron evidentes variaciones entre regiones y entre taxas. Las especies del este son mas comunmente afectadas por cargas de sedimentos de actividades agriculturales, mientras que las especies exoticas, la remocion/dano del habitat y alteracion de regimen hidrologico predominaron en el oeste. Cargas de sedimentos alteradas por actividades agriculturales y especies exoticas son problemas dominantes tanto en mejillones como en peces del este. Sin embargo, los peces del este aparentemente tambien sufren de descargas municipales sin puntos de contaminacion (nutrientes y sedimentos), mientras que los mejillones parecen ser mas severamente afectados por la ateracion de nutrientes debido a retenciones hydroelectricas y descargas agriculturales. Nuestros resultados indican que el control de fuentes de contaminacion sin puntos asociadas a actividades agriculturales deben ser de alta prioridad para los productores agricolas y programas de soporte gubernamental. Adicionalmente, la gran cantidad de represas en los Estados Unidos sujetas a re-expedicion de licencias federales en los proximos anos, sugiere una oportunidad significativa para restablecer los regimenes hidrologicos en los rios afectados.

668 citations


"Passage performance and behaviour o..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Introduction Anthropogenic river fragmentation is one of the leading causes of the decline of freshwater fish species diversity and abundance (Richter et al., 1997; Lucas and Baras, 2001)....

    [...]

Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What contributions have the authors mentioned in the paper "Passage performance and behaviour of wild and stocked cyprinid fish at a sloping weir with a low cost baffle fishway" ?

The study also compared the passage of wild and stocked fish ( the latter are employed to facilitate population recovery in restored English rivers ). This study finds that LCBs have the potential to facilitate passage for cyprinid fishes at steep urban weirs that can not readily be removed, but there is need for design improvements. This study also indicates that stocked and wild fish exhibited similar passage success, a finding with important management implications for achieving dispersal of stocked fish as a rehabilitation measure.