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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08830185.2020.1840566

Pathogenesis guided therapeutic management of COVID-19: an immunological perspective.

04 Mar 2021-International Reviews of Immunology (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 40, pp 54-71
Abstract: Lack of standardized therapeutic approaches is arguably the significant contributor to the high burden of mortality observed in the ongoing pandemic of the Coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19). Evidence is accumulating on SARS-CoV-2 specific immune cell dysregulation and consequent tissue injury in COVID-19. Currently, no definite drugs or vaccines are available against the disease; however initial results of the ongoing clinical trials have raised some hope. In this article, taking insights from the emerging empirical evidence about host-virus interactions, we deliberate upon plausible pathogenic mechanisms and suitable therapeutic approaches for COVID-19.

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Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: In an adaptive immune response, naive T cells proliferate during infection and generate long-lived memory cells that undergo secondary expansion after a repeat encounter with the same pathogen. Although natural killer (NK) cells have traditionally been classified as cells of the innate immune system, they share many similarities with cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We use a mouse model of cytomegalovirus infection to show that, like T cells, NK cells bearing the virus-specific Ly49H receptor proliferate 100-fold in the spleen and 1,000-fold in the liver after infection. After a contraction phase, Ly49H-positive NK cells reside in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs for several months. These self-renewing 'memory' NK cells rapidly degranulate and produce cytokines on reactivation. Adoptive transfer of these NK cells into naive animals followed by viral challenge results in a robust secondary expansion and protective immunity. These findings reveal properties of NK cells that were previously attributed only to cells of the adaptive immune system.

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Topics: Acquired immune system (67%), Immune system (64%), Innate immune system (64%) ... show more

78 Citations


Open access
20 Apr 2020-
Abstract: The high affinity of baricitinib for the numb-associated kinase (NAK) family, its anti-inflammatory properties, with its advantageous pharmacokinetic properties, appear to make it a special case among the approved drugs. In addition, the potential for combination therapy with baracitinib is high, because of its low plasma protein binding and minimal interaction with CYP enzymes and drug transporters. Combinations of baricitinib with these direct-acting antivirals could reduce viral infectivity, viral replication, and the aberrant host inflammatory response. This work demonstrates that the use of an AI-driven knowledge graph can facilitate rapid drug development.

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Topics: Drug development (52%)

62 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/ERM.2021.9
Abstract: Recent epidemiological studies analysing sex-disaggregated patient data of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across the world revealed a distinct sex bias in the disease morbidity as well as the mortality - both being higher for the men. Similar antecedents have been known for the previous viral infections, including from coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle-east respiratory syndrome (MERS). A sound understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to the biological sex bias in the survival outcomes of the patients in relation to COVID-19 will act as an essential requisite for developing a sex-differentiated approach for therapeutic management of this disease. Recent studies which have explored molecular mechanism(s) behind sex-based differences in COVID-19 pathogenesis are scarce; however, existing evidence, for other respiratory viral infections, viz. SARS, MERS and influenza, provides important clues in this regard. In attempt to consolidate the available knowledge on this issue, we conducted a systematic review of the existing empirical knowledge and recent experimental studies following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The qualitative analysis of the collected data unravelled multiple molecular mechanisms, such as evolutionary and genetic/epigenetic factors, sex-linkage of viral host cell entry receptor and immune response genes, sex hormone and gut microbiome-mediated immune-modulation, as the possible key reasons for the sex-based differences in patient outcomes in COVID-19.

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Topics: Disease (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JMV.27467
Ashutosh Kumar1, Rakesh Parashar2, Sujeet Kumar3, Muneeb A. Faiq4  +8 moreInstitutions (9)
Abstract: Young age, female sex, absence of comorbidities, and prior infection or vaccination are known epidemiological barriers for contracting the new infection and/or increased disease severity. Demographic trends from the recent COVID-19 waves, which are believed to be driven by newer SARS-CoV-2 variants, indicate that the aforementioned epidemiological barriers are being breached and a larger number of younger and healthy individuals are developing severe disease. The new SARS-CoV-2 variants have key mutations that can induce significant changes in the virus-host interactions. Recent studies report that, some of these mutations, singly or in a group, enhance key mechanisms, such as binding of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein with the ACE2 receptor in the host-cells, increase the glycosylation of spike protein at the antigenic sites, and enhance the proteolytic cleavage of the spike protein, thus leading to improved host-cell entry and the replication of the virus. The putative changes in the virus-host interactions imparted by the mutations in the RBD sequence can potentially be the reason behind the breach of the observed epidemiological barriers. Susceptibility for contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection and the disease outcomes are known to be influenced by host-cell expressions of ACE2 and other proteases. The new variants can act more efficiently, and even with the lesser availability of the viral entry-receptor and the associated proteases, can have more efficient host-cell entry and greater replication resulting in high viral loads and prolonged viral shedding, widespread tissue-injury, and severe inflammation leading to increased transmissibility and lethality. Furthermore, the accumulating evidence shows that multiple new variants have reduced neutralization by both, natural and vaccine acquired antibodies, indicating that repeated and vaccine breakthrough infections may arise as serious health concerns in the ongoing pandemic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Topics: Viral shedding (52%), Viral load (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.693938
Ashutosh Kumar1, Ravi K. Narayan, Pranav Prasoon2, Chiman Kumari3  +12 moreInstitutions (10)
Abstract: More than one and a half years have elapsed since the commencement of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and the world is struggling to contain it. Being caused by a previously unknown virus, in the initial period, there had been an extreme paucity of knowledge about the disease mechanisms, which hampered preventive and therapeutic measures against COVID-19. In an endeavor to understand the pathogenic mechanisms, extensive experimental studies have been conducted across the globe involving cell culture-based experiments, human tissue organoids, and animal models, targeted to various aspects of the disease, viz., viral properties, tissue tropism and organ-specific pathogenesis, involvement of physiological systems, and the human immune response against the infection. The vastly accumulated scientific knowledge on all aspects of COVID-19 has currently changed the scenario from great despair to hope. Even though spectacular progress has been made in all of these aspects, multiple knowledge gaps are remaining that need to be addressed in future studies. Moreover, multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have emerged across the globe since the onset of the first COVID-19 wave, with seemingly greater transmissibility/virulence and immune escape capabilities than the wild-type strain. In this review, we narrate the progress made since the commencement of the pandemic regarding the knowledge on COVID-19 mechanisms in the human body, including virus-host interactions, pulmonary and other systemic manifestations, immunological dysregulations, complications, host-specific vulnerability, and long-term health consequences in the survivors. Additionally, we provide a brief review of the current evidence explaining molecular mechanisms imparting greater transmissibility and virulence and immune escape capabilities to the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2002032
Wei-jie Guan1, Zhengyi Ni1, Yu Hu1, Wenhua Liang1  +33 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of...

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16,855 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.1585
Dawei Wang1, Bo Hu1, Chang Hu1, Fangfang Zhu1  +10 moreInstitutions (1)
17 Mar 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%.

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Topics: Interquartile range (51%)

13,270 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.052
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.

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Topics: Proteases (52%)

10,193 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0
Puja Mehta1, Daniel F. McAuley2, Michael Brown3, Emilie Sanchez3  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Published online March 13, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0 1 Submissions should be made via our electronic submission system at http://ees.elsevier.com/ thelancet/ However, in hyperinflammation, immunosuppression is likely to be beneficial. Re-analysis of data from a phase 3 randomised controlled trial of IL-1 blockade (anakinra) in sepsis, showed significant survival benefit in patients with hyperinflammation, without increased adverse events. A multicentre, randomised con trolled trial of tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor blockade, licensed for cytokine release syndrome), has been approved in patients with COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

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5,489 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2021436
Abstract: BackgroundCoronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with diffuse lung damage. Glucocorticoids may modulate inflammation-mediated lung injury and thereby reduce progression to respiratory failure and death.MethodsIn this controlled, open-label trial comparing a range of possible treatments in patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19, we randomly assigned patients to receive oral or intravenous dexamethasone (at a dose of 6 mg once daily) for up to 10 days or to receive usual care alone. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Here, we report the final results of this assessment.ResultsA total of 2104 patients were assigned to receive dexamethasone and 4321 to receive usual care. Overall, 482 patients (22.9%) in the dexamethasone group and 1110 patients (25.7%) in the usual care group died within 28 days after randomization (age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.93; P<0.001). The proportional and absolute between-group differences in mortality varied considerably according to the level of respiratory support that the patients were receiving at the time of randomization. In the dexamethasone group, the incidence of death was lower than that in the usual care group among patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (29.3% vs. 41.4%; rate ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.81) and among those receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation (23.3% vs. 26.2%; rate ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94) but not among those who were receiving no respiratory support at randomization (17.8% vs. 14.0%; rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.55).ConclusionsIn patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone at randomization but not among those receiving no respiratory support. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research and others; RECOVERY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04381936. opens in new tab; ISRCTN number, 50189673. opens in new tab.)

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Topics: Lung injury (55%), Mechanical ventilation (52%), Randomized controlled trial (52%) ... show more

4,501 Citations