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Journal ArticleDOI

Pattern of cercarial emergence of Schistosoma curassoni from Niger and comparison with three sympatric species of schistosomes.

01 Feb 1992-Journal of Parasitology (J Parasitol)-Vol. 78, Iss: 1, pp 61-63
TL;DR: The emergence pattern of Schistosoma curassoni cercariae from Bulinus umbilicatus, whose adult worms parasitize bovine, caprine, and ovine ungulates in Niger, is of a circadian type with a mean emission time at 0855 hr 1 hr 6 min, characteristic of the schistosome species parasitizing domestic or wild cattle as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The emergence pattern of Schistosoma curassoni cercariae from Bulinus umbilicatus, whose adult worms parasitize bovine, caprine, and ovine ungulates in Niger, is of a circadian type with a mean emission time at 0855 hr 1 hr 6 min, characteristic of the schistosome species parasitizing domestic or wild cattle. The comparison of this cercarial emergence pattern with those of the other 3 sympatric species of schistosomes (Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma bovis, and Schistosoma mansoni) shows a significant difference between the chronobiology of the cercariae infective for human and those infective for bovine hosts. This difference may improve epidemiological surveys based on snail prevalences by allowing the distinction between bulinids infected with human and bovine parasites.

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Citations
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BookDOI
01 Jan 2003

247 citations


Cites background from "Pattern of cercarial emergence of S..."

  • ...bovis cercariae are timed for early morning, when the definitive hosts of these parasites, the bulls, come to drink water (Pages and Théron, 1990b; Mouchet et al., 1992), those of S....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cercariae, like miracidia, are non-parasitic larval stages implicated in the life cycle of all trematodes for the host-to-host parasite transmission.
Abstract: Cercariae, like miracidia, are non-parasitic larval stages implicated in the life cycle of all trematodes for the host-to-host parasite transmission. Almost all cercariae are free-living in the external environment. With a few exceptions (cercariae of Halipegus occidualis (Halipegidae) can live several months, Shostak & Esch, 1990a), cercariae have a short active life during which they do not feed, living on accumulated reserves. Most cercariae encyst as metacercariae in second intermediate hosts which are prey of the definitive host; in certain species, the interruption of the active life is achieved by an encystment in the external environment (or a simple immobile waiting strategy in a few species). In some two-host life cycles, the cercariae develop into adults after penetration (this is the case for various species causing human schistosomiasis). Some cercariae do not leave the mollusc which must then be ingested by the definitive host.

180 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Biological factors central to the transmission of schistosomes, including cercarial emergence rhythms and interactions with other parasites and abiotic factors including temperature, rainfall, water velocity, desiccation and salinity are shown to impact on the intermediate host-parasite relationship.
Abstract: Within each of the four species groups of Bulinus there are species that act as intermediate hosts for one or more of the seven species of schistosomes in the Schistosoma haematobium group, which includes the important human pathogens S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. Bulinus species have an extensive distribution throughout much of Africa and some surrounding islands including Madagascar, parts of the Middle East and the Mediterranean region. Considerable variation in intermediate host specificity can be found and differences in compatibility between snail and parasite can be observed over small geographical areas. Molecular studies for detection of genetic variation and the discrimination of Bulinus species are reviewed and two novel assays, allele-specific amplification (ASA) and SNaPshot™, are introduced and shown to be of value for detecting nucleotide changes in characterized genes such as cytochrome oxidase 1. The value and complexity of compatibility studies is illustrated by case studies of S. haematobium transmission. In Senegal, where B. globosus, B. umbilicatus, B. truncatus and B. senegalensis may act as intermediate hosts, distinct differences have been observed in the infectivity of different isolates of S. haematobium. In Zanzibar, molecular characterization studies to discriminate between B. globosus and B. nasutus have been essential to elucidate the roles of snails in transmission. B. globosus is an intermediate host on Unguja and Pemba. Further studies are required to establish the intermediate hosts in the coastal areas of East Africa. Biological factors central to the transmission of schistosomes, including cercarial emergence rhythms and interactions with other parasites and abiotic factors including temperature, rainfall, water velocity, desiccation and salinity are shown to impact on the intermediate host-parasite relationship.

83 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter provides an updated and comprehensive review on the main features of cattle schistosomiasis and indicates that suitable drugs are not available for mass treatment in domestic stock and are unlikely to be developed in the near future.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter provides an updated and comprehensive review on the main features of cattle schistosomiasis. The adult worms are obligate parasites of the blood vascular system of vertebrates. They live in the perivesical, nasal or mesenteric, and hepatic veins of the host where they feed on blood and produce nonoperculated eggs with a characteristic terminal or lateral spine. As many as 10 different species of schistosomes have been reported to naturally infect cattle. The geographical distribution of schistosome species infecting cattle is mainly determined by the distribution of their respective intermediate host snails. It is noted that most infections in endemic areas occur at a subclinical level. However, it has been established that high rates of prevalence of subclinical infections cause significant losses due to long-term effects on animal growth and productivity and increased susceptibility to other parasitic or bacterial disease. Despite this, schistosomes of veterinary concern have received relatively little attention. In addition, suitable drugs are not available for mass treatment in domestic stock and are unlikely to be developed in the near future. However, recent progress in identifying potentially protective parasite antigens has opened new perspectives in the control strategy against schistosomiasis.

70 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Together, exogenous and endogenous factors control emergence of trematode cercariae, mitigating the vagaries of an intertidal environment.
Abstract: Trematode parasites in intertidal estuaries ex- perience constantly varying conditions, with the presence or absence of water potentially limiting larval transport be- tween hosts. Given the short life spans (24 h) of cercariae, emergence timing should be optimized to enhance the prob- ability of successful transmission. In the present study, field measurements and laboratory experiments identified pro- cesses that regulate the emergence of cercariae from their first intermediate snail hosts in an intertidal marsh. Larvae emerged over species-specific temperature ranges, exclu- sively during daylight hours, and only when snails were submerged. The three factors operate over different tempo- ral scales: temperature monthly, light diurnally (24-h pe- riod), and water depth tidally (12-h period). Each stimulus creates a necessary condition for the next, forming a hier- archy of environmental cues. Emergence as the tide floods would favor transport within the estuary, and light may trigger direct (downward or upward) swimming toward host habitats. Abbreviated dispersal would retain asexually re- produced cercariae within the marsh, and local mixing would diversify the gene pool of larvae encysting on sub- sequent hosts. In contrast to the timing of cercarial release, emergence duration was under endogenous control. Dura- tion of emergence decreased from sunrise to sunset, perhaps in response to the diminishing lighted interval as the day progresses. Circadian rhythms that control cercarial emer- gence of freshwater species (including schistosomes) are often set by the activity patterns of subsequent hosts. In this estuary, however, the synchronizing agent is the tides. To-

67 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: On the isolates examined from Senegal it is concluded that adult male S. bovis can be easily distinguished from S. curassoni or S. haematobium on the basis of the structure of the tubercles.
Abstract: Scanning electron microscopical studies of adult male and female Schistosoma curassoni, male S. haematobium and male S. bovis are reported. The tubercles on the dorsal and dorso-lateral surfaces of male S. bovis are devoid of spines, whereas spines are present on the tubercles of male S. curassoni and S. haematobium. Some of the tubercles of S. curassoni and S. haematobium are completely covered in spines, whereas others have a spine-free apical area. Thus, on the isolates examined from Senegal it is concluded that adult male S. bovis can be easily distinguished from S. curassoni or S. haematobium on the basis of the structure of the tubercles. The surface of female S. curassoni is smooth, with transverse striations and a pitted appearance, apart from the posterior part where anteriorly pointing spines are found.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The disposition of cercarial papillae of 68 pre-identified Schistosoma species was established and discrimination of S. haematobium, S. bovis and S. curassoni was enabled.
Abstract: The disposition of cercarial papillae of 68 pre-identified Schistosoma species was established. All the cercariae originated from Africa and Madagascar and were either obtained from natural or experimental infections, and belonged to three species Schistosoma haematobium, S. bovis and S. curassoni. Discriminant analysis was based on nine characters: average values, skewness and kurtosis of three cercarial indices (AD, AL and U) for each sample or isolate. AD, AL correspond respectively to the relative distance between dorsal and lateral papillae. U corresponds to the total number of tail stem papillae. With the exception of two cases of the 68 (one of them corresponding to cercariae shed by a non-African experimentally infected snail), the method enabled discrimination of S. haematobium, S. bovis and S. curassoni.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of the mesenteric and rectal veins of 502 cows showed that the overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.1%.
Abstract: Schistosoma curassoni has been recovered from cattle in northern Nigeria. Rectal scrapings of 90 cows slaughtered at the Kano abattoir, Kano, Nigeria during March and April 1986 revealed a prevalence of 7.8% S. bovis and 2.2% S. curassoni. Further examination of the mesenteric and rectal veins of 502 cows showed that the overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.1%. Local Bulinus globosus were infected successfully in the laboratory with s. bovis miracidia.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Schistosoma curassoni est present uniquement dans la partie Est du Niger, alors que S. bovis est retrouve a l'Est et a l’Ouest.
Abstract: Schistosoma curassoni est present uniquement dans la partie Est du Niger, alors que S. bovis est retrouve a l'Est et a l'Ouest

6 citations