Abstract: The programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is a well-established inhibitory immune checkpoint axis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Growing evidence indicates that tumoral PD-L1 can lead to TNBC development. Although conventional immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved TNBC patients' prognosis, their effect is mainly focused on improving anti-tumoral immune responses without substantially regulating oncogenic signaling pathways in tumoral cells. Moreover, the conventional immune checkpoint inhibitors cannot impede the de novo expression of oncoproteins, like PD-L1, in tumoral cells. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the restoration of specific microRNAs (miRs) can downregulate tumoral PD-L1 and inhibit TNBC development. Since miRs can target multiple mRNAs, miR-based gene therapy can be an appealing approach to inhibit the de novo expression of oncoproteins, like PD-L1, restore anti-tumoral immune responses, and regulate various intracellular singling pathways in TNBC. Therefore, we conducted the current systematic review based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) to provide a comprehensive and unbiased synthesis of currently available evidence regarding the effect of PD-L1-inhibiting miRs restoration on TNBC development and tumor microenvironment. For this purpose, we systematically searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science, Ovid, and IranDoc databases to obtain the relevant peer-reviewed studies published before 25 May 2021. Based on the current evidence, the restoration of miR-424-5p, miR-138-5p, miR-570-3p, miR-200c-3p, miR-383-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-3609, miR-195-5p, and miR-497-5p can inhibit tumoral PD-L1 expression, transform immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment into the pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment, inhibit tumor proliferation, suppress tumor migration, enhance chemosensitivity of tumoral cells, stimulate tumor apoptosis, arrest cell cycle, repress the clonogenicity of tumoral cells, and regulate various oncogenic signaling pathways in TNBC cells. Concerning the biocompatibility of biomimetic carriers and the valuable insights provided by the single-cell sequencing technologies, single-cell sequencing-guided biomimetic delivery of these PD-L1-inhibiting miRs can decrease the toxicity of traditional approaches, increase the specificity of miR-delivery, enhance the efficacy of miR delivery, and provide the affected patients with personalized cancer therapy.
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