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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOPHA.2021.111436

PD-L1 silencing inhibits triple-negative breast cancer development and upregulates T-cell-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines

02 Mar 2021-Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy (Elsevier Masson)-Vol. 138, pp 111436-111436
Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an invasive tumor with a high incidence of distant metastasis and poor prognosis. In TNBC cells, high PD-L1 expression can induce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, repressing the anti-tumoral immune responses. Although FDA-approved agents targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis are potent to eliminate tumoral cells, their immune-related adverse events have become worrisome. As the regulator of gene expression, siRNAs can directly target PD-L1 in breast cancer cells. The gene modification of tumoral PD-L1 can reduce our reliance on the current method of targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 axis. We initiated the study with bioinformatics analysis; the results indicated that TNBC and the MDA-MB-231 cells significantly overexpressed PD-L1 compared to other breast cancer subtypes and cell lines. Our results demonstrated that PD-L1 silencing substantially reduced PD-L1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, our results demonstrated that PD-L1 knockdown reduced cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis via intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. We observed that PD-L1 silencing effectively inhibited the migration of TNBC cells. Further investigation also displayed that silencing of PD-L1 in breast cancer cells induced T-cell cytotoxic function by upregulating the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, and downregulating the gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., IL-10, and TGF-β, in a co-culture system.

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Topics: Gene silencing (58%), T cell (56%), Cytotoxic T cell (56%) ... read more
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/GENES12081206
04 Aug 2021-Genes
Abstract: The programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is a well-established inhibitory immune checkpoint axis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Growing evidence indicates that tumoral PD-L1 can lead to TNBC development. Although conventional immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved TNBC patients' prognosis, their effect is mainly focused on improving anti-tumoral immune responses without substantially regulating oncogenic signaling pathways in tumoral cells. Moreover, the conventional immune checkpoint inhibitors cannot impede the de novo expression of oncoproteins, like PD-L1, in tumoral cells. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the restoration of specific microRNAs (miRs) can downregulate tumoral PD-L1 and inhibit TNBC development. Since miRs can target multiple mRNAs, miR-based gene therapy can be an appealing approach to inhibit the de novo expression of oncoproteins, like PD-L1, restore anti-tumoral immune responses, and regulate various intracellular singling pathways in TNBC. Therefore, we conducted the current systematic review based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) to provide a comprehensive and unbiased synthesis of currently available evidence regarding the effect of PD-L1-inhibiting miRs restoration on TNBC development and tumor microenvironment. For this purpose, we systematically searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science, Ovid, and IranDoc databases to obtain the relevant peer-reviewed studies published before 25 May 2021. Based on the current evidence, the restoration of miR-424-5p, miR-138-5p, miR-570-3p, miR-200c-3p, miR-383-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-3609, miR-195-5p, and miR-497-5p can inhibit tumoral PD-L1 expression, transform immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment into the pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment, inhibit tumor proliferation, suppress tumor migration, enhance chemosensitivity of tumoral cells, stimulate tumor apoptosis, arrest cell cycle, repress the clonogenicity of tumoral cells, and regulate various oncogenic signaling pathways in TNBC cells. Concerning the biocompatibility of biomimetic carriers and the valuable insights provided by the single-cell sequencing technologies, single-cell sequencing-guided biomimetic delivery of these PD-L1-inhibiting miRs can decrease the toxicity of traditional approaches, increase the specificity of miR-delivery, enhance the efficacy of miR delivery, and provide the affected patients with personalized cancer therapy.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.689839
Abstract: As a unique population of tumor bulk, cancer stem cells have been implicated in tumor relapse and chemoresistance in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Therefore, understanding the phenotype of cancer stem cells can pave the way for introducing novel molecular targeted therapies for treating TNBC patients. Preclinical studies have identified CD44+CD24-/low as a cancer stem cell phenotype; however, clinical studies have reported seemingly controversial results regarding the prognostic values of CD44 and CD44+CD24-/low phenotype in TNBC patients. To critically review the clinicopathological significance and prognostic values of CD44 and CD44+CD24-/low phenotype in TNBC patients, the Scopus, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched to obtain the relevant records published before 20 October 2020. Based on nine included studies, CD44 and CD44+CD24-/low phenotype are associated with inferior prognosis in TNBC patients. Moreover, these cancer stem cell markers have been associated with advanced tumor stage, tumor size, higher tumor grade, tumor metastasis, and lymphatic involvement in TNBC patients. Our evidence has also indicated that, unlike the treatment-naive TNBC patients, the tumoral cells of chemoradiotherapy-treated TNBC patients can upregulate the CD44+CD24-/low phenotype and establish an inverse association with androgen receptor (AR), leading to the inferior prognosis of affected patients. In summary, CD44 and CD44+CD24-/low phenotype can be utilized to determine TNBC patients' prognosis in the pathology department as a routine practice, and targeting these phenotypes can substantially improve the prognosis of TNBC patients.

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Topics: Cancer stem cell (54%), Triple-negative breast cancer (53%), Breast cancer (52%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOPHA.2021.112370
Abstract: AIMS Besides suppressing anti-tumoral immune responses, tumor-intrinsic inhibitory immune checkpoints have been implicated in tumor development. Herein, we aimed to investigate the significance of tumor-intrinsic CD73, as an inhibitory immune checkpoint, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development and propose a novel therapeutic approach. MAIN METHODS We investigated the cell viability, chemosensitivity, apoptosis, migration, and the cell cycle of A-549 and NCI-H1299 following treatment with cisplatin and CD73-small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to study the viability of studied groups and chemosensitivity of tumoral cells. Flow cytometry and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining were used to investigate the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Flow cytometry and the wound-healing assay were used to investigate the cell cycle and migration of NSCLC cells, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of c-Myc, caspase 3, ROCK, and MMP-9 were investigated to study the underlying molecular mechanism. KEY FINDINGS CD73-siRNA transfection has significantly decreased the cell viability and enhanced the chemosensitivity of A-549 and NCI-H1299 cells to cisplatin. CD73-siRNA has considerably stimulated apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle, inhibited tumor migration, downregulated the mRNA expression of c-Myc, MMP-9, and ROCK, and upregulated caspase 3 expression in NSCLC cells. Besides, combined cisplatin therapy with CD73-siRNA transfection has potentiated the aforementioned anti-tumoral effects of cisplatin on NSCLC cells. SIGNIFICANCE Besides suppressing anti-tumoral immune responses, tumor-intrinsic CD73 can facilitate NSCLC development, and the combined cisplatin therapy with CD73-siRNA transfection can substantially enhance the chemosensitivity of NSCLC to cisplatin and potentiates cisplatin-induced anti-tumoral effects on NSCLC.

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Topics: Viability assay (55%), Cisplatin (55%), Cell cycle (54%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26226877
15 Nov 2021-Molecules
Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light-based cancer therapy approach that has shown promising results in treating various malignancies. Growing evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are implicated in tumor recurrence, metastasis, and cancer therapy resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC); thus, targeting these cells can ameliorate the prognosis of affected patients. Based on our bioinformatics results, SOX2 overexpression is significantly associated with inferior disease-specific survival and worsened the progression-free interval of CRC patients. Our results demonstrate that zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)-PDT with 12 J/cm2 or 24 J/cm2 irradiation can substantially decrease tumor migration via downregulating MMP9 and ROCK1 and inhibit the clonogenicity of SW480 cells via downregulating CD44 and SOX2. Despite inhibiting clonogenicity, ZnPc-PDT with 12 J/cm2 irradiation fails to downregulate CD44 expression in SW480 cells. Our results indicate that ZnPc-PDT with 12 J/cm2 or 24 J/cm2 irradiation can substantially reduce the cell viability of SW480 cells and stimulate autophagy in the tumoral cells. Moreover, our results show that ZnPc-PDT with 12 J/cm2 or 24 J/cm2 irradiation can substantially arrest the cell cycle at the sub-G1 level, stimulate the intrinsic apoptosis pathway via upregulating caspase-3 and caspase-9 and downregulating Bcl-2. Indeed, our bioinformatics results show considerable interactions between the studied CSC-related genes with the studied migration- and apoptosis-related genes. Collectively, the current study highlights the potential role of ZnPc-PDT in inhibiting stemness and CRC development, which can ameliorate the prognosis of CRC patients.

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Topics: Cancer stem cell (57%), Metastasis (52%), CD44 (52%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41419-021-04047-2
Pengfei Xu1, Wei Xiong1, Yun Lin1, Liping Fan1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The PD-L1 overexpression is an important event of immune escape and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but the molecular mechanism remains to be determined. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) represents a major driving force behind PD-L1 expression in tumor microenvironment, and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is required for IFN signaling. Here, we investigated the regulation of HDAC2 on the IFNγ-induced PD-L1 expression in TNBC cells. We found the HDAC2 and PD-L1 expression in TNBC was significantly higher than that in non-TNBC, and HDAC2 was positively correlated with PD-L1 expression. HDAC2 promoted PD-L1 induction by upregulating the phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2, and STAT1, as well as the translocation of STAT1 to the nucleus and the recruitment of STAT1 to the PD-L1 promoter. Meanwhile, HDAC2 was recruited to the PD-L1 promoter by STAT1, and HDAC2 knockout compromised IFNγ-induced upregulation of H3K27, H3K9 acetylation, and the BRD4 recruitment in PD-L1 promoter. In addition, significant inhibition of proliferation, colony formation, migration, and cell cycle of TNBC cells were observed following knockout of HDAC2 in vitro. Furthermore, HDAC2 knockout reduced IFNγ-induced PD-L1 expression, lymphocyte infiltration, and retarded tumor growth and metastasis in the breast cancer mouse models. This study may provide evidence that HDAC2 promotes IFNγ-induced PD-L1 expression, suggesting a way for enhanced antitumor immunity when targeting the HDAC2 in TNBC.

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Topics: Histone deacetylase 2 (58%), Tumor microenvironment (53%), Cell cycle (52%) ... read more

References
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60 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1504030
Abstract: The median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.9 to 16.7) with nivolumab plus ipilimumab, as compared with 2.9 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 3.4) with ipilimumab (hazard ratio for death or disease progression, 0.42; 99.5% CI, 0.31 to 0.57; P<0.001), and 6.9 months (95% CI, 4.3 to 9.5) with nivolumab (hazard ratio for the comparison with ipilimumab, 0.57; 99.5% CI, 0.43 to 0.76; P<0.001). In patients with tumors positive for the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1), the median progression-free survival was 14.0 months in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and in the nivolumab group, but in patients with PD-L1–negative tumors, progression-free survival was longer with the combination therapy than with nivolumab alone (11.2 months [95% CI, 8.0 to not reached] vs. 5.3 months [95% CI, 2.8 to 7.1]). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 16.3% of the patients in the nivolumab group, 55.0% of those in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group, and 27.3% of those in the ipilimumab group. CONCLUSIONS Among previously untreated patients with metastatic melanoma, nivolumab alone or combined with ipilimumab resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than ipilimumab alone. In patients with PD-L1–negative tumors, the combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade was more effective than either agent alone. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 067 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01844505.)

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Topics: Nivolumab (63%), Ipilimumab (62%), Pembrolizumab (50%)

5,279 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-018-07882-8
Maksim Kunitski1, Nicolas Eicke2, Pia Huber1, Jonas Köhler1  +12 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Wave-particle duality is an inherent peculiarity of the quantum world. The double-slit experiment has been frequently used for understanding different aspects of this fundamental concept. The occurrence of interference rests on the lack of which-way information and on the absence of decoherence mechanisms, which could scramble the wave fronts. Here, we report on the observation of two-center interference in the molecular-frame photoelectron momentum distribution upon ionization of the neon dimer by a strong laser field. Postselection of ions, which are measured in coincidence with electrons, allows choosing the symmetry of the residual ion, leading to observation of both, gerade and ungerade, types of interference.

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Topics: Ionization (55%), Neon (54%)

4,138 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE10983
21 Jun 2012-Nature
Abstract: The elucidation of breast cancer subgroups and their molecular drivers requires integrated views of the genome and transcriptome from representative numbers of patients. We present an integrated analysis of copy number and gene expression in a discovery and validation set of 997 and 995 primary breast tumours, respectively, with long-term clinical follow-up. Inherited variants (copy number variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms) and acquired somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) were associated with expression in 40% of genes, with the landscape dominated by cisand trans-acting CNAs. By delineating expression outlier genes driven in cis by CNAs, we identified putative cancer genes, including deletions in PPP2R2A, MTAP and MAP2K4. Unsupervised analysis of paired DNA–RNA profiles revealed novel subgroups with distinct clinical outcomes, which reproduced in the validation cohort. These include a high-risk, oestrogen-receptor-positive 11q13/14 cis-acting subgroup and a favourable prognosis subgroup devoid of CNAs. Trans-acting aberration hotspots were found to modulate subgroup-specific gene networks, including a TCR deletion-mediated adaptive immune response in the ‘CNA-devoid’ subgroup and a basal-specific chromosome 5 deletion-associated mitotic network. Our results provide a novel molecular stratification of the breast cancer population, derived from the impact of somatic CNAs on the transcriptome.

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3,956 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE14011
Roy S. Herbst1, Jean-Charles Soria2, Marcin Kowanetz3, Gregg Fine3  +18 moreInstitutions (9)
27 Nov 2014-Nature
Abstract: The development of human cancer is a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that drive or reflect tumour progression. These changes distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts, allowing tumours to be recognized as foreign by the immune system. However, tumours are rarely rejected spontaneously, reflecting their ability to maintain an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also called B7-H1 or CD274), which is expressed on many cancer and immune cells, plays an important part in blocking the 'cancer immunity cycle' by binding programmed death-1 (PD-1) and B7.1 (CD80), both of which are negative regulators of T-lymphocyte activation. Binding of PD-L1 to its receptors suppresses T-cell migration, proliferation and secretion of cytotoxic mediators, and restricts tumour cell killing. The PD-L1-PD-1 axis protects the host from overactive T-effector cells not only in cancer but also during microbial infections. Blocking PD-L1 should therefore enhance anticancer immunity, but little is known about predictive factors of efficacy. This study was designed to evaluate the safety, activity and biomarkers of PD-L1 inhibition using the engineered humanized antibody MPDL3280A. Here we show that across multiple cancer types, responses (as evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1) were observed in patients with tumours expressing high levels of PD-L1, especially when PD-L1 was expressed by tumour-infiltrating immune cells. Furthermore, responses were associated with T-helper type 1 (TH1) gene expression, CTLA4 expression and the absence of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in baseline tumour specimens. Together, these data suggest that MPDL3280A is most effective in patients in which pre-existing immunity is suppressed by PD-L1, and is re-invigorated on antibody treatment.

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Topics: Cancer cell (58%), Immune system (58%), Cancer (58%) ... read more

3,477 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-019-56847-4
Ana Rakita1, Nenad Nikolić1, Michael Mildner1, Johannes Matiasek  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
08 Jan 2020-Scientific Reports
Abstract: A large body of literature is available on wound healing in humans. Nonetheless, a standardized ex vivo wound model without disruption of the dermal compartment has not been put forward with compelling justification. Here, we present a novel wound model based on application of negative pressure and its effects for epidermal regeneration and immune cell behaviour. Importantly, the basement membrane remained intact after blister roof removal and keratinocytes were absent in the wounded area. Upon six days of culture, the wound was covered with one to three-cell thick K14+Ki67+ keratinocyte layers, indicating that proliferation and migration were involved in wound closure. After eight to twelve days, a multi-layered epidermis was formed expressing epidermal differentiation markers (K10, filaggrin, DSG-1, CDSN). Investigations about immune cell-specific manners revealed more T cells in the blister roof epidermis compared to normal epidermis. We identified several cell populations in blister roof epidermis and suction blister fluid that are absent in normal epidermis which correlated with their decrease in the dermis, indicating a dermal efflux upon negative pressure. Together, our model recapitulates the main features of epithelial wound regeneration, and can be applied for testing wound healing therapies and investigating underlying mechanisms.

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Topics: Wound healing (58%), Keratinocyte (57%), Epidermis (botany) (55%) ... read more

2,641 Citations