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Journal ArticleDOI

People, Places and Paths: The Cypress Hills and the Niitsitapi1Landscape of Southern Alberta

01 Aug 2006-Plains Anthropologist (Routledge)-Vol. 51, Iss: 199, pp 375-397
TL;DR: The landscape of the Blackfoot is a series of named locales linked by paths, movements and narratives as mentioned in this paper, and paths represent the accumulated imprint of countless journeys as people move from place to place conducting their everyday business.
Abstract: The landscape of the Blackfoot is a series of named locales linked by paths, movements and narratives. The places are often outstanding natural features, river crossings, or resource patches perceived as focal points of spiritual energy. Myths and oral traditions explain how these landmarks were created through the actions of Napi who left behind songs, sacred objects, and practices to commemorate his creative acts on earth. This landscape is also created by people through their experience and engagement with the world around them and through their activities and movements on the ground. As reflections of this habitual behavior, paths represent the accumulated imprint of countless journeys as people move from place to place conducting their everyday business. Although created by people, the resultant network of places and paths constrains the patterned movement of groups over the landscape. From this perspective then, the landscape is not only the natural and cultural features of a region but also...
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Journal Article
TL;DR: Sometimes, reading is very boring and it will take long time starting from getting the book and start reading, however, in modern era, you can take the developing technology by utilizing the internet and search for the book that is needed.
Abstract: Sometimes, reading is very boring and it will take long time starting from getting the book and start reading. However, in modern era, you can take the developing technology by utilizing the internet. By internet, you can visit this page and start to search for the book that is needed. Wondering this the last refuge is the one that you need, you can go for downloading. Have you understood how to get it?

68 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that evidence of emerging sociopolitical complexity is embodied in the hunters' ability to invest extensively on landscape engineering to amass communal bison wealth for consumption, storage, and exchange, and produce and reproduce ritual wealth among individuals and restricted sectors of the group.
Abstract: Studies of hunter-gatherer sociopolitical organization consistently exclude terrestrial big-game hunters—pedestrian bison hunters, in particular—from discussions of emerging complexity. To an important extent, this exclusion stems both from the ethology of bison and its consequences for mobile hunters and from the character of their archaeological record, which lacks conventional indicators of organizational complexity such as high-status burials and long-term storage facilities. However, this record exhibits stone architecture of monumental proportions. We argue that evidence of emerging sociopolitical complexity is embodied in the hunters’ ability to (1) invest extensively on landscape engineering to amass communal bison wealth for consumption, storage, and exchange, and (2) produce and reproduce ritual wealth among individuals and restricted sectors of the group. Through a multiscalar research design that integrates thousands of surface stone features with data recovered from kill site excavation, ethn...

52 citations


Cites background from "People, Places and Paths: The Cypre..."

  • ...…was cumulatively shaped through persistence or place reuse and repeated movement across pathways that connected sacred sites, living areas, resource locales, and other meaningful places (Dooley 2004; Oetelaar 2006; Oetelaar and Meyer 2006; Oetelaar and Oetelaar 2006; Zedeño and Anderson 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the actions of the people who created the impressive kill sites located in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, and incorporated human communities in the execution of successful bison hunts with specific reference to the strategies employed by the Blackfoot and their ancestors.
Abstract: Although communal bison hunting has long captured the interest of northern Plains archaeologists, few have explored the actions of the people who created the impressive kill sites located in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Instead, the effectiveness of bison hunters has been attributed to their understanding of the local climate and topography, the grassland ecosystem, and the behavior of their prey. What is overlooked in this ecological explanation of bison hunting is the role of humans as active agents in the management of the landscape, the control of herd movement, and the maintenance of the kill complex. Moreover, the behaviors of the hunters were guided by very different perceptions of the relationships between humans and animals. My objective is to incorporate the actions of human communities in the execution of successful bison hunts with specific reference to the strategies employed by the Blackfoot and their ancestors.

25 citations


Cites background from "People, Places and Paths: The Cypre..."

  • ...The narratives, songs, and rituals associated with these places enshrine the codes of ethical conduct and the reciprocal obligations towards the land, the resources, and the people (e.g., Oetelaar and Oetelaar 2006; Uhlenbeck 1911)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the adoption of the horse created a transition in modes of production from hunting and gathering to nomadic pastoralism by tracing the horse's impact on Blackfoot settlement patterns and landscape use during the Precontact and Postcontact periods on the Northwestern Plains.
Abstract: This article examines the extent to which the adoption of the horse created a transition in modes of production from hunting and gathering to nomadic pastoralism by tracing the horse's impact on Blackfoot settlement patterns and landscape use during the Precontact and Postcontact periods on the Northwestern Plains. While changes in hunting techniques, raiding frequencies, and certain social implications such as status and wealth differentiation have been studied from an ethnohistoric perspective, less work has been done to trace the subtle changes to patterns of landscape use that may have directly resulted from the adoption of horse husbandry by the Blackfoot people. This study applies Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology to broadly distributed Precontact- and Contact-period archaeological sites of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Montana to reveal the role of horse husbandry on landscape use in the Northwestern Plains. This research expands on previous ethnohistorical work, while also contributing a new, material dimension to the dynamics of this transition at various spatial scales.

16 citations


Cites background or result from "People, Places and Paths: The Cypre..."

  • ...The Blackfoot visit these areas not only to obtain key resources, but also to fulfill ritual obligations, renew ties with ancestors, keep history and songs alive, and negotiate with spirits for the welfare of the group (Oetelaar 2014, 2016; Oetelaar and Oetelaar 2006, 2011)....

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  • ...…period (and in many cases much earlier) and, as such, would have been a constant variable that would not have changed significantly during the Contact period as a result of horse husbandry (Amundsen-Meyer 2014; Lobb 2009; Oetelaar 2016; Oetelaar and Oetelaar 2006, 2011; Zedeño and Bowser 2009)....

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  • ...The Blackfoot would have passed this knowledge down through the generations through rituals, such as bison-calling ceremonies and society bundles, and through communication with spirits associated with sacred places (Oetelaar and Oetelaar 2006)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a theory of adaptation is proposed to anticipate both differences in settlement-subsistence strategies and patterning in the archaeological record through a more detailed knowledge of the distribution of environmental variables.
Abstract: Hunter-gatherer subsistence-settlement strategies are discussed in terms of differing organizational components, "mapping-on" and "logistics," and the consequences of each for archaeological intersite variability are discussed. It is further suggested that the differing strategies are responsive to different security problems presented by the environments in which hunter-gatherers live. Therefore, given the beginnings of a theory of adaptation, it is possible to anticipate both differences in settlement-subsistence strategies and patterning in the archaeological record through a more detailed knowledge of the distribution of environmental variables.

2,346 citations

Book
14 Dec 1994
TL;DR: The Social Construction of Landscape in Small-Scale Societies: Structures of Meaning, Structures Of Power - An Affinity with the Coast: Places and Monuments in South as discussed by the authors
Abstract: Contents: Introduction - Place, Landscape and Perception: Phenomenological Perspectives - The Social Construction of Landscape in Small-Scale Societies: Structures of Meaning, Structures of Power - An Affinity with the Coast: Places and Monuments in South

1,485 citations

Book
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of the history of the Hunter-Gatherer and discuss the relationship between gender, women, and foraging, and discuss sharing, exchange, and land tenure.
Abstract: Chapter 1. Hunter-Gatherers and Anthropology Chapter 2. Environment, Evolution, and Anthropological Theory Chapter 3. Foraging and Subsistence Chapter 4. Foraging and Mobility Chapter 5. Sharing, Exchange, and Land Tenure Chapter 6. Group Size and Reproduction Chapter 7. Men, Women, and Foraging Chapter 8. Egalitarian and Nonegalitarian Hunter-Gatherers Hunter-Gatherers and Prehistory Notes References Index

1,342 citations

Book
01 Jan 1990
TL;DR: The moon in the nautilus shell: nature in the 21st century Postscript: A guide to action Chapter notes Key concepts and terms.
Abstract: Acknowledgements PART I: THE CURRENT DILEMMA: A view from a marsh: myths and facts about nature Why the elephants died: breakdown in the management of living resources Moose in the wilderness: stability and the growth of populations Oaks in New Jersey: machine age forests PART II: BACKGROUND TO CRISIS: Mountain lions and mule deer: nature as Divine Order Earth as a fellow creature: organic views of nature In Mill Hollow: nature as the great machine PART III: EVOLVING IMAGES: The forest in the computer: new metaphors for nature Within the moose's stomach: nature as the biosphere Fire in the forest: managing living resources PART IV: RESOLUTIONS FOR OUR TIME: Winds on Mauna Loa: how to approach managing the biospehere The moon in the nautilus shell: nature in the 21st century Postscript: A guide to action Chapter notes Key concepts and terms.

799 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it is argued that the differences in the means of territorial defense may alter the expected relationships between environmental variables and territorial costs and benefits, and the seemingly anomalous findings concerning Bushman territoriality are shown to be consistemt with cost-benefit theory only when this and other factors are taken into account.
Abstract: Cost-benefit models derived from evolutionary ecology have led to the general expectation that territoriality will be found where resources are most abundant and predictable. Literature sources for four Bushman groups, however, indicate that the most territorial of these groups are found where resources are sparsest and most variable. This paper has as its aim the extension of the animal models of territoriality to make them more widely applicable to human foragers. The Bushmen control access to territorial resources in ways not found in other animals, and it is argued that these differences in the means of territorial defense may alter the expected relationships between environmental variables and territorial costs and benefits. The seemingly anomalous findings concerning Bushman territoriality are shown to be consistemt with cost-benefit theory only when this and other factors are taken into a account.

282 citations