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Journal ArticleDOI

Perceived learning environment and students' emotional experiences: A multilevel analysis of mathematics classrooms.

01 Oct 2007-Learning and Instruction (Pergamon)-Vol. 17, Iss: 5, pp 478-493

AbstractA multilevel approach was used to analyse relationships between perceived classroom environments and emotions in mathematics. Based on Pekrun’s (2000) [A social-cognitive, control-value theory of achievement emotions. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivational psychology of human development (pp. 143 163)] social-cognitive, control-value theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that environmental characteristics conveying control and value to the students would be related to their experience of enjoyment, anxiety, anger, and boredom in mathematics. Multilevel modelling of data from 1623 students from 69 classes (grades 5 10) confirmed close relationships between environmental variables and emotional experiences that functioned predominantly at the individual level. Compositional effects further revealed that classes’ aggregate environment perceptions as well as their compositions in terms of aggregate achievement and gender ratio were additionally linked to students’ emotions in mathematics. Methodological and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Topics: Multilevel model (53%), Boredom (52%), Learning environment (50%)

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Abstract: Considerable strides have been made in the past decade in recognizing the centrality of the cultural context of schooling to adolescent development. In this review, adopting a developmental systems conceptualization of schooling, we focus on selected new research findings from the past decade regarding how (a) teachers, curricular tasks, and classroom environments; (b) aspects of the school as an organization; and (c) district policies and practices can play an instrumental role in adolescents' intellectual and social–emotional development.

771 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We tested key predictions of a theoretical model positing that confusion, which accompanies a state of cognitive disequilibrium that is triggered by contradictions, conflicts, anomalies, erroneous information, and other discrepant events, can be beneficial to learning if appropriately induced, regulated, and resolved. Hypotheses of the model were tested in two experiments where learners engaged in trialogues on scientific reasoning concepts in a simulated collaborative learning session with animated agents playing the role of a tutor and a peer student. Confusion was experimentally induced via a contradictory-information manipulation involving the animated agents expressing incorrect and/or contradictory opinions and asking the (human) learners to decide which opinion had more scientific merit. The results indicated that self-reports of confusion were largely insensitive to the manipulations. However, confusion was manifested by more objective measures that inferred confusion on the basis of learners’ responses immediately following contradictions. Furthermore, whereas the contradictions had no effect on learning when learners were not confused by the manipulations, performance on multiple-choice posttests and on transfer tests was substantially higher when the contradictions were successful in confusing learners. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

450 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors.
Abstract: The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy–value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes.

417 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This study extends previous research on teachers’ self-efficacy by exploring reciprocal effects of teachers’ self-efficacy and instructional quality in a longitudinal panel study. The study design combined a self-report measure of teacher self-efficacy with teacher and student ratings of instructional quality (assessing cognitive activation, classroom management, and individual learning support for students), and 2-level cross-lagged structural equation analyses were conducted. Data were collected from 155 German secondary mathematics teachers and 3,483 Grade 9 students at 2 measurement points. Although cross-sectional correlations between self-efficacy beliefs and characteristics of instruction were substantiated, the analyses only partially confirmed a causal effect of teachers’ self-efficacy on later instructional quality. Instead, the analyses revealed a reverse effect of instructional quality on teachers’ self-efficacy, with students’ experience of cognitive activation and teachers’ ratings of classroom management predicting teachers’ subsequent self-efficacy. Our findings emphasize the importance of examining teachers’ self-efficacy not only as a cause but also as a consequence of educational processes. Future research on teachers’ self-efficacy should take a longitudinal perspective with varying time lags, identify possible mediator variables, and consider other aspects of teacher competence beyond self-efficacy when examining the effects of instructional quality.

361 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This study analyzed gender differences in achievement emotions in the domain of mathematics. Based on Pekrun’s (2000, 2006) controlvalue theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that there are gender differences in mathematics emotions due to the students’ different levels of control and value beliefs in mathematics, even when controlling for prior achievement. The structural relationships between prior achievement, control and value beliefs, and emotions were assumed to be invariant across girls and boys in spite of hypothesized mean level differences of beliefs and emotions across genders. The emotions and beliefs of 1,036 male and 1,017 female 5th grade students were assessed by self-report measures, and their prior mathematics achievement was assessed by academic grades. Even though girls and boys had received similar grades in mathematics, girls reported significantly less enjoyment and pride than boys, but more anxiety, hopelessness and shame. Findings suggested that the female emotional pattern was due to the girls’ low competence beliefs and domain value of mathematics, combined with their high subjective values of achievement in mathematics. Multiple-group comparisons confirmed that the structural relationships between variables were largely invariant across the genders.

347 citations


References
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"Perceived learning environment and ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Since our sample was adequately large (both individuals and groups), we derived these correlations using Muthén’s pseudo-balanced approach to the scaled between-group covariance matrix (see Hox, 2002, p. 228; and Muthén, 2004, p. 44ff)....

    [...]


Book
01 Jan 1986
Abstract: For a long time I have had the gnawing desire to convey the broad motivational sig nificance of the attributional conception that I have espoused and to present fully the argument that this framework has earned a rightful place alongside other leading theories of motivation. Furthermore, recent investigations have yielded insights into the attributional determinants of affect, thus providing the impetus to embark upon a detailed discussion of emotion and to elucidate the relation between emotion and motivation from an attributional perspective. The presentation of a unified theory of motivation and emotion is the goal of this book. My more specific aims in the chapters to follow are to: 1) Outline the basic princi ples that I believe characterize an adequate theory of motivation; 2) Convey what I perceive to be the conceptual contributions of the perspective advocated by my col leagues and me; 3) Summarize the empirical relations, reach some definitive con clusions, and point out the more equivocal empirical associations based on hypotheses derived from our particular attribution theory; and 4) Clarify questions that have been raised about this conception and provide new material for still further scrutiny. In so doing, the building blocks (if any) laid down by the attributional con ception will be readily identified and unknown juries of present and future peers can then better determine the value of this scientific product."

4,222 citations


"Perceived learning environment and ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Yet, with the exception of test anxiety (e.g., Zeidner, 1998) and Weiner’s research on attributional antecedents of achievement-related emotions (e.g., Weiner, 1986 ), educational research has paid comparatively little regard to emotions, in particular to positive emotions (see Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, & Perry, 2002a)....

    [...]

  • ...…with the exception of test anxiety (e.g., Zeidner, 1998) and Weiner’s research on attributional antecedents of achievement-related emotions (e.g., Weiner, 1986), educational research has paid comparatively little regard to emotions, in particular to positive emotions (see Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, &…...

    [...]