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Journal ArticleDOI

Perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in same‐sex and coeducational physical education classes

31 Jan 2011-Educational Psychology (The University of North Carolina at Greensboro)-Vol. 31, Iss: 2, pp 247-260
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class-type differences, and find that female students reported more positive and adaptive perceptions in same-sex classes and were more affected by cla...
Abstract: Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class‐type differences. Participants were 546 adolescents (289 males, 257 females) who were in same‐sex or coeducational physical education classes. The Hierarchical Physical Competence Scale (HPCS) and questionnaire measures of enjoyment and effort in classes were used to investigate students’ perceptions. Results of 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that students’ perceptions of physical competence, enjoyment and effort in classes differed according to gender and class type, but these differences must be viewed in light of strong interaction effects. That is, female students reported more positive and adaptive perceptions in same‐sex classes and were more affected by cla...

Summary (3 min read)

Article:

  • Physical education has been advanced as a vehicle to promote physical activity levels for youth (Ryan & Deci, 2007) .
  • Moreover, contexts fostering perceived competence enhance sustained motivation, enjoyment and effort in the activities (Goudas, Biddle, & Fox, 1994; Hagger, Chatzisarantis, Culverhouse, & Biddle, 2003; Lyu & Pyo, 2006a) .
  • Based on the theories and empirical findings, it can be assumed that students who have higher perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation are more likely to have higher interest/enjoyment and effort in physical education classes and physical activities.
  • Finally, the more specific levels of perceived competence will be more strongly related to enjoyment and effort than will the more general level.

Participants

  • In South Korea, both single-sex schools and mixed-sex schools have existed for some time.
  • The participants were 546 adolescents (289 males and 257 females) aged 11-14 years from six Korean middle schools (three same-sex schools and three coeducational schools), taking coeducational or single-sex physical education classes.
  • In coeducational schools, male and female students were taught in the same physical education class.
  • The 227 single-sex-school students comprised 116 males and 111 females.
  • Parental and student consents were obtained for all participants to comply with university human subject protocol.

Instruments Hierarchical physical competence

  • The specific performance and sport items on the HPCS focus on handball because all students in this study have taken handball pass and shoot lessons as the national curriculum in South Korea.
  • To assess overall model fit, χ 2, goodness-of-fit index (GFI), non-normed fit index (NNFI), comparative fit index (CFI) and root mean square error of approximation , which are the most widely used criterion measures, were investigated.
  • Based on the results, all indices except GFI were acceptable, and both the four-factor model and the HPCS were considered appropriate for this study.

Enjoyment and effort in physical education class

  • In order to investigate how much students enjoy physical education lessons and how hard students try in the physical education class, a six-item questionnaire consisting of the effortimportance and enjoyment subscales of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI: McAuley, Duncan, & Tammen, 1989) was adapted for use in the school setting.
  • The three items for enjoyment (e.g., 'I enjoy physical education lessons') and the three items for effort in classes (e.g., 'I try to exert effort to do very well in classes') are rated on a seven-point scale.
  • Internal consistency estimates from the present study showed these two subscales had good reliability (enjoyment: α = .93, effort: α = .86).

Procedure

  • Participants were informed that the purpose of the study was to better understanding their thoughts and feelings about physical ability and physical education.
  • All participants were assured that participation had no bearing on their physical education grade, and no names were included on the surveys in order to ensure anonymity.
  • In addition, they were told that the questionnaires did not have right or wrong answers.
  • Administration time was approximately 15 minutes for the questionnaire.
  • Approval for this study was granted from University's Institutional Review Board and the school administration.

Analysis plan

  • All the data were analysed with SPSS version 14.0.
  • To examine gender and class-type differences in students' perceptions, 2 × 2 (gender = male/female, class type = samesex/coeducational class) MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) was used.
  • In line with the recommendations of Clark-Carter (1997) , effect sizes between .001 and .058 were classified as small, effect sizes of between .059 and .137 classified as medium and effect sizes over .138 were classified large.
  • Also, the authors compared four groups (male and female in same-sex class, male and female in coeducational class) using the Duncan's test to follow up MANOVA results.
  • Correlation analysis was used in order to investigate the relationships among perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in physical education classes.

Students' perceptions according to gender and class type

  • The univariate main effect for gender appeared for perceived handball competence, perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class.
  • To explore the interactions, Duncan's test was used to compare the four groups.
  • As Figure 2 shows, class type has a large effect on perceived shooting competence for females but no effect for males.
  • Duncan's test revealed that females in same-sex classes had higher perceived shooting competence than all others, and females in coeducational classes had the lowest perceived shooting competence, F (3, 542) = 13.73, p < .001, η 2 = .07.

Relations among students' perceived competence, enjoyment and effort in class

  • Pearson's product correlation analyses revealed modest positive relationships among the four sub-variables of hierarchical physical competence (shooting competence, handball competence, physical competence, and physical self-worth), enjoyment and effort.
  • Correlation results confirmed the hierarchical structure as each level had the strongest relationship to the next one above it.
  • The correlation between perceived handball shooting competence and perceived handball competence was the highest (r = .809, p < .01).
  • The next strongest relationship was between perceived shooting competence and perceived physical competence (r = .671, p < .01), followed by shooting competence and physical self-worth (r = .418, p < .01).
  • Enjoying physical education classes showed a higher relationship with perceived physical competence than with other levels of hierarchical physical competence (r = .652, p <. 01), and effort in class had the highest correlations with enjoyment (r= .518, p <. 01).

Discussion

  • The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationships among components of hierarchical physical competence, enjoyment and effort and also to make comparisons by gender and class type (same-sex or coeducational physical education class).
  • Parents, as a result of their own sex-role socialisation, transmit gendered values to their children, which reproduce gender stereotypes (Greendorfer, 1983) .
  • These results may reflect a fear of undermining the performance of boys, or heterosexual femininity, which positions the feminine body as an object to be looked at, not used in sport (Hargreaves, 1994; Young, 1990) .
  • For enjoyment and effort in physical education class, females in same-sex classes had higher scores compared with in coeducational classes.
  • Overall, these previous studies suggest that same-sex classes lead to higher competence, confidence, achievement, enjoyment and effort and that females are more affected by class type than males.

Limitations and future directions

  • It is unclear whether the results from this study generalise to other class activities and physical education classes.
  • Lyu and Pyo (2006b) found that female students perceived higher competence than male students in a dance activity class and highlighted the importance of class content in coeducational classes.
  • In terms of research methods, interviews with teachers and students and observations in classes could be used to gain more insight into how students feel about physical education classes.

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Perceived physical competence, enjoyment, and effort in same-sex and coeducational
physical education classes.
By: Minjeong Lyu and Diane L. Gill
Lyu, M. & Gill, D.L. (2011). Perceived physical competence, enjoyment, and effort in same-sex
and coeducational physical education classes. Educational Psychology, 31(2), 247-260.
This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in [include the complete
citation information for the final version of the article as published in the Educational
Psychology 2011 [copyright Taylor & Francis], available online at:
http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/01443410.2010.545105.
Abstract:
Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in
adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose
of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in
class, focusing on gender and classtype differences. Participants were 546 adolescents (289
males, 257 females) who were in samesex or coeducational physical education classes. The
Hierarchical Physical Competence Scale (HPCS) and questionnaire measures of enjoyment and
effort in classes were used to investigate students’ perceptions. Results of 2 × 2 multivariate
analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that students’ perceptions of physical competence,
enjoyment and effort in classes differed according to gender and class type, but these differences
must be viewed in light of strong interaction effects. That is, female students reported more
positive and adaptive perceptions in samesex classes and were more affected by class type than
were male students.
gender differences | adolescents | middle school | interaction | physical education | Keywords:
coeducational physical education | same-sex physical education | perceived physical competence
Article:
Physical education has been advanced as a vehicle to promote physical activity levels for youth
(Ryan & Deci, 2007). For some students, physical education is the only place where they engage
in physical activity (Gallahue & Donnelly, 2003; Graham, Holt/Hale, & Parker, 2004). However,
many students do not enjoy physical education, and there is no sign that this trend is slowing
down (Carlson, 1995; Cothran & Ennis, 1999). In particular, during adolescence, female students
often show lower interest and enjoyment in performing in physical education classes or physical
activity situations than male students (Carroll & Loumidis 2001; Luke & Sinclair 1991; Lyu &
Pyo 2006a; Tannehill & Zakrajsek, 1993). At this point, helping students become more
intrinsically motivated and involved in physical education classes and physical activities is
critical for their future health and wellbeing.

Selfdetermination theory and cognitive evaluation theory (Deci & Ryan, 1980) propose that
competence and autonomy experiences are necessary conditions for the maintenance and
enhancement of intrinsic motivation, which is a strong predictor of an individual’s physical
activity engagement (Biddle & Mutrie, 2001). Considerable research supports the relationships
between perceived competence and intrinsic motivation. Ryan and Deci (2007) concluded that
environments supporting feelings of competence facilitate intrinsic motivation, whereas
environments and factors that diminish feelings of competence undermine intrinsic motivation.
Moreover, contexts fostering perceived competence enhance sustained motivation, enjoyment
and effort in the activities (Goudas, Biddle, & Fox, 1994; Hagger, Chatzisarantis, Culverhouse,
& Biddle, 2003; Lyu & Pyo, 2006a).
In addition, perceived competence was positively related to interest/enjoyment and feeling
satisfied with the activities that individuals engaged in (Frederick & Ryan, 1993).
Interest/enjoyment of sport/exercise is clearly a major indicator of student attitudes towards
physical education regardless of gender (Subramaniam & Silverman, 2007). Berger and
McInman (1993) also found that enjoyment plays an important role in increasing physical
activity adherence and positive attitudes. Based on the theories and empirical findings, it can be
assumed that students who have higher perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation
are more likely to have higher interest/enjoyment and effort in physical education classes and
physical activities. Therefore, understanding how to enhance students’ perceived competence
and enjoyment is an important problem for physical educators.
The learning environment is one of the most important variables that can positively and
negatively influence students’ perceptions, including perceived competence, interest/enjoyment
and behaviour. One aspect of class environment that influences students’ attitude to the physical
education is class type, specifically samesex or coeducational classes. Considerable research has
shown that the class type (samesex or coeducational class) influences students’ perceived
competence, intrinsic motivation and performance/achievement (Derry & Phillips, 2005; Fraser,
1994; Lee & Marks, 1990; Lirgg, 1993; McKenzie, Prochaska, Sallis, & LaMaster, 2004;
McRobbie & Fraser, 1993). For example, Rowe (1988) found that students in samesex classes
exhibited greater gains in confidence than those in coeducational classes. However, research
studies highlight issues in coeducational physical education, particularly for girls, and several
authors have raised concerns about girls’ participation in these settings (Brophy, 1985;
O’Sullivan, Bush, & Gehring, 2002; Penney, 2002; Treanor, Graber, Housner, & Wiegand,
1998).
Lee and Marks (1990) found that girls in samesex physical education classes responded more
positively than girls in coeducational physical education classes, and more recently Derry and
Phillips (2005) reported that girls in samesex classes spent more time in practice and performing
tasks than girls in coeducational classes. Also, McKenzie et al. (2004) found that although girls
spent fewer minutes and a smaller proportion of lesson time in physical activity compared to

boys, girls in samesex classes obtained more time on motor skill drills than boy/girls in
coeducational classes and boys in samesex classes.
For enjoyment and preference, results are mixed. Lirgg (1993, 1994) and Treanor et al. (1998)
found that male and female students in middle and high school preferred samesex physical
education formats. In contrast, in Hong, Yoon, and Yeo’s (2003) study, students in coeducational
physical education classes had more positive attitudes and higher interest than students in same
sex classes. Furthermore, the class context, including samesex or coeducational classes, has
been implicated in much of the educational literature as important variable influencing students’
motivation and achievement (Lirgg, 1993).
In the current study, we examined students’ perceived physical competence, enjoyment and
effort in samesex or coeducational physical education classes. Fox and Corbin (1989) have
proposed a hierarchical model of perceived physical competence with several distinct levels of
specificity of selfperceptions within the physical domain. In this hierarchical structure, more
specific, lowerlevel factors influence and predict the next level factor. Lyu (2008) examined
Fox’s hierarchical model and developed a measure of hierarchical perceived physical
competence, including physical selfworth (highest level), physical competence, sport
competence and performance competence (lowest, most specific level), for Korean adolescents
in middle school. The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ perceived physical
competence, enjoyment and effort in physical education classes, as a function of gender and
physical education class type (samesex or coeducational class) in Korean adolescents.
Based on prior studies, the following hypotheses were proposed: (1) Male students will report
higher perceptions at all levels of hierarchical physical competence model, as well as greater
enjoyment and effort in physical education classes than female students; (2) Students in same
sex classes will report higher perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort than those in
coeducational classes; and (3) students who have higher perceptions of physical competence will
have higher enjoyment and effort in physical education classes. Finally, the more specific levels
of perceived competence will be more strongly related to enjoyment and effort than will the
more general level.
Method
Jump to section
Method
Results
Discussion
Participants

In South Korea, both singlesex schools and mixedsex schools have existed for some time. In
this study, the participants were 546 adolescents (289 males and 257 females) aged 11–14 years
from six Korean middle schools (three samesex schools and three coeducational schools), taking
coeducational or singlesex physical education classes. In coeducational schools, male and
female students were taught in the same physical education class. The 319 coeducational school
students included 173 males and 146 females. The 227 singlesexschool students comprised 116
males and 111 females. Parental and student consents were obtained for all participants to
comply with university human subject protocol.
Instruments
Hierarchical physical competence
In line with Fox’s (1998, 2002) hierarchical physical competence model, Lyu (2007, 2008)
developed the Hierarchical Physical Competence Scale (HPCS). The HPCS measures four levels
of perceived physical competence with Performance competence (handball shooting) at the
lowest, most specific level, followed by Sports competence (handball), Physical competence and
Physical selfworth. Each of the four HPCS subscales include four items with responses on a
sixpoint scale that ranges from 1 – definitely disagree to 6 – definitely agree. The Korean
Educational Development Institute (KEDI) provides a national educational curriculum, which
schools should follow in classes. According to the KEDI national curriculum, handball is a
requirement for grade 1 students in middleschool physical education classes. The specific
performance and sport items on the HPCS focus on handball because all students in this study
have taken handball pass and shoot lessons as the national curriculum in South Korea.
In order to verify reliability and validity of the HPCS in this study, the data were analysed
through confirmatory factor analysis with the Amos 5.0 program. The results for the fourfactor
model are presented in Figure 1. To assess overall model fit, χ 2, goodnessoffit index (GFI),
nonnormed fit index (NNFI), comparative fit index (CFI) and root mean square error of
approximation (RMSEA), which are the most widely used criterion measures, were investigated.
Chisquare is a measure of the fit of the model to the data, with smaller values indicating better
models. The GFI is a measure of the relative amount of variance and covariance that the
proposed model is able to explain. The NNFI and CFI are frequently used for evaluating the fit
of a structural model. The root mean square residual (RMSR) indicates the discrepancy between
the elements of the sample and hypothesised matrices with values ranging from 0 and 1.

Figure 1 Confirmatory factor analysis.
The statistically acceptable standard is that χ
2
/df should be less than 5, and GFI, NNFI and CFI
should be more than .90. Also, RMSEA should be between .05 and .08 (Byrne, 1989; Kim, 2002;
Kline, 2005). This model exhibited a good fit to the data, χ
2
(98) = 266.18, p < .01, GFI = .87,
NNFI = .92, CFI = .95, RMSEA = .08. Based on the results, all indices except GFI were
acceptable, and both the fourfactor model and the HPCS were considered appropriate for this
study.
Factor 1, named shooting competence (specific perceived performance competence level),
includes four items that represent handball shooting. The second factor, handball competence,
has four items (e.g., I am good at handball). Factor 3, labelled perceived physical competence,
consists of four items (e.g., I am good at sports). The last factor, physical selfworth, has four
items. Internal consistency was analysed, and all Cronbachs alpha coefficients exceeded the
recommended value of .70 (Pedhazur, 1982): shooting competence (.90), handball competence
(.89), physical competence (.92) and physical selfworth (.89).

Citations
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TL;DR: Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement, and average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement.
Abstract: Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

156 citations


Cites background or result from "Perceived physical competence, enjo..."

  • ...In addition, motivation may also vary from one class to another as a function of factors such as the gender distribution within the class (Lyu & Gill, 2011; Olafson, 2002), the topic of the lesson (Bevans, Fitzpatrick, Sanchez, & Forrest, 2010; Hassandra, Goudas, & Chroni, 2003), the structure of…...

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  • ...Although we did not directly investigate the role of the type of class (i.e., coeducation versus single-sex), this finding can be linked to previous research comparing engagement levels in coeducational classes as opposed to single-sex PE classes (e.g., Lyu & Gill, 2011)....

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  • ...For instance, there is considerable evidence that both physical activity and engagement in PE class are higher in single-sex classes compared with in coeducational classes, especially for girls (e.g., Chow, McKenzie, & Louie, 2009; Lyu & Gill, 2011)....

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TL;DR: It is hypothesize that researchers who enhance the sociocultural relevance of their core intervention components and recognize the unique contributions of both intervention design and delivery will experience greater intervention engagement and improved outcomes.
Abstract: This article presents a conceptual model illustrating a targeted approach to the design and delivery of health behavior interventions that focus on physical activity promotion. We hypothesize that researchers who i) enhance the sociocultural relevance of their core intervention components and ii) recognize the unique contributions of both intervention design and delivery will experience greater intervention engagement and improved outcomes.

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TL;DR: The results are close to a medium effect size which is larger than other meta-analytic physical activity correlates among youth, and the construct should be included in contemporary theories for understanding and intervening upon youth physical activity.
Abstract: Background A recent meta-analysis on affective judgment and physical activity in adults yielded a medium effect-sized relationship. Despite narrative reviews and topic interest, a meta-analysis in youth has not yet been conducted.

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TL;DR: Findings can help in the planning of activities that take into account the success and motivation of both boys and girls and thus increase levels of physical activity and physical fitness at school.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze in which physical capabilities boys and girls are closer or distant. An additional objective was to find which of the body fat, physical activity, and somatotype factors have a greater effect on prepubescent children's physical fitness. This was a cross-sectional study involving 312 children (10.8 ± 0.4 years). The physical fitness assessment employed sets of aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility, speed, agility, and balance. The boys presented higher values in all selected tests, except tests of balance and flexibility, in which girls scored better. Gender differences in the physical fitness were greatest in the explosive strength of upper (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.09) and lower limbs (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.08), although with a medium-size effect of gender, and smaller in the abdominal (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.007) and upper limbs (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.003) muscular endurance, and trunk extensor strength and flexibility (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.001). The endomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.26) in the girls, and the ectomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.31) and mesomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.26) in the boys, had the high-sized effect on the physical fitness. The physical activity in the girls, and the endomorphic and body fat in the boys, did not have a significant effect. These findings can help in the planning of activities that take into account the success and motivation of both boys and girls and thus increase levels of physical activity and physical fitness at school. However, in prepubescent children, one cannot neglect the influence of genetic determinism, observed from the morphoconstitutional point of view.

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  • ...The proof of this is that the female students reported more positive and adaptive perceptions in same-sex classes (22)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a small experiment in one PE lesson aimed to increase the perceived competence and in-class physical activity in girls, by applying a single-gender grouping strategy within co-educational classes.
Abstract: Creating environments in physical education (PE) that foster perceived competence and physical activity during gender-mixed game play lessons is a challenge, especially with adolescent girls. This study is a small experiment in one PE lesson that aimed to increase the perceived competence and in-class physical activity in girls, by applying a single-gender grouping strategy within co-educational classes. A final sample of 216 students (90 girls; 42%) within 13 classes in grades 7–9 (age 11–15) played basketball in mixed-gender and in single-gender teams. The effects on participant’s perceived competence and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) were assessed using questionnaires and heart rate monitors, respectively. Although girls’ perceived competence was lower than that of boys, girls’ perceived competence increased during single-gender game play. Physical activity levels were high during both mixed-gender and single-gender game play. Playing invasion games (i.e. basketball, handball, soccer) in gender-...

44 citations


Cites background or result from "Perceived physical competence, enjo..."

  • ...This is in line with previous findings within a PE context (Lyu and Gill, 2011) and more generally, within a Figure 1....

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  • ...Our findings were in line with cross-sectional work by Lyu and Gill (2011), who found that girls reported higher scores in perceived competence, effort and enjoyment during PE in single-gender classes, compared to co-educational classes....

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  • ...In addition, girls’ perceived competence is found to be especially low during competitive activities in mixed-gender classes (Lyu and Gill, 2011; Mullan et al., 1997; Van Daalen, 2005)....

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  • ...Thus, the competitive nature of invasion gameplay, within a co-educational setting, might have a negative impact on girls’ perceived competence towards such PE activities (Lyu and Gill, 2011; Van Daalen, 2005)....

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  • ...Class type (co-education versus single-gender) is found to influence students’ levels of perceived competence (Derry and Phillips, 2005; Lyu and Gill, 2011), with girls feeling less competent in co-education PE classes, as opposed to single-gender PE classes (Lyu and Gill, 2011)....

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5,010 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Internal consistency was analysed, and all Cronbach’s alpha coefficients exceeded the recommended value of .70 (Pedhazur, 1982): shooting competence (.90), handball competence (.89), physical competence (.92) and physical self-worth (.89)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Kerlinger and Pedhazur as discussed by the authors present the three main applied analytical models which derive from the general linear hypothesis-analysis of variance, regression, and analysis of covariance.
Abstract: One of the dilemmas facing those who teach sociological methods and statistics these days is how to present the three main applied analytical models which derive from the general linear hypothesis-analysis of variance, regression, and analysis of covariance. The reason for this dilemma is that whereas there now exist in the sociological literature a number of theoretical expositions integrating these various models, nowhere has there existed a reference or, for that matter, a set of references which provided the computational integration in sufficient clarity that the teacher could assign them to his class and be assured that the student would obtain a clear picture of how the three models were computationally interrelated and interchangeable. Kerlinger and Pedhazur have painstakingly provided such a resource. For those looking for such a text (or reference book), it is a teacher's delight! The authors provide one with a consistency of framework which opens in Part 1 (five chapters). Those chapters are a review of the foundations of multiple regression and can be easily read by students who have had an introductory course in statistics. The review is, however, more than just a rehash of regression theory and procedures, as the authors are also developing a framework for the later integration of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, time series analysis, path analysis and multivariate analysis (multivariate analysis of variance, canonical regression, and discriminant analysis). Part 2, which consists of six chapters, is the focal point of the book. For example, chapters 5, 6, and 7 give an introduction to the use of dummy coding to achieve the same results as one gets in one-way analysis of variance. Chapter 8 extends the procedures to multiple categorical variables and how they can be handled in the multiple regression framework to achieve the same results one would obtain via ANOV computational procedures in factorial designs. Chapter 9 departs from this theme to open considerations of testing for linear and curvilinear regression when working with continu'ous variables. Chapter 10 weaves these considerations into those developed earlier regarding categorical variables and discusses regression procedures for handling both continuous and categorical regressors in the same equation. (I have found this to be a topic of great interest among sociology students who wonder how to use

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The LISREL VI computer program was employed to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to assess the tenability of a five factor hierarchical model representing four first-order factors or dimensions and a second-order general factor representing intrinsic motivation as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The present study was designed to assess selected psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) (Ryan, 1982), a multidimensional measure of subjects' experience with regard to experimental tasks. Subjects (N = 116) competed in a basketball free-throw shooting game, following which they completed the IMI. The LISREL VI computer program was employed to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to assess the tenability of a five factor hierarchical model representing four first-order factors or dimensions and a second-order general factor representing intrinsic motivation. Indices of model acceptability tentatively suggest that the sport data adequately fit the hypothesized five factor hierarchical model. Alternative models were tested but did not result in significant improvements in the goodness-of-fit indices, suggesting the proposed model to be the most accurate of the models tested. Coefficient alphas for the four dimensions and the overall scale indicated adequate reliabilit...

2,050 citations

Book
31 Dec 1989
TL;DR: The LISREL Confirmatory Factor Analytic (CFA) model as discussed by the authors is a CFA-based model that is used to verify the correctness of a theoretical construct.
Abstract: Section I Introduction.- 1 The LISREL Confirmatory Factor Analytic (CFA) Model.- 1. Basic Concepts.- 2. The General LISREL Model.- 3. The LISREL CFA Model.- 4. Summary.- 2 Using the LISREL Program.- LISREL Input.- 1. Basic Rules.- 2. Problem Run Specification.- 3. Data Specification.- 4. Model Specification.- 5. Output Specification.- LISREL Output.- 1. Standard Output.- 2. Error Messages.- Summary.- Section II Single-Group Analyses.- 3 Application 1: Validating a Theoretical Construct.- Hypothesis 1: Self-Concept Is a Four-Factor Structure.- 1. LISREL Input.- 2. LISREL Output.- 3. The Issue of Post Hoc Model Fitting.- Hypothesis 2: Self-Concept Is a Two-Factor Structure.- Hypothesis 3: Self-Concept Is a One-Factor Structure.- Summary.- 4 Application 2: Validating a Measuring Instrument.- 1. The SDQIII: The Measuring Instrument Under Study.- 2. LISREL Input.- 3. LISREL Output.- 4. Post Hoc Analyses.- 5. Summary.- 5 Validating Multiple Traits Assessed by Multiple Methods: The Multitrait-Multimethod Framework.- 1. Assessment of Contruct Validity: The MTMM Matrix.- 2. LISREL Input.- 3. LISREL Output.- 4. Comparison of MTMM Models.- 5. Summary.- Section III Multigroup Analyses.- 6 Testing for Measurement and Structural Invariance of a Theoretical Construct.- 1. Testing for Factorial Invariance: The General Framework.- 2. Tests for Invariance Related to Self-Concept.- 3. LISREL Input for Multigroup Analyses.- 4. Testing Hypotheses Related to Factorial Invariance.- 5. Summary.- 7 Testing for Item Invariance of a Measuring Instrument.- 1. Tests for Invariance Related to the SDQIII.- 2. Tests for Invariance Across Ability.- 3. Summary.- 8 Testing for Invariant Latent Mean Structures.- 1. Tests for Invariance Related to Latent Self-Concept Means.- 2. Testing for the Invariance of Factor Covariance Structures.- 3. Testing for the Invariance of Factor Mean Structures.- 4. Summary.- References.- Appendix: Description of Data and Measuring Instruments.

1,291 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Also, RMSEA should be between .05 and .08 (Byrne, 1989; Kim, 2002; Kline, 2005)....

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The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class‐type differences.