scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Performance Analysis and improvement of ZigBee routing protocol

01 Jan 2007-IFAC Proceedings Volumes (Elsevier)-Vol. 40, Iss: 22, pp 199-206
TL;DR: A performance analysis and an improvement of ZigBee routing protocol are carried out and it is showed that Hierarchical Tree Routing provides shorter average end to end delay but performs poorly in terms of energy consumption.
About: This article is published in IFAC Proceedings Volumes.The article was published on 2007-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 53 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Dynamic Source Routing & Wireless Routing Protocol.

Summary (2 min read)

1. INTRODUCTION

  • It consists in analyzing both HTR and AODV and comparing their performance in terms of end to end delay and energy consumption.
  • (Das et al., 2000), for example, made a performance comparison between AODV and Dynamic Source Routing (The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, 1998) (DSR).
  • For HTR, (Koubaa et al., 2006b) tackled modeling and Worst-Case dimensioning of cluster tree WSNs using network calculus theory (Leboudec and Thiran, 2001).
  • The authors believe that this is a good starting point for providing QoS support to ZigBee standard.

2. ZRP OVERVIEW

  • The ZigBee network layer supports star, tree and mesh topology.
  • In tree networks, a master device called ZigBee coordinator is responsible for starting the network and for choosing certain key network parameters.
  • For routercapable child devices, the address assignment uses the value of Cskip(d) as an offset : if the node is the first served, its address is 1 greater than its parent address.
  • It uses HTR algorithm for data transfer.

3. PERFORMANCE STUDY

  • The authors describe firstly the simulation setup.
  • Then the authors report the analysis of simulation results.

3.1 Simulation description and scenarios

  • The authors have developed the ZigBee HTR algorithm under NS-2 simulator (ns, n.d.) on the top of the existing IEEE 802.15.4 implementation.
  • The Beacon scheduling mechanism defined by ZigBee is not implemented in the simulator.
  • The third one considers data transmission between two random nodes.
  • Finally, the energy consumption is analyzed to show the cost of each algorithm with regard to energy.

3.2.1. Case that the sink is the PAN coordinator

  • For nodes localised in the first depth, the average delay is the same, which is expected because the Route Discovery delay in AODV is very short.
  • To compare the effect of routes taken by both algorithms, the authors have eliminated the delay caused by route discovery process in AODV.
  • The analysis of trace files showed that this is caused by some extra delays in Route Request messages transmission.
  • How ever, the low variance value of HTR compared to AODV’s one means that some nodes don’t follow the best route to node 61, specially those who are around it because normally they lead to a shorter end to end delay in comparison with far nodes.
  • In the next scenario, the authors will try to confirm this conclusion.

3.2.3. Case of random source and destination

  • Two nodes are chosen randomly and traffic goes between them.
  • So, again, the delay caused by route discovery is eliminated to show the impact of this process.
  • For the HTR’s worst case, AODV performs better since the nodes are close to each other and route discovery process doesn’t take too much time.
  • The authors choose two nodes randomly and traffic goes between these nodes.
  • First, for HTR algorithm, the traffic stops when the first node along the tree dies.

4.1 Description of the modified algorithm

  • Using the neighbor’s Let V (x) denotes the neighbor list of node x and d(x) the depth of node x.
  • If there are multiple neighbors that fit the rule (D is a descendant of more than one neighbor), choose the one with the highest depth.

4.2 Illustration example

  • Let us consider the network illustrated in figure 6 where node 4 sends data to node 10 (the same network example used in section 2).
  • Since the latter has the highest depth, it is chosen and data is sent to it.

4.3 Simulation results

  • The authors have developed the M-HTR under NS-2 simulator.
  • The authors used the same network and parameters as in section 3. 100 simulations are ran and in each one two random nodes are chosen and traffic goes between these nodes.
  • Average results of the comparison between the basic HTR and M-HTR are shown in table 8.
  • The high delays obtained in these 21 simulations (larger than the average) for the Basic HTR algorithms show that most of the improved paths are Worst Cases.
  • M-HTR succeeds to eliminate these worst cases and to achieve a low end to end delay.

Did you find this useful? Give us your feedback

Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Simulation and comparison show that the proposed two-hop neighborhood information-based routing protocol has led to lower packet deadline miss ratio and higher energy efficiency than two existing popular schemes.
Abstract: A two-hop neighborhood information-based routing protocol is proposed for real-time wireless sensor networks. The approach of mapping packet deadline to a velocity is adopted as that in SPEED; however, our routing decision is made based on the novel two-hop velocity integrated with energy balancing mechanism. Initiative drop control is embedded to enhance energy utilization efficiency, while reducing packet deadline miss ratio. Simulation and comparison show that the new protocol has led to lower packet deadline miss ratio and higher energy efficiency than two existing popular schemes. The result has also indicated a promising direction in supporting real-time quality-of-service for wireless sensor networks.

156 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Finally, Section VI concludes this paper....

    [...]

01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: Results show that the proposed algorithm provides shorter average end-to-end delay, increase throughput and decrease the energy consumption from the network when compared to the original TR routing protocol.
Abstract: Summary Many application scenarios in wireless sensor network (WSN) require connectivity between nodes to transmit the collected data to a sink node. ZigBee is a standard for wireless personal area network (WPAN) based on IEEE 802.15.4. It has been developed for low cost, low data rate and low power consumption. ZigBee uses Ad-Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Tree Routing (TR) as a routing protocol. In TR protocol, the packets follow the tree topology for forwarding the data to the sink node even if the sink node is located near to the source node. In this paper, we present an enhancement of the TR protocol called Improved Tree Routing (ImpTR) protocol. The new ImpTR protocol determines the shortest path to the sink node depending on the neighbor table instead of following the tree topology. The packets are forwarded to the neighbor node if the path to the destination through neighbor node is shorter than the path through PAN coordinator. Results show that the proposed algorithm provides shorter average end-to-end delay, increase throughput and decrease the energy consumption from the network when compared to the original TR routing protocol.

37 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2008
TL;DR: This paper describes an improved ZigBee routing strategy for monitoring system and gives the realization about it and is meant to aid researchers in developing their own monitoring system based on ZigBee and assist users in determining the Zigbee routing strategy that best fits their needs.
Abstract: ZigBee offers a practical application solution coupled with low rate, low cost, low energy consumption characteristics for WSNs. There are many ZigBee monitoring systems which have been developed based on ZigBee. Energy consumption and latency are two critical performance measurements in most monitoring systems. The design of routing strategy in network layer may affect these two performance measurements. Energy consumption and latency of different routing algorithms are given based on analysis about ZigBee routing strategy including AODVjr and the hierarchical routing algorithm. This paper describes an improved ZigBee routing strategy for monitoring system and gives the realization about it. This paper is meant to aid researchers in developing their own monitoring system based on ZigBee and assist users in determining the ZigBee routing strategy that best fits their needs.

29 citations


Cites background from "Performance Analysis and improvemen..."

  • ...In order to reduce latency of Algorithm 2 further, Algorithm 2 can be improved by making full use of neighbor table in devices [4]....

    [...]

  • ...It performs better in terms of latency [4]....

    [...]

  • ...From the simulation in reference [4], in overwhelming majority situations the latency of AODVjr is longer than the hierarchical routing algorithm because the route discovery process of AODVjr leads to an extra delay....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work proposes a distributed routing algorithm to reduce power consumption of battery-powered devices by routing the communication through mains- powered devices whenever possible and consequently increasing the overall network lifetime.
Abstract: ZigBee is a recent wireless networking technology built on IEEE 802.15.4 standard and designed especially for low-data rate and low-duty cycle applications such as home and building automation and sensor networks. One of the primary goals of ZigBee is low power consumption and therefore long-living networks. Despite this goal, current network formation and routing protocols described in the ZigBee specification do not fully address power consumption issues. In this work, we propose a distributed routing algorithm to reduce power consumption of battery-powered devices by routing the communication through mains-powered devices whenever possible and consequently increasing the overall network lifetime. The proposed algorithm works on tree topologies supported by ZigBee and requires only minor modifications to the current specification. Our ns-2 simulation results showed that the algorithm is able to reduce the power consumption of battery-powered devices significantly with minimal communication overhead.

28 citations


Cites background from "Performance Analysis and improvemen..."

  • ...hierarchical tree routing and modified ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing—AODV) specified in the ZigBee standard and there are several studies analyzing and comparing these mechanisms [11, 25, 34]....

    [...]

Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Jun 2011
TL;DR: A wireless sensor network proposal for soccer team players' remote monitoring that allows knowing the physical state of each player during the whole match and in order to have fast updates and larger connection times to the gateways, the information can be routed through the players of both teams.
Abstract: One of the most desirable issues in team sports is to know how the physical state of each sportsman or sportswoman is performing during the match. Concretely, a soccer match is 90 minutes long and the players could be more or less tired depending on the dynamic of the soccer game (fast or slow) and on the place where the ball have been rolling (which affects more to one users than others). This paper presents a wireless sensor network proposal for soccer team players' remote monitoring. Each player has a wireless body sensor and each player will be a sensor node in the wireless sensor network. The approach allows knowing the physical state of each player during the whole match. In order to have fast updates and larger connection times to the gateways, the information can be routed through the players of both teams. We focus our study in the network topology and in the mobility model of the soccer players.

25 citations

References
More filters
Book
06 Jul 2001
TL;DR: The application of Network Calculus to the Internet and basic Min-plus and Max-plus Calculus and Optimal Multimedia Smoothing and Adaptive and Packet Scale Rate Guarantees are studied.
Abstract: Network Calculus.- Application of Network Calculus to the Internet.- Basic Min-plus and Max-plus Calculus.- Min-plus and Max-plus System Theory.- Optimal Multimedia Smoothing.- FIFO Systems and Aggregate Scheduling.- Adaptive and Packet Scale Rate Guarantees.- Time Varying Shapers.- Systems with Losses.

1,666 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Mar 2000
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that even though DSR and AODV share a similar on-demand behavior the differences in the protocol mechanics can lead to significant performance differentials.
Abstract: Ad hoc networks are characterized by multi-hop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of two prominent on-demand routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks - dynamic source routing (DSR) and ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV). A detailed simulation model with MAC and physical layer models is used to study inter-layer interactions and their performance implications. We demonstrate that even though DSR and AODV share a similar on-demand behavior the differences in the protocol mechanics can lead to significant performance differentials. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility and network size. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about how the performance of either protocol can be improved.

1,629 citations


"Performance Analysis and improvemen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(Das et al., 2000), for example, made a performance comparison between AODV and Dynamic Source Routing (The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, 1998) (DSR)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that even though DSR and AODV share similar on-demand behavior, the differences in the protocol mechanics can lead to significant performance differentials.
Abstract: Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of two prominent on-demand routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: dynamic source routing (DSR) and ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV). A detailed simulation model with MAC and physical layer models is used to study interlayer interactions and their performance implications. We demonstrate that even though DSR and AODV share similar on-demand behavior, the differences in the protocol mechanics can lead to significant performance differentials. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about how the performance of either protocol can be improved.

1,470 citations

Frequently Asked Questions (2)
Q1. What are the contributions mentioned in the paper "Performance analysis and improvement of zigbee routing protocol" ?

In this paper, a performance analysis and an improvement of ZigBee routing protocol are carried out. The results showed that Hierarchical Tree Routing provides shorter average end to end delay but performs poorly in terms of energy consumption. 

So, further work must be done to ameliorate HTR protocol. In their future work, the authors will try to obtain a more general analysis of ZRP using all access mechanisms implemented in IEEE 802. The authors can easily make it more dynamic to avoid high energy consumption and to add real time characteristics.