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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Performance Analysis of IEEE802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks

19 May 2008-pp 2547-2551
TL;DR: This paper presents the analytically traceable stochastic models to characterize the average delay and throughput performance in wireless mesh networks, and model the forwarding mesh routers as an open queuing network.
Abstract: The wireless mesh network is emerging as a promising technology in providing economical and scalable broadband Internet accesses to communities. The backbone of the wireless mesh network consists of mesh routers, which connect each other in an ad hoc manner via wireless links. The presence of backbone mesh routers and utilization of multiple channels and interfaces allow the wireless mesh network to have better capacity than that of the infrastructure-free ad hoc network formed by mesh clients directly. A special type of the mesh routers, referred to as gateway nodes, is capable of Internet connection, and other mesh routers and associated terminal clients have to access the Internet through the gateway nodes. In this paper, we present the analytically traceable stochastic models to characterize the average delay and throughput performance in wireless mesh networks. We model the forwarding mesh routers as an open queuing network. The analytical model takes into account the mesh router density, the random packet arrival process, the degree of locality of traffic and the collision avoidance mechanism of the IEEE802.11 DCF random access MAC. Our simulation results suggest that the analytical results are quite accurate, which can provide valuable insights in system performance and an effective guideline for the scalable design and optimization in wireless mesh networks.
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
24 Aug 2015
TL;DR: The results indicated that both IPv4 and IPv6 802.11ac throughput is higher than802.11n, both ac and n IPv6 mode has lower jitter than IPv4's and the delay and drop rate metrics were also measured.
Abstract: With the wireless technologies being widely used, it is for sure that all types of wireless networking will become more and more popular now and in the near future. Therefore, measurement-based performance evaluation of different wireless network standards and traffics is becoming very important. In this research paper, the wireless local area network performance differences between IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11ac technologies of both IPv4 and IPv6 on two Windows 7 operating system computers which been implemented 802.11ac network devices is investigated. The results indicated that both IPv4 and IPv6 802.11ac throughput is higher than 802.11n, both ac and n IPv6 mode has lower jitter than IPv4's. The delay and drop rate metrics were also be measured.

21 citations


Cites methods from "Performance Analysis of IEEE802.11 ..."

  • ...The first phase of the evaluation involved measuring the throughput of UDP, TCP, DNS, VoIP and Telnet traffic....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper forms this WDS clustering problem, and proves the NP-completeness of its decision version through reduction from the bin packing problem and presents its two-stage heuristic algorithm where it is verified the effectiveness of the approach through extensive simulations.
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks have been extensively studied as expandable, flexible, and inexpensive access networks to the Internet. This paper focuses on one composed of multiple access points (APs) connected through multihop wireless communications mainly by the wireless distribution system (WDS). For scalability, the proper partition of APs into multiple WDS clusters is essential, because the number of APs in one cluster is limited due to the increasing radio interference and control packets. In this paper, we formulate this WDS clustering problem and prove the NP-completeness of its decision version through reduction from a known NP-complete problem. Then, we propose its heuristic algorithm, using a greedy method and a variable depth search method, to satisfy the complex constraints while optimizing the cost function. We verify the effectiveness of our algorithm through extensive simulations, where the results confirm its superiority to the existing algorithm in terms of throughput.

16 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2015
TL;DR: The major aspects of this project will cover setting up a real time wireless mesh test bed and performance analysis of BATMAN-adv and HWMN and their comparisons.
Abstract: Over the past few years, connections between the end devices or stations have been increasingly wireless. In 1997, 802.11 subcommittee had first approved its Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standard. Since then, many wireless networking standards have taken extra efforts in developing mesh architectures in which data is forwarded between multiple wireless hops to reach the desired destination. The main advantage of Wireless Mesh Network over the traditional WLAN is the fact that Wireless Mesh Networks are easy to deploy, flexible, have capability of self-forming, self-healing, and self-organization. In this Project, an implementation and development of wireless mesh network test bed is carried out on the layer 2 routing using Better Approach to Mobile Adhoc Network-advanced (BATMAN-adv) and Hybrid Wireless Mesh Network (HWMN) protocols. The main reason for the use of layer 2 protocol over layer 3 is the less processing overhead that helps in maximizing the throughput. Also, a protocol that runs on layer 2 is capable of supporting any protocol above layer 2. The major aspects of this project will cover setting up a real time wireless mesh test bed and performance analysis of BATMAN-adv and HWMN and their comparisons.

13 citations


Cites methods from "Performance Analysis of IEEE802.11 ..."

  • ...Jitter: The average delay from one node to a different node I, in a WMN is given by Diffusion Approximation Equation [20]....

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Proceedings Article
15 Feb 2009
TL;DR: An effective QoS based provisioning vertical handover decision between IEEE 802.11 and 802.16 is proposed and investigated using QualNet network simulator.
Abstract: Wireless networking is becoming a popular and important way to provide global information access to users on the move. Current technologies are different in their characteristics such as bandwidths, latencies, frequencies and media access methods. Most existing wireless network technologies can be divided into two categories: those that provide a low-bandwidth service over a wide area and those that provide a high bandwidth service over a narrow area. Therefore, we propose an effective QoS based provisioning vertical handover decision between IEEE 802.11 and 802.16. Also, we investigate the proposal using QualNet network simulator.

10 citations


Cites background from "Performance Analysis of IEEE802.11 ..."

  • ...It covers a potentially much larger area than home, enterprise, building, or community networks [2][3]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2011
TL;DR: Experimental results from real-world trials are given, which show that this protocol can maintain a reasonable throughput when nodes are abruptly entering and leaving, making it ideal for a dynamically changing system, such as an ad-hoc network.
Abstract: Fractional cooperation is a decentralized, low-complexity wireless networking protocol in which nodes have the ability to dynamically select a fraction of its resources to commit to forwarding, and where sources may use more than one relay to convey information to the destination. In this paper, an implementation and a series of experiments are presented to demonstrate the practical performance and effectiveness of fractional cooperation. A low-complexity MAC layer protocol is used, which employs fractional cooperation using LT codes in the absence of central coordination. Experimental results from real-world trials are given, which show that this protocol can maintain a reasonable throughput when nodes are abruptly entering and leaving, making it ideal for a dynamically changing system, such as an ad-hoc network. The redundancy of information seen in the network makes this scheme robust to unfavourable channel conditions.

6 citations


Cites background from "Performance Analysis of IEEE802.11 ..."

  • ...Our contributions in this work are as follows: • We implement our MAC layer protocol on Imote2 sensor nodes, creating a WMN....

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  • ...• Through experiments on our implemented WMN, we show that the proposed protocol can reliably transmit information over the network, even when each node in the network relays a fraction of the source’s transmission, and there is no centralized coordination of the fractions....

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  • ...Furthermore, in systems such as wireless mesh networks (WMN) [6], each node can be a source and a relay....

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References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple but nevertheless extremely accurate, analytical model to compute the 802.11 DCF throughput, in the assumption of finite number of terminals and ideal channel conditions, is presented.
Abstract: The IEEE has standardized the 802.11 protocol for wireless local area networks. The primary medium access control (MAC) technique of 802.11 is called the distributed coordination function (DCF). The DCF is a carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme with binary slotted exponential backoff. This paper provides a simple, but nevertheless extremely accurate, analytical model to compute the 802.11 DCF throughput, in the assumption of finite number of terminals and ideal channel conditions. The proposed analysis applies to both the packet transmission schemes employed by DCF, namely, the basic access and the RTS/CTS access mechanisms. In addition, it also applies to a combination of the two schemes, in which packets longer than a given threshold are transmitted according to the RTS/CTS mechanism. By means of the proposed model, we provide an extensive throughput performance evaluation of both access mechanisms of the 802.11 protocol.

8,072 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A detailed investigation of current state-of-the-art protocols and algorithms for WMNs is presented and open research issues in all protocol layers are discussed to spark new research interests in this field.
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have emerged as a key technology for next-generation wireless networking. Because of their advantages over other wireless networks, WMNs are undergoing rapid progress and inspiring numerous applications. However, many technical issues still exist in this field. In order to provide a better understanding of the research challenges of WMNs, this article presents a detailed investigation of current state-of-the-art protocols and algorithms for WMNs. Open research issues in all protocol layers are also discussed, with an objective to spark new research interests in this field.

1,785 citations


"Performance Analysis of IEEE802.11 ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...INTRODUCTION Recently, the deployment of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) providing economical and scalable broadband Internet connectivity among communities is becoming progressively popular[1],[2]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article provides exact upper bounds on the throughput of any node in a WMN for a given topology and the set of active nodes, and shows that for WMNs the throughput decreases as O(1/n), where n is the total number of nodes in the network.
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks are an alternative technology for last-mile broadband Internet access. In WMNs, similar to ad hoc networks, each user node operates not only as a host but also as a router; user packets are forwarded to and from an Internet-connected gateway in multihop fashion. The meshed topology provides good reliability, market coverage, and scalability, as well as low upfront investments. Despite the recent startup surge in WMNs, much research remains to be done before WMNs realize their full potential. This article tackles the problem of determining the exact capacity of a WMN. The key concept we introduce to enable this calculation is the bottleneck collision domain, defined as the geographical area of the network that bounds from above the amount of data that can be transmitted in the network. We show that for WMNs the throughput of each node decreases as O(1/n), where n is the total number of nodes in the network. In contrast with most existing work on ad hoc network capacity, we do not limit our study to the asymptotic case. In particular, for a given topology and the set of active nodes, we provide exact upper bounds on the throughput of any node. The calculation can be used to provision the network, to ensure quality of service and fairness. The theoretical results are validated by detailed simulations.

614 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
13 Mar 2005
TL;DR: A fixed point formalisation of the well known analysis of Bianchi is studied, and it is shown how the saturated network analysis can be used to obtain TCP transfer throughputs in some cases.
Abstract: We study a fixed point formalisation of the well known analysis of Bianchi. We provide a significant simplification and generalisation of the analysis. In this more general framework, the fixed point solution and performance measures resulting from it are studied. Uniqueness of the fixed point is established. Simple and general throughput formulas are provided. It is shown that the throughput of any flow will be bounded by the one with the smallest transmission rate. The aggregate throughput is bounded by the reciprocal of the harmonic mean of the transmission rates. In an asymptotic regime with a large number of nodes, explicit formulas for the collision probability, the aggregate attempt rate and the aggregate throughput are provided. The results from the analysis are compared with ns2 simulations, and also with an exact Markov model of the back-off process. It is shown how the saturated network analysis can be used to obtain TCP transfer throughputs in some cases.

159 citations


"Performance Analysis of IEEE802.11 ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Later, authors of [7] derived a general formula relating the collision probability γ to the attempt rate per each idle slot by a decoupling node....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
11 Dec 2006
TL;DR: The average delay and capacity in random access MAC based WMNs are characterized and it is indicated that how the performance of WMNs scales with the number of mesh routers and clients scales withThe analytical results indicate that howThe results obtained for WMNs compare with well known results on asymptotic capacity of infrastructure-less ad hoc networks.
Abstract: The wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are emerging as a popular means of providing connectivity to communities in both affluent and poor parts of the world. The presence of backbone mesh routers and the use of multiple channels and interfaces allow mesh networks to have better capacity than infrastructure-less multihop ad hoc networks. In this paper we characterize the average delay and capacity in random access MAC based WMNs. We model residential area WMNs as open G/G/1 queuing networks. The analytical model takes into account the mesh client and router density, the random packet arrival process, the degree of locality of traffic and the collision avoidance mechanism of random access MAC. The diffusion approximation method is used to obtain closed form expressions for end-to-end packet delay and maximum achievable per-node throughput. The analytical results indicate that how the performance of WMNs scales with the number of mesh routers and clients. We also discuss that how the results obtained for WMNs compare with well known results on asymptotic capacity of infrastructure-less ad hoc networks. The results obtained from simulations agree closely with the analytical results.

65 citations


"Performance Analysis of IEEE802.11 ..." refers result in this paper

  • ...Similar to [9] and [10], we assume that mesh router receives data in a Poisson distribution with the same mean value of λ at each cell, then Ka = Ks = 1....

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