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Book ChapterDOI

Performance Analysis of MIMO- Space-Time Trellis Code System over Fading Channels

28 Jan 2011-pp 262-268
TL;DR: The design criteria for fading channels, employs that transmit and receive antenna diversity is discussed, and it is observed from the simulation results that the code performance is improved by increasing the number of states, and also it provided the coding advantage as theNumber of states and receives antennas increases.
Abstract: This paper discusses the error performance of Space- Time Trellis Code system over fading channels. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology constitutes a breakthrough in the design of wireless communications systems, and is already at the core of several wireless standards. It offers high data rate and excellent throughput of wireless communication system. Trellis-code modulation (TCM) is one of the bandwidth efficient coding modulation techniques used in digital communications system. Here we discuss the design criteria for fading channels, employs that transmit and receive antenna diversity. It is observed from the simulation results that the code performance is improved by increasing the number of states. Also it provided the coding advantage as the number of states and receives antennas increases. The simulation have been conducted for 4 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) with data rate 2 b/Hz/s for two transmit and two receive antennas (NT=NR=2) system, provided better performance using 64 states STTC encoder.
Topics: Space–time trellis code (67%), Fading (64%), Phase-shift keying (60%), Antenna diversity (59%), MIMO (57%)
References
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Book
15 Jan 1996-
Abstract: From the Publisher: The indispensable guide to wireless communications—now fully revised and updated! Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition is the definitive modern text for wireless communications technology and system design. Building on his classic first edition, Theodore S. Rappaport covers the fundamental issues impacting all wireless networks and reviews virtually every important new wireless standard and technological development, offering especially comprehensive coverage of the 3G systems and wireless local area networks (WLANs) that will transform communications in the coming years. Rappaport illustrates each key concept with practical examples, thoroughly explained and solved step by step. Coverage includes: An overview of key wireless technologies: voice, data, cordless, paging, fixed and mobile broadband wireless systems, and beyond Wireless system design fundamentals: channel assignment, handoffs, trunking efficiency, interference, frequency reuse, capacity planning, large-scale fading, and more Path loss, small-scale fading, multipath, reflection, diffraction, scattering, shadowing, spatial-temporal channel modeling, and microcell/indoor propagation Modulation, equalization, diversity, channel coding, and speech coding New wireless LAN technologies: IEEE 802.11a/b, HIPERLAN, BRAN, and other alternatives New 3G air interface standards, including W-CDMA, cdma2000, GPRS, UMTS, and EDGE Bluetooth wearable computers, fixed wireless and Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS), and other advanced technologies Updated glossary of abbreviations and acronyms, and a thorolist of references Dozens of new examples and end-of-chapter problems Whether you're a communications/network professional, manager, researcher, or student, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition gives you an in-depth understanding of the state of the art in wireless technology—today's and tomorrow's.

16,896 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bit-rates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multi-element array (MEA) technology, that is processing the spatial dimension (not just the time dimension) to improve wireless capacities in certain applications. Specifically, we present some basic information theory results that promise great advantages of using MEAs in wireless LANs and building to building wireless communication links. We explore the important case when the channel characteristic is not available at the transmitter but the receiver knows (tracks) the characteristic which is subject to Rayleigh fading. Fixing the overall transmitted power, we express the capacity offered by MEA technology and we see how the capacity scales with increasing SNR for a large but practical number, n, of antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver. We investigate the case of independent Rayleigh faded paths between antenna elements and find that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available. Compared to the baseline n = 1 case, which by Shannon‘s classical formula scales as one more bit/cycle for every 3 dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increase, remarkably with MEAs, the scaling is almost like n more bits/cycle for each 3 dB increase in SNR. To illustrate how great this capacity is, even for small n, take the cases n = 2, 4 and 16 at an average received SNR of 21 dB. For over 99% of the channels the capacity is about 7, 19 and 88 bits/cycle respectively, while if n = 1 there is only about 1.2 bit/cycle at the 99% level. For say a symbol rate equal to the channel bandwith, since it is the bits/symbol/dimension that is relevant for signal constellations, these higher capacities are not unreasonable. The 19 bits/cycle for n = 4 amounts to 4.75 bits/symbol/dimension while 88 bits/cycle for n = 16 amounts to 5.5 bits/symbol/dimension. Standard approaches such as selection and optimum combining are seen to be deficient when compared to what will ultimately be possible. New codecs need to be invented to realize a hefty portion of the great capacity promised.

10,358 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We consider the design of channel codes for improving the data rate and/or the reliability of communications over fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded by a channel code and the encoded data is split into n streams that are simultaneously transmitted using n transmit antennas. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the n transmitted signals perturbed by noise. We derive performance criteria for designing such codes under the assumption that the fading is slow and frequency nonselective. Performance is shown to be determined by matrices constructed from pairs of distinct code sequences. The minimum rank among these matrices quantifies the diversity gain, while the minimum determinant of these matrices quantifies the coding gain. The results are then extended to fast fading channels. The design criteria are used to design trellis codes for high data rate wireless communication. The encoding/decoding complexity of these codes is comparable to trellis codes employed in practice over Gaussian channels. The codes constructed here provide the best tradeoff between data rate, diversity advantage, and trellis complexity. Simulation results are provided for 4 and 8 PSK signal sets with data rates of 2 and 3 bits/symbol, demonstrating excellent performance that is within 2-3 dB of the outage capacity for these channels using only 64 state encoders.

7,020 citations


Book
02 Jun 2003-
TL;DR: This volume provides an overview of design principles and major space-time coding techniques starting from MIMO system information theory capacity bounds and channel models, while endeavouring to pave the way towards complex areas such as applications of space time codes and their performance evaluation in wide-band wireless channels.
Abstract: From the Publisher: "Space-Time Coding provides an introduction to the subject and its application to wireless communication systems. With the integration of Internet and multimedia applications in next generation wireless communications, the demand for wide-band high data rate communication services is growing. Space-time coding is based on introducing joint correlation in transmitted signals in both space and time domains. This volume provides an overview of design principles and major space-time coding techniques starting from MIMO system information theory capacity bounds and channel models, while endeavouring to pave the way towards complex areas such as applications of space time codes and their performance evaluation in wide-band wireless channels." Written in a highly accessible format, Space-Time Coding is intended for postgraduate students, practicing engineers and researchers. The reader will have some familiarity with basic digital communications, matrix analysis and probability theory.

837 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
18 May 1998-
TL;DR: A space-time coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulated physical layer is designed which combines coding and modulation and is attractive for delay-sensitive applications.
Abstract: There has been an increasing interest in providing high data-rate services such as video-conferencing, multimedia Internet access and wide area network over wideband wireless channels. Wideband wireless channels available in the PCS band (2 GHz) have been envisioned to be used by mobile (high Doppler) and stationary (low Doppler) units in a variety of delay spread profiles. This is a challenging task, given the limited link budget and severity of wireless environment, and calls for the development of novel robust bandwidth efficient techniques which work reliably at low SNRs. To this end, we design a space-time coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulated physical layer. This combines coding and modulation. Space-time codes were previously proposed for narrowband wireless channels. These codes have high spectral efficiency and operate at very low SNR (within 2-3 dB of the capacity). On the other hand, OFDM has matured as a modulation scheme for wideband channels. We combine these two in a natural manner and propose a system achieving data rates of 1.5-3 Mbps over a 1 MHz bandwidth channel. This system requires 18-23 dB (resp. 9-14 dB) receive SNR at a frame error probability of 10/sup -2/ with two transmit and one receive antennas (resp. two transmit and two receive antennas). As space-time coding does not require any form of interleaving, the proposed system is attractive for delay-sensitive applications.

595 citations


"Performance Analysis of MIMO- Space..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Although this is true for AWGN channel, this is not always the case for the quasi-static flat fading channel where there are no dominant error events [ 4 ]....

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  • ...The error performance upper bounds given by eq. (6) and eq.(7) indicate that the design criteria for slow Rayleigh fading channels will [ 4 ] depend on the value of rN R . The maximum possible values of rN R is NN TR when NT = NR. For small...

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