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Journal ArticleDOI

Performance analysis of power generating sludge combustion plant and comparison against other sludge treatment technologies

01 Feb 2010-Applied Thermal Engineering (Elsevier)-Vol. 30, Iss: 2, pp 110-118
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of a heat and power generating sludge combustion plant from technical and economical viewpoints was analyzed and compared to optional sludge treatment technologies, and two plant sizes below 1000 kWe range were investigated, the smaller plant using sludge as only fuel and the larger plant with wood chips as the additional fuel.
About: This article is published in Applied Thermal Engineering.The article was published on 2010-02-01 and is currently open access. It has received 43 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Sewage sludge treatment & Sludge.

Summary (2 min read)

Introduction

  • Development of wastewater treatment in developed countries has increased the amount of wastewater sludge during the past decades.
  • The problems are usually related to low demand and varying quality of the product as well as odor release.
  • Because of the aforementioned problems in biological treatment and advantages of thermal treatment, the incineration of wastewater sludge is estimated to increase remarkably in the EU.
  • The challenge is not only in showing the technical and economical competitiveness of the technology, but also in the social and cultural acceptability of the technology.
  • Optional design alternatives of a Waste-to-Combined Heat and Power concept are studied.

Studied plants

  • Two alternatives are considered for the WtCHP plant: a plant that uses sludge as the only fuel and a plant where additional fuel such as biofuel or recycled fuel are combusted in combination with sludge.
  • Part of the turbine discharge steam flow is taken to the dryer where the low temperature-level heat is utilized to vaporize the water content of the sludge without mixing the flows.
  • The heating plant WtH constitutes an alternative for the cogenerating WtCHP plant, turning waste to heat only.
  • In conventional construction of a turbogenerator, a mechanical power transmission (reduction gear) is used between the turbine and the generator to set the rotating speed of the generator as desired.
  • To determine the sensitivity of the WtCHP plant performance, Figure 3 presents the effect of the sludge dry solids content and main process parameters on the electric and thermal power of the smaller plant.

Economic analysis

  • Investment costs have been determined for the studied plants by assuming a one-time acquisition and using a previous work [14] with similar plants as the basis.
  • The effect on the equipment price has been taken into account assuming the price relative to the equipment capacity, raised to the power 0.7.
  • To establish the boundary conditions for the competitiveness of the WtCHP plant against WtH plant, a limiting value has been determined for the heat and electricity price ratio so that the payback periods of the plant alternatives of similar size become equal.
  • As the revenue from sludge is increased due to the increased sludge reception fee, the significance of the heat and electricity prices are further reduced, which is indicated by the decrease of the limiting value.
  • It is worth noting that the limiting value does not depend on the absolute values for the investment, only on their ratio.

Discussion

  • The steam properties that are used in the WtCHP plant represent conventional values in small scale steam power plants.
  • In the heat-only plant WtH, commercial hot water boiler could be applied to reduce the plant cost.
  • The precondition for this kind of integrated energy conversion and sludge treatment is that there is an existing suitable multi-fuel boiler, or need for such an amount of energy that the local or regional sludge flow forms only a small part of the fuel supply.
  • The offering will be fulfilled through projects, plants and services, which are the outcomes of the different factors in the business.
  • The actual process of social acceptance from recognizing the need for a new technology to the confirmation stage, when a decision-maker seeks reinforcement for the decision already made, is based on the decisionmaker’s subjective past experiences and those cultural elements that originate in the prevailing society [24].

Conclusions

  • In the computational part of this study, the economic feasibility of the Waste-to-Combined Heat and Power concept has been analyzed for two plant sizes: the smaller one with sludge as the only fuel and the larger one with co-firing of sludge and biofuel.
  • In addition, optional design possibilities of the WtCHP concept have been introduced so that the local energy needs can be taken into account.
  • The results indicate that it is typically more profitable to burn sludge and potential co-firing fuel in a heat-only WtH plant than in a cogenerating WtCHP plant.
  • This is due to the high cost of the power cycle.
  • In addition to the existing demand for services and infrastructure and the need for renovations, locally and regionally optimal solution is affected by other local industrial activities, amenability of the decision makers, and the attitude of the authorities and local citizens to the new technology.

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Citations
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01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method to solve the problem of "missing links" in the field of combat games by using a game-theoretic approach, which they called "game-changing games".
Abstract: 第1章 Xerox PARC—クローズド・イノベーションの成果と限界 第2章 クローズド・イノベーション・パラダイム 第3章 オープン・イノベーション・パラダイム 第4章 ビジネスモデル—社内、社外のイノベーションの結合 第5章 クローズド・イノベーションからオープン・イノベーションへ—IBMの変遷 第6章 インテルのオープン・イノベーション 第7章 企業内部のテクノロジーによる新たなベンチャー企業の創造—ルーセント・ニュー・ベンチャー・グループ 第8章 知的財産権のマネジメント 第9章 オープン・イノベーションに向けた戦略と戦術

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TL;DR: The treated sewage sludge and manure ash using the ASH DEC process represent significant potential phosphorus sources for P fertilizer production, which is significantly more than the P fertilizer demand in Finland's agricultural industries.

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Cites background from "Performance analysis of power gener..."

  • ...The sewage sludge and manure were assumed to be incinerated in a fluidized bed boiler with combined heat and electricity (CHP) production (Horttanainen et al., 2010)....

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References
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Book
01 Mar 2003
TL;DR: Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting From Technology as discussed by the authors is a book by Henry Chesbrough, which discusses the importance of open innovation for creating and profiting from technology.
Abstract: The article reviews the book “Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting From Technology,” by Henry Chesbrough.

8,644 citations

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TL;DR: The special issue on Social Acceptance of Renewable Energy Innovation as mentioned in this paper is a collection of best papers presented at an international research conference held in Tramelan (Switzerland) in February 2006.

2,195 citations


"Performance analysis of power gener..." refers background in this paper

  • ...ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 15 of renewable energy innovation [23]....

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Journal ArticleDOI

1,955 citations


"Performance analysis of power gener..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The business concept for a small scale WtCHP plant relies on the theoretical frame of business concepts by Hamel [18] and Chesbrough [19], [20]....

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Book
Gary Hamel1
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: Hamel as mentioned in this paper argues that the impetus for radical change in a business must come from the ideas and energies of the people within the company, not from consultants or external advisors, and also believes that innovation and radical change will be necessary for wealth creation in the coming years.
Abstract: In this interview, international strategy guru Gary Hamel explains the thinking behind his new book, Leading the Revolution. He believes that the impetus for radical change in a business must come from the ideas and energies of the people within the company, not from consultants or external advisors. He also believes that innovation and radical change will be necessary for wealth creation in the coming years – change not only in products and processes, but change in entire business models as well. The interview includes Hamel’s guidelines for those at any level of an organization who may have ideas about new opportunities that can revolutionize the company or the industry.

1,797 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a Business Model Framework (BMF) is proposed to enable the creation of business models from very basic (and not very valuable) models to far more advanced models.
Abstract: Purpose – To innovate the company business model, executives must first understand what it is, and then examine what paths exist for them to improve on it. This article aims to examine this issue.Design/methodology/approach – The article provides a practical definition of business models and offers a Business Model Framework (BMF) that illuminates the opportunities for business model innovation.Findings – The article finds that BMF sequences possible business models from very basic (and not very valuable) models to far more advanced (and very valuable) models. Using the BMF, companies can assess where their current business model stands in relation to its potential and then define appropriate next steps for the further advancement of it.Practical implications – An organization must give a senior manager the resources and authority to define and launch business‐model experiments.Originality/value – The article provides a cogent model for assessing the potential for new business model innovation, a framewor...

1,460 citations


"Performance analysis of power gener..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The business concept for a small scale WtCHP plant relies on the theoretical frame of business concepts by Hamel [18] and Chesbrough [19], [20]....

    [...]

Frequently Asked Questions (2)
Q1. What are the contributions in "Performance analysis of power generating sludge combustion plant and comparison against other sludge treatment technologies" ?

In this paper, the authors compared the performance of the combined heat and power ( WtCHP ) and biological treatment technologies for reducing the volume and mass of wastewater sludge. 

In addition, optional design possibilities of the WtCHP concept have been introduced so that the local energy needs can be taken into account. The payback periods of all studied plant alternatives are at the level that suggests feasibility for the investments, provided that heat is of reasonable value compared to electricity and the sludge reception fee is not too low. The results indicate that it is typically more profitable to burn sludge and potential co-firing fuel in a heat-only WtH plant than in a cogenerating WtCHP plant. The complicated combined effects of several factors can be cleared up by using, for example, the multicriteria decision support method presented by Luoranen and Horttanainen [ 25 ].