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Journal ArticleDOI

Performance and endocrine responses to differing ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training

TL;DR: The data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low and higher frequencies of Endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training.
Abstract: The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ≤ 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.

Summary (1 min read)

PERFORMANCE AND ENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO DIFFERING RATIOS OF 1

  • The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying 2 ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen.
  • 12 13 Research has indicated that any interference experienced during a concurrent 14 strength and endurance training regimen may be dependent in part on the volume of 15 training performed (1, 13, 24, 25, 33).
  • A 6 week training 8 intervention was completed, during which participants were randomly assigned to 9 one of four experimental conditions: either i) strength training alone (ST), ii) 10 concurrent strength and endurance training at a ratio of 3:1 (CT3), iii) concurrent 11 strength and endurance training at a ratio of 1:1 (CT1), or iv) no training (CON).
  • The CT3 group completed strength training on every 14 scheduled session with every third session immediately followed by an endurance 15 training protocol.
  • 12 13 Subjects 14 Prior to all experimental procedures the study was approved by the Northumbria 15 University research ethics committee.

Endurance training protocol 18

  • In all instances endurance training was conducted immediately following strength 19 training.
  • For analysis 3 purposes lower body strength was assessed via back squat and deadlift 1RM total 4 load.
  • These exercises were 6 chosen as they are considered gross motor movements that require all the major 7 joints and muscle groups involved in the strength training intervention.
  • All 8 assessments were conducted in line with standardised procedures (29).

Maximal aerobic capacity - ?̇?O2max 11

  • All participants lean mass and % body fat was assessed prior to and following 3 and 6 6 weeks of training.
  • Immediately following this incubation 100 ųL of TMB stop solution was 23 pipetted into each well and the contents were briefly mixed by gently agitating the 24 plate.
  • If significant effects between conditions or over time were 19 observed post-hoc differences were analysed with the use of Bonferroni correction.
  • All training conditions elicited increases in lower body strength at the mid-12 intervention time point following 3 weeks of training (ST; 9.0 ± 4.5%, p < 0.001.

Strength training performance 7

  • Post training after the mid-intervention session CT1 10 was the only condition which resulted in significantly greater cortisol increases than 11 CON (49.2 ± 3.1%, p < 0.001).
  • Studies employing concurrent training frequencies of ≥ 3 11 d·wk-1 have typically reported some manifestation of interference characteristics (2, 12 14, 19, 22).
  • Volpe SL, Walberg-Rankin J, Rodman KW, and Sebolt DR.

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Northumbria Research Link
Citation: Jones, Thomas, Howatson, Glyn, Russell, Mark and French, Duncan (2016)
Performance and endocrine responses to di*ering ratios of concurrent strength and
endurance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30 (3). pp. 693-702.
ISSN 1064-8011
Published by: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
URL: https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001135
<https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001135>
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http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/25940/
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1
PERFORMANCE AND ENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO DIFFERING RATIOS OF
1
CONCURRENT STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING
2
3
PERFORMANCE RESPONSES TO DIFFERING RATIOS OF CONCURRENT
4
TRAINING
5
6
THOMAS. W JONES
1
, GLYN HOWATSON
2,3
, MARK RUSSELL
2
and DUNCAN N.
7
FRENCH
2,4
8
1
ASPIRE, Academy for Sports Excellence, Doha, Qatar
9
2
Department Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle
10
upon Tyne, United Kingdom
11
3
Water Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North
12
West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
13
4
English Institute of Sport, Sportcity, Manchester, United Kingdom
14
15
Dr Duncan N. French
16
Department of Sport and Exercise, and Rehabilitation
17
Northumbria University
18
Northumberland Building
19
Newcastle upon Tyne
20
NE1 8ST
21
duncan.french@northumbria.ac.uk
22
23

2
ABSTRACT
1
The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying
2
ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. 30
3
resistance-trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk
-1
of i) strength training (ST), ii)
4
concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), iii) concurrent strength
5
and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1) or iv) no training (CON). Strength training was
6
conducted using whole-body, multi-joint exercises, while endurance training
7
consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower body power,
8
and endocrine factors were conducted pre-training and following 3 and 6 weeks.
9
Following the intervention ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower body
10
strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p <
11
0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper body strength
12
following training. ST group observed greater increases in lower body power than all
13
other conditions (all p < 0.05). Following the final training session, CT1 elicited
14
greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a
15
concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the
16
inhibition of lower body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower body power
17
was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher
18
frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to
19
training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a
20
training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.
21
22
KEY WORDS combined exercise, interference, cortisol, resistance training, training
23
frequency
24
25

3
INTRODUCTION
1
Various sports and events require contrasting physical performance phenotypes for
2
successful performance. Training for sports and events at the extremes of the
3
strength-endurance continuum, such as Powerlifting and ultra-endurance challenges,
4
is relatively straight-forward compared with sports and events that require a
5
combination of strength and endurance capabilities. In these situations athletes and
6
coaches are often forced to combine training methods which elicit contrasting and
7
even antagonistic physiological and performance responses (12). In the case of
8
concurrent training’, the divergent stimuli of strength and endurance training can
9
result in attenuated strength type adaptation when compared to strength training
10
performed in isolation. This divergent physiology is known as the interference effect
11
or phenomenon (17).
12
13
Research has indicated that any interference experienced during a concurrent
14
strength and endurance training regimen may be dependent in part on the volume of
15
training performed (1, 13, 24, 25, 33). Despite this, no study has specifically
16
examined the effects of whole body, multi-joint concurrent training inventions with
17
varying training volumes and the effect that is has on muscle force characteristics.
18
Previous work from our laboratory (20) has indicated that the magnitude of
19
interference experienced may be proportional to the frequency of endurance training
20
performed; indicating overall training volume and exercise stress may indeed
21
regulate the presence of any interference experienced.
22
23
Elevated training stress has previously been proposed as a mechanism for
24
interference (10), and is perhaps attributable to the experimental design of some
25

4
published studies in this area. Often the concurrent training condition will perform
1
double the overall training volume and total work to that of the strength training alone
2
condition, which has previously resulted in muted strength development (6, 16, 20,
3
22). In contrast studies employing lower concurrent training volumes have reported
4
no inhibited strength development as a result of concurrent training (24, 25). These
5
findings may support the hypothesis that total work performed in a concurrent
6
programme influences both the presence and magnitude of any interference
7
experienced, although the underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated.
8
9
Previous research has reported a decreased testosterone:cortisol ratio following
10
concurrent training with no such decrease in participants who performed strength
11
training alone (2, 3, 22). This may implicate elevated endocrine responses and
12
catabolism as a contributing factor to interference. As such, it is reasonable to
13
suggest that the higher training volumes experienced in concurrent training regimens
14
can result in elevated physiological stress, which is reflected in the responses of
15
primary anabolic and catabolic hormones. This shift in the endocrine milieu in favour
16
of catabolism may contribute to attenuated strength and hypertrophic adaptation
17
associated with concurrent training.
18
19
Previous work from our laboratory (20) illustrates the value in exploring the role of
20
training frequency in a systematic fashion. Furthermore no research has assessed if
21
differing ratios of strength and endurance training can influence the degree of
22
interference experienced as a result of adaptations in the anabolic:catabolic
23
environment. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the strength,
24

Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a systematic review assessed the compatibility of concurrent aerobic and strength training compared with strength training alone, in terms of adaptations in muscle function (maximal and explosive strength) and muscle mass.
Abstract: Both athletes and recreational exercisers often perform relatively high volumes of aerobic and strength training simultaneously. However, the compatibility of these two distinct training modes remains unclear. This systematic review assessed the compatibility of concurrent aerobic and strength training compared with strength training alone, in terms of adaptations in muscle function (maximal and explosive strength) and muscle mass. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the influence of training modality, training type, exercise order, training frequency, age, and training status. A systematic literature search was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus were systematically searched (12 August 2020, updated on 15 March 2021). Eligibility criteria were as follows. Population: healthy adults of any sex and age; Intervention: supervised concurrent aerobic and strength training for at least 4 weeks; Comparison: identical strength training prescription, with no aerobic training; Outcome: maximal strength, explosive strength, and muscle hypertrophy. A total of 43 studies were included. The estimated standardised mean differences (SMD) based on the random-effects model were − 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] − 0.20 to 0.09; p = 0.446), − 0.28 (95% CI − 0.48 to − 0.08; p = 0.007), and − 0.01 (95% CI − 0.16 to 0.18; p = 0.919) for maximal strength, explosive strength, and muscle hypertrophy, respectively. Attenuation of explosive strength was more pronounced when concurrent training was performed within the same session (p = 0.043) than when sessions were separated by at least 3 h (p > 0.05). No significant effects were found for the other moderators, i.e. type of aerobic training (cycling vs. running), frequency of concurrent training (> 5 vs. 40 years). Concurrent aerobic and strength training does not compromise muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength development. However, explosive strength gains may be attenuated, especially when aerobic and strength training are performed in the same session. These results appeared to be independent of the type of aerobic training, frequency of concurrent training, training status, and age. PROSPERO: CRD42020203777.

28 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training with that of resistance training only on the development of maximal dynamic strength in untrained, moderately trained, and trained individuals was compared.
Abstract: The effect of concurrent training on the development of maximal strength is unclear, especially in individuals with different training statuses. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis study was to compare the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training with that of resistance training only on the development of maximal dynamic strength in untrained, moderately trained, and trained individuals. On the basis of the predetermined criteria, 27 studies that compared effects between concurrent and resistance training only on lower-body 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength were included. The effect size (ES), calculated as the standardised difference in mean, was extracted from each study, pooled, and analysed with a random-effects model. The 1RM for leg press and squat exercises was negatively affected by concurrent training in trained individuals (ES = – 0.35, p < 0.01), but not in moderately trained ( – 0.20, p = 0.08) or untrained individuals (ES = 0.03, p = 0.87) as compared to resistance training only. A subgroup analysis revealed that the negative effect observed in trained individuals occurred only when resistance and endurance training were conducted within the same training session (ES same session = – 0.66, p < 0.01 vs. ES different sessions = – 0.10, p = 0.55). This study demonstrated the novel and quantifiable effects of training status on lower-body strength development and shows that the addition of endurance training to a resistance training programme may have a negative impact on lower-body strength development in trained, but not in moderately trained or untrained individuals. This impairment seems to be more pronounced when training is performed within the same session than in different sessions. Trained individuals should therefore consider separating endurance from resistance training during periods where the development of dynamic maximal strength is prioritised.

19 citations

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TL;DR: Physical activity is associated with psychological and metabolic adaptations that are compatible with the adaptations required for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), such as increased expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase, strengthened endothelial function, acute rises in testosterone, decreased stress and anxiety, and improved body image.
Abstract: Increasing data are available to suggest that physical activity and lifestyle modification in general can benefit erectile function, with effect sizes comparable with established treatment options such as testosterone therapy and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Despite this evidence, primary-care physicians are rarely afforded critical information on the underlying mechanisms through which physical activity works as a treatment, severely hampering treatment credibility for both physician and patient. Physical activity is associated with psychological and metabolic adaptations that are compatible with the adaptations required for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). These adaptations include increased expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase, strengthened endothelial function, acute rises in testosterone, decreased stress and anxiety, and improved body image. Use of physical activity as a first-line treatment option for ED is limited, and explicit physical activity guidelines for the treatment of ED are required. Such guidelines should include not only a suggested exercise programme but also guidelines for physician-patient communication that might enhance patient receptivity and therapy continuation. An understanding of how physical activity affects erectile function, as well as its effectiveness in treating ED compared with other established treatments, can benefit urologists and primary-care physicians searching for noninvasive treatment options for men presenting with poor erectile function.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While time constraints and feasibility are important considerations for exercise strategies in μG, certain considerations could be made when prescribing concurrent strength and aerobic training to those experiencing human space flight.
Abstract: The physiological challenges presented by space flight and in microgravity (μG) environments are well documented. μG environments can result in declines muscle mass, contractile strength, and functional capabilities. Previous work has focused on exercise countermeasures designed to attenuate the negative effects of μG on skeletal muscle structure, function, and contractile strength and aerobic fitness parameters. Exposure to μG environments influences both strength and aerobic type physical qualities. As such, the current exercise recommendations for those experiencing μG involve a combination of strength and aerobic training or "concurrent training." Concurrent training strategies can result in development and maintenance of both strength and aerobic capabilities. However, terrestrial research has indicated that if concurrent training strategies are implemented inappropriately, strength development can be inhibited. Previous work has also demonstrated that the aforementioned inhibition of strength development is dependent on the frequency of aerobic training, modality of aerobic training, the relief period between strength and aerobic training, and the intra-session sequencing of strength and aerobic training. While time constraints and feasibility are important considerations for exercise strategies in μG, certain considerations could be made when prescribing concurrent strength and aerobic training to those experiencing human space flight. If strength and aerobic exercise must be performed in close proximity, strength should precede aerobic stimulus. Eccentric strength training methods should be considered to increase mechanical load and reduce metabolic cost. For aerobic capacity, maintenance cycle and/or rowing-based high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) should be considered and cycle ergometry and/or rowing may be preferable to treadmill running.

12 citations

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TL;DR: PES development can inform both physical training and injury prevention strategies in physically demanding occupations and a physical performance continuum is essential to through-career maintenance of occupational performance and health, and the preservation of organisational capability.
Abstract: Background Physically demanding occupations such as the military, firefighting and law enforcement have adopted physical employment standards (PES). The intent of PES is to match the physical capacity of personnel with the physical demands of job tasks. Inadequate physical capacity can affect occupational task performance as well musculoskeletal injury (MSKI) risk. Objective To present contemporary evidence on the relationship(s) between PES, physical training, physical capacity and MSKI in physically demanding occupations, and provide recommendations regarding physical training for improved occupational performance and reduced MSKI risk. Methods This narrative review draws on evidence from 104 published sources. Results Physical training is central to the development and maintenance of occupationally-relevant physical capacity, as well as mitigating MSKI risk associated with job performance. In addition, given the prevalence of manual handling tasks, strength training needs to be emphasised in physical training regimen. Conclusions PES development can inform both physical training and injury prevention strategies in physically demanding occupations. Furthermore, a physical performance continuum is essential to through-career maintenance of occupational performance and health, and the preservation of organisational capability. Finally, organisations should consider the potential to implement PES as maximal performance tests to better understand the relationship between occupational task performance and MSKI risk.

10 citations

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  • ...A significant group3 time interaction was observed (F(4, 36) = 4....

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  • ...Lean mass and percent body fat were assessed using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod; Life Measurements Instruments, CA, USA) (11,26,30)....

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  • ...548) and did not change significantly over time (F(1, 30) = 4....

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  • ...A significant group3 time interaction (F(5, 41) = 2....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that the combination of strength and endurance training results in an attenuation of the performance improvements and physiological adaptations typical of single-mode training.
Abstract: Thirty-five healthy men were matched and randomly assigned to one of four training groups that performed high-intensity strength and endurance training (C; n = 9), upper body only high-intensity strength and endurance training (UC; n = 9), high-intensity endurance training (E; n = 8), or high-intensity strength training (ST; n = 9). The C and ST groups significantly increased one-repetition maximum strength for all exercises (P < 0.05). Only the C, UC, and E groups demonstrated significant increases in treadmill maximal oxygen consumption. The ST group showed significant increases in power output. Hormonal responses to treadmill exercise demonstrated a differential response to the different training programs, indicating that the underlying physiological milieu differed with the training program. Significant changes in muscle fiber areas were as follows: types I, IIa, and IIc increased in the ST group; types I and IIc decreased in the E group; type IIa increased in the C group; and there were no changes in the UC group. Significant shifts in percentage from type IIb to type IIa were observed in all training groups, with the greatest shift in the groups in which resistance trained the thigh musculature. This investigation indicates that the combination of strength and endurance training results in an attenuation of the performance improvements and physiological adaptations typical of single-mode training.

800 citations


"Performance and endocrine responses..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...It is possible that the divergent demands placed on the neuromuscular system by strength and endurance training elicited differing alterations in motor unit recruitment in the musculature of the lower limbs; previous research has also implicated altered neural activation during high-force contractions as a potential mechanism for impaired strength development (22,23)....

    [...]

  • ...the strength training–alone condition, which has previously resulted in muted strength development (6,16,20,22)....

    [...]

  • ...typically reported some manifestation of interference characteristics (2,14,19,22)....

    [...]

  • ...In addition to enhanced training stress, elevations in cortisol have been implicated in catabolism and impaired hypertrophic development with concurrent training (22)....

    [...]

  • ...(22) used a 12-week intervention, whereas in the present study, participants were trained for 6 weeks....

    [...]

Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What are the contributions in this paper?

1 The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying 2 ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Following the intervention ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower body 10 strength ; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON ( all p < 11 0. 05 ). These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a 20 training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.