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Journal ArticleDOI

Performance characterization and steady-state modelling of spinning basket membrane module

08 Jun 2017-Separation Science and Technology (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 52, Iss: 13, pp 2173-2189
Abstract: Spinning basket membrane module is a special type of shear-enhanced device with inbuilt cleaning facility. In this article, the performance of this module has been reported in the ultrafiltration o...

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Topics: Ultrafiltration (62%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
18 May 2021-
Abstract: In any membrane filtration, the prediction of permeate flux is critical to calculate the membrane surface required, which is an essential parameter for scaling-up, equipment sizing, and cost determination. For this reason, several models based on phenomenological or theoretical derivation (such as gel-polarization, osmotic pressure, resistance-in-series, and fouling models) and non-phenomenological models have been developed and widely used to describe the limiting phenomena as well as to predict the permeate flux. In general, the development of models or their modifications is done for a particular synthetic model solution and membrane system that shows a good capacity of prediction. However, in more complex matrices, such as fruit juices, those models might not have the same performance. In this context, the present work shows a review of different phenomenological and non-phenomenological models for permeate flux prediction in UF, and a comparison, between selected models, of the permeate flux predictive capacity. Selected models were tested with data from our previous work reported for three fruit juices (bergamot, kiwi, and pomegranate) processed in a cross-flow system for 10 h. The validation of each selected model’s capacity of prediction was performed through a robust statistical examination, including a residual analysis. The results obtained, within the statistically validated models, showed that phenomenological models present a high variability of prediction (values of R-square in the range of 75.91–99.78%), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) in the range of 3.14–51.69, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) in the range of 0.22–2.01 among the investigated juices. The non-phenomenological models showed a great capacity to predict permeate flux with R-squares higher than 97% and lower MAPE (0.25–2.03) and RMSE (3.74–28.91). Even though the estimated parameters have no physical meaning and do not shed light into the fundamental mechanistic principles that govern these processes, these results suggest that non-phenomenological models are a useful tool from a practical point of view to predict the permeate flux, under defined operating conditions, in membrane separation processes. However, the phenomenological models are still a proper tool for scaling-up and for an understanding the UF process.

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2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Keka Rana1, Toulik Maitra2, Indrashis Saha2, Ankit Saha2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Membrane-based low-cost recovery of nutritional and therapeutic proteins from wastewater is regarded as a leap towards sustainability. However, membranes are heavily fouled by proteins, and thus, frequent chemical or hydrodynamic cleaning is needed even in the advanced dynamic shear-enhanced (DSE) filtration devices. This article presents the modeling, simulation, and characterization studies of a DSE system, namely the ‘Spinning Basket membrane’ (SBM) module with an inbuilt cleaning facility. The device has been established to be specifically suitable for the recovery of proteins from synthetic wastewater. It can perpetually regenerate the flux with its simple and, moreover, online cleaning facility. A two-parameter transient model, purely based on an analytical approach, has been developed to simulate the device. Moderately low deviation (±12 %) of the simulated flux from the corresponding experimental data obtained from ultrafiltration of synthetic wastewater unambiguously validates the proposed model. The present modeling strategy demonstrates how a DSE filtration system with highly complex modes of mass and momentum transfer could be easily simulated.

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References
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Book
01 Oct 1987-
Abstract: I Problem Formulation 1 The Nature and Organization of Optimization Problems 2 Developing Models for Optimization 3 Formulation of the Objective Function II Optimization Theory and Methods 4 Basic Concepts of Optimization 5 Optimization for Unconstrained Functions: One- Dimensional Search 6 Unconstrained Multivariable Optimization 7 Linear Programming and Applications 8 Nonlinear Programming with Constraints 9 Mixed-Integer Programming 10 Global Optimization for Problems Containing Continuous and Discrete Variables IIIApplications of Optimization 11 Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation 12 Separation Processes 13 Fluid Flow Systems 14 Chemical Reactor Design and Operation 15 Optimization in Large-Scale Plant Design and Operations 16 Integrated Planning, Scheduling, and Control in the Process Industries Appendixes

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956 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
K.S. Spiegler1, Ora Kedem2Institutions (2)
01 Dec 1966-Desalination
Abstract: A theory of hyperfiltration, based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, is presented, in which authors combine elements of their own previous work with important contributions of other investigators. The theory pinpoints criteria for salt-rejecting membranes; it does not deal with concentration polarization. The equations for water and salt flux across a differential membrane layer are derived from first principles, and integrated across the membrane, assuming constancy of three coefficients, viz. the specific hydraulic permeability, p1, the local solute permeability, P, and the reflection factor, σ. which is known to be a quantitative index of salt rejection, varying from zero to unity (for non-rejecting to perfect membranes respectively). This procedure is justified by considerations based on the friction model of membrane transport processes. It is shown that 1-σ is the product of an equilibrium term and a kinetic term. The first characterizes the static salt exclusion and hydrophilic properties of the membrane. The second is a quantitative expression for the kinetic characteristics of the membrane.

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923 citations


"Performance characterization and st..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Kedem black box models.([33,34]) In order to formulate...

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  • ...The model itself is an application of Onsager reciprocal relationship among different fluxes and driving forces considering entropy generation.([34]) The final form of the model equation is represented as:...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Desalination by using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has become very popular for producing freshwater from brackish water and seawater. Membrane lifetime and permeate flux, however, are primarily affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and fouling at the membrane surface. The scope of the current paper was to critically review the literature on the fouling phenomena in RO and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane systems, the analytical techniques used to quantify fouling, preventive methods, and membrane cleaning strategies. The paper also makes specific recommendations on how scientists, engineers, and technical staff can assist in improving the performance of these systems through fundamental and applied research.

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434 citations


"Performance characterization and st..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Fouling can be minimized by a number of standard techniques, such as pretreatment of the feed solution,([9]) physicochemical modification of the membrane,([10]) back-pulsing, back-washing or back-flushing,([11,12]) chemical cleaning,([13]) using external force fields (electric, sonic and centrifugal fields) and many others....

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Journal ArticleDOI
30 Dec 2001-Desalination
Abstract: A primary reason for flux decline during the initial period of a membrane separation process is concentration polarization of solute at the membrane surface This can occur in conjunction with irreversible fouling of the membrane as well as reversible gel layer formation Experimental and mathematical studies have been performed by various groups to gain a better understanding of concentration polarization phenomena in ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis This article critically reviews published studies on concentration polarization in both systems It presents progress made in determination of, for example, critical or limiting flux, and recommends specific models such as surface renewal, and experimental methods such as laser-based refractometry, for quantification of the problem.

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425 citations


"Performance characterization and st..." refers background in this paper

  • ...), which reduces the effective life span of the membrane.([7,8]) Fouling can be minimized by a number of standard techniques, such as pretreatment of the feed solution,([9]) physicochemical modification of the membrane,([10]) back-pulsing, back-washing or back-flushing,([11,12]) chemical cleaning,([13]) using external force fields (electric, sonic and centrifugal fields) and many others....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Jian Zhang1, Jian Zhang2, H.C. Chua2, Jian Zhou1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBRs) operate at constant imposed flux usually with the membranes in direct contact with the mixed liquor. Membrane fouling is evident as a rise in the required transmembrane pressure (TMP). In this paper we describe the rise in TMP as a three stage process. Stage 1 occurs in a period of a few hours and involves abrupt TMP rise due to ‘conditioning’, presumably by pore blockage and closure. Stage 2 is a prolonged period of slow TMP rise, which we ascribe to accumulation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and other products of bioactivity, either deposited from the bulk liquor or produced in biofilms on the membrane surface. Polysaccharides are predominant in the supernatant EPS, and appear to be major membrane foulants deposited by the filtration process. Stage 3 is a sudden rise in TMP, which rapidly leads to inoperability of the membranes. This stage could have several causes, which we summarize, and which are all driven by the self-accelerating nature of fouling under constant flux operation. In order to understand the complex nature of fouling in submerged MBRs we have developed the MBR ‘roadmap’ that shows the relationship between the many operational and design characteristics of the MBR and the generic ‘fouling factors’, i.e. the nature of the feed (to the membrane), the membrane properties, and the hydrodynamic environment. We also present a MBR ‘fouling mechanism map’ which depicts the three stages of fouling and the multiple fouling mechanisms that could occur. Experimental observations are provided in support of many of the proposed fouling mechanisms.

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390 citations


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