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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Performance Characterization of High and Low Power Prism based Tunable Blue Laser Diodes Systems

TL;DR: In this paper, a comparison of high and low power tunable external-cavity blue laser-diode system demonstrates a tunability of 10.6 and 4nm, respectively, with a corresponding SMSR as high as 35 and 32dB and linewidth as low as 97 and 59pm, while showcasing high stability at extreme operating conditions.
Abstract: Comparison of high- and low-power tunable external-cavity blue laser-diode system demonstrates a tunability of 10.6 and 4nm, respectively, with a corresponding SMSR as high as 35 and 32dB and linewidth as low as 97 and 59pm, while showcasing high stability at extreme operating conditions.

Summary (1 min read)

I. INTRODUCTION

  • The emerging deployment of blue semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) in different fields of applications, such as biomedical and spectroscopy, etc. [1] [2] necessitates improving their spectral purity and also the prospects of achieving a narrowband wavelength tunability.
  • Wavelength selection mechanisms for achieving close to single longitudinal mode emission and wavelength tunability such as distributed feedback (DFB) gratings and external cavity configuration schemes (Littrow and Littman) are recently reported wherein a largest tuning range of 10.9 nm was achieved [3][4] .
  • To possibly overcome the limitations of these reported approaches such as complexity, misalignment, cost, etc., a competing self-injection locking (SIL) scheme based external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system employing only a partial reflector was recently demonstrated on a green LD with a tuning range of 7.1 nm [5] .
  • The system stability at extreme operating conditions of high temperature and injection current, and the effect of deploying low power LD on the system performance has not been reported yet, which is crucial to substantiate the prospects of SIL-ECDL for practical deployment.
  • The stability analysis of the system under extreme operating condition showcases high performance and this substantiates its promising features for different applications.

II. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • The SIL-ECDL system employing the two different LDs, viz.
  • Low-power and high-power follows the experimental set-up reported in Ref [6] .
  • In general, this performance degradation at harsh operating conditions is attributed to the dynamics of the external cavity system wherein large feedback power into the laser cavity translates to increase in various non-linear phenomena and modehopping, which makes precise locking difficult.
  • Moreover, increasing the injection current to 390 mA and the heat sink temperature to 40 o C, the high-power SIL-ECDL system was found to be very stable even at this extreme operating conditions.

III. CONCLUSION

  • In summary, the performance characteristics of low-and high-power prism based tunable self-injection locked external cavity blue laser diode system are investigated and compared.
  • The stability evaluation of the system under extreme operating conditions further substantiate the promising features of the prism based tunable SIL system for different fields of applications.

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Performance Characterization of High and Low Power
Prism based Tunable Blue Laser Diodes Systems
Item Type Conference Paper
Authors Mukhtar, Sani; Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Ashry, Islam; Ng,
Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, M. Z. M.
Citation Mukhtar, S., Holguin-Lerma, J. A., Ashry, I., Ng, T. K., Ooi, B.
S., & Khan, M. Z. M. (2020). Performance Characterization of
High and Low Power Prism based Tunable Blue Laser Diodes
Systems. 2020 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC). doi:10.1109/
ipc47351.2020.9252301
Eprint version Post-print
DOI 10.1109/IPC47351.2020.9252301
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Rights Archived with thanks to IEEE
Download date 10/08/2022 07:26:57
Link to Item http://hdl.handle.net/10754/666007

Performance Characterization of High and Low Power
Prism based Tunable Blue Laser Diodes Systems
Sani Mukhtar
1
, J. A. Holguín-Lerma
2
, Islam Ashry
2
, Tien Khee Ng
2
, Boon S. Ooi
2
, and M. Z. M. Khan
1,*
1
Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
(KFUPM), Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
2
Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division, King Abdullah University of Science &
Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
*zahedmk@kfupm.edu.sa
Abstract Comparison of high- and low-power tunable external-cavity blue laser-diode system demonstrates a tunability of 10.6 and 4nm,
respectively, with a corresponding SMSR as high as 35 and 32dB and linewidth as low as 97 and 59pm, while showcasing high stability at
extreme operating conditions.
Keywords Blue laser diode, self-injection locking, tunable lasers, external cavity diode lasers.
I. INTRODUCTION
The emerging deployment of blue semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) in different fields of applications, such as biomedical and
spectroscopy, etc. [1] [2] necessitates improving their spectral purity and also the prospects of achieving a narrowband wavelength
tunability. Wavelength selection mechanisms for achieving close to single longitudinal mode emission and wavelength tunability
such as distributed feedback (DFB) gratings and external cavity configuration schemes (Littrow and Littman) are recently reported
wherein a largest tuning range of 10.9 nm was achieved [3][4]. To possibly overcome the limitations of these reported approaches
such as complexity, misalignment, cost, etc., a competing self-injection locking (SIL) scheme based external cavity diode laser
(ECDL) system employing only a partial reflector was recently demonstrated on a green LD with a tuning range of 7.1 nm [5].
Moreover, very recently, we proposed a novel SL-ECDL system by integrating a prism and reported a record wavelength tuning
range of 12 nm in blue region [6]. The system further demonstrated a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) >13 dB, optical linewidth
(Δ𝜆) 110 pm employing a high power Fabry Perot (FP) blue LD. However, the system stability at extreme operating conditions
of high temperature and injection current, and the effect of deploying low power LD on the system performance has not been reported
yet, which is crucial to substantiate the prospects of SIL-ECDL for practical deployment. Hence in this work, we present an in-depth
performance analysis of the prism based SIL-ECDL system employing both the high power, 1.6 W (SN-LD-P06, SaNoor
Technologies) and low power, 80 mW (PL450B, Thorlabs) commercial LDs. Comparing both the systems at similar operating
conditions, the high-power system, demonstrate wide tunability of 10.6 nm with SMSR as high as 35dB and Δ𝜆 <120 pm, whereas
a tunability of 4 nm with SMSR as high as 32 dB and Δ𝜆 as low as 59 pm was measured from the low power system, all at just above
their threshold current and heat sink temperature of 30
0
C. The stability analysis of the system under extreme operating condition
showcases high performance and this substantiates its promising features for different applications.
II. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The SIL-ECDL system employing the two different LDs, viz. low-power and high-power follows the experimental set-up reported
in Ref [6]. The results are plotted in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b), which show the wavelength tuning spectrum of the low- and high-power
systems at just above the threshold current of 20 and 130 mA, respectively, and at heat sink temperature of 30
o
C, along the with
corresponding extracted values of the SMSR and the linewidth. As seen from the figure, a tuning span of 3.7 nm (451.04454.78nm),
SMSR (Δ𝜆) of 19 ± 9 dB (89.5 ± 30.5 pm) are measured from the low-power system. On the other front, the high-power system
demonstrated a large tuning range of 10.6 nm (444.099454.69 nm), and SMSR (Δ𝜆) of 26.8 ± 8.5 dB (113 ± 7 pm). Moreover, Figs.
1(c) and 1(d) summarize the performance of the low-power and high-power systems at different operating temperatures. As depicted
from the figures, at room temperature of 20
o
C and at just above their threshold current, the low- and high-power systems respectively
demonstrates a tuning window of 4 nm and 12 nm with corresponding SMSR (Δ𝜆) of 22.5 ± 9.5 dB (75 ± 15 pm) and 27.9 ± 11.4
dB (105 ± 5 pm), respectively. Additionally, by operating the two systems at an extreme condition of three times their threshold
currents and at 40
o
C temperature, performance degradation is apparent from both the systems, as depicted in Figs. 1(c) and (d) with
shrinking wavelength tuning span, SMSR and Δ𝜆 reaching average values of ~18 (~17) dB and ~115 (~132) pm for the low- (high-
) power systems. In general, this performance degradation at harsh operating conditions is attributed to the dynamics of the external
cavity system wherein large feedback power into the laser cavity translates to increase in various non-linear phenomena and mode-
hopping, which makes precise locking difficult. However, it is worth mentioning at this instance that the low-power system

demonstrated narrower Δ𝜆 with reasonable SMSR compared to the high-power system, but with reduced tunability. While the former
observation could be associated to the relatively smaller amount of optical feedback power that assists in efficient injection locking,
the latter one could be due to comparatively narrow gain profile of the low-power LD.
Furthermore, the high-power SIL-ECDL system stability is assessed for 20 minutes at time interval of 2 minutes and the extracted
performance parameters in terms of the peak wavelength, integrated power and the SMSR are shown in Figs. 1(e) and (f). As depicted
in Fig. 1(e), at just above threshold current of 130 mA and 20
o
C (30
o
C), the peak wavelength was extremely stable showing a
negligible fluctuation of 447.505 nm ±5pm (444.98 nm±11pm) throughout the time span. Whereas the integrated power (SMSR)
showed a minor fluctuation of ±0.08 dB 0.3 dB) and ±0.15 dB (±0.5 dB) at 20
o
C (30
o
C). Moreover, increasing the injection current
to 390 mA and the heat sink temperature to 40
o
C, the high-power SIL-ECDL system was found to be very stable even at this extreme
operating conditions. In this case, the peak wavelength exhibited a fluctuation of 450.605 nm ±15pm while the integrated power
(SMSR) demonstrated a variation of ±0.42 dB (±1.65dB). This stable features of the system at harsh operating conditions reinstate
the robustness of the proposed system and strengthens its promise for practical applications.
III. CONCLUSION
In summary, the performance characteristics of low- and high-power prism based tunable self-injection locked external cavity
blue laser diode system are investigated and compared. The high-power system exhibited a wideband tuning range of 10.6 nm with
SMSR as high as 35 dB, and linewidth <120 pm, but the low power LD exhibited tuning range of 4 nm, SMSR as high as 32 dB
with linewidth <100pm. The stability evaluation of the system under extreme operating conditions further substantiate the promising
features of the prism based tunable SIL system for different fields of applications.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors (SM and MZMK) thank King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) for supporting this research
through King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Technology Innovation Center (TIC) for Solid-State Lighting
sub-awarded grant EE002381, and primary grant KACST TIC R2-FP- 008. The authors (JAHL, IA, TKN and BSO) acknowledge
the support from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) through baseline funding BAS/1/1614-01-01 and
KAUST-KFUPM special Initiative (KKI) program (REP/1/2878-01-01).
REFERENCES
[1] A. Müller et al., “Diode laser based light sources for biomedical applications,” Laser Photonics Rev., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 605627, 2013.
[2] I. S. Burns, J. Hult, and C. F. Kaminski, “Spectroscopic use of a novel blue diode laser in a wavelength region around 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt., vol.
79, no. 4, pp. 491495, 2004.
[3] J. A. Holguin-Lerma, M. Kong, O. Alkhazragi, X. Sun, T. Khee Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “480-nm distributed-feedback InGaN laser diode for 105-Gbit/s visible-light
communication,” Opt. Lett., vol. 45, no. 3, p. 742, 2020.
[4] D. Ding, X. Lv, X. Chen, F. Wang, J. Zhang, and K. Che, “Tunable high-power blue external cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 94, pp. 1
5, 2017.
[5] M. H. M. Shamim, T. K. Ng, B. S. Ooi, and M. Z. M. Khan, “Tunable self-injection locked green laser diode,Opt. Lett., vol. 43, no. 20, p. 4931, 2018.
[6] S. Mukhtar, I. Ashry, C. Shen, T. K. Ng, B. S. Ooi, and M. Z. M. Khan, “Blue Laser Diode System With an Enhanced Wavelength Tuning Range,” IEEE
Photonics J., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 110, 2020.
Fig. 1 Normalized lasing spectrums demonstrating the tuning window of (a) low-power and (b) high-power SIL-ECDL systems along with the corresponding
extracted values of the SMSR and Δ𝜆. Summary of the performance of (c) low-power and (d) high-power SIL-ECDL systems as a function of operating
temperature, in terms of tunability (black inverted triangles), SMSR (blue closed circles), and linewidth (magenta closed squares). Performance of high-power
SIL-ECDL system stability for three locked mode cases; 447.5 nm at 130mA and 20
o
C (green), 444.97 nm 130mA and 30
o
C (violet) and 450.60 nm at 390 mA
and 40
o
C (red); in terms of (e) peak wavelength, (f) integrated power (circle) and the SMSR (triangles).
References
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Q1. What are the contributions in "Performance characterization of high and low power prism based tunable blue laser diodes systems" ?

In this paper, the performance characteristics of low and high-power prism based tunable self-injection locked external cavity blue laser diode system are investigated and compared.