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Journal ArticleDOI

Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature

12 Jan 2016-Review of Scientific Instruments (AIP Publishing)-Vol. 87, Iss: 1, pp 014706-014706
TL;DR: The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency.
Abstract: This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

Summary (2 min read)

Introduction

  • The sensitivity flatness and the input return loss of the device are significant issues in this kind of receivers since the effective bandwidth is directly affected by the ripple in the responses.
  • The document is divided into four sections.
  • The first one gives an introduction and, then, the modelling of DC and radio frequency performances of a Schottky diode at room and cryogenic temperature and the design of the detector circuit are analyzed and described in Section II.

A. Design discussion

  • Most of the detector designs reported in the literature are developed without the need of having a flat sensitivity response over a frequency range.
  • Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitationnew.aip.org/termsconditions.
  • Considering the matching network needed to be added to the diode, when reactive matching based on microstrip transmission lines technology is used,15,19,20 a non-flat sensitivity is achieved within the bandwidth.
  • Besides, the lossy microstrip lines network enable to achieve good matching results within the desired frequency range.

B. Detector design development

  • The detector design is based on hybrid integration technology using a zero-bias gallium arsenide (GaAs) Schottky diode.
  • Among the main specifications in the detector design are the input matching and the voltage sensitivity.
  • During the design, two demanding requirements related to the sensitivity are taken into account: the magnitude of the sensitivity and its flatness response, both versus a wide frequency range.
  • Therefore, the analysis of a suitable matching network must include as load the variation of the Schottky diode impedance over the analyzed frequency range, in order to get an equalized response over the whole band.
  • Hence, a model for the Schottky diode is developed and used for the analysis.

1. Schottky diode model extraction

  • The chosen diode is a GaAs planar-doped low-barrier Schottky type.
  • Hence, the model obtained considers the zero-bias condition of the diode at room temperature, while a bias-dependence feature, when cryogenic temperature is applied.
  • Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitationnew.aip.org/termsconditions.
  • Downloaded to IP: 52.2.249.46 On: Sat, 16 Jan 2016 05:12:21 (5) Using the parameters obtained from the fitting of the IV characteristic and the small signal scattering parameters at room temperature, the sensitivity predicted by the non-linear model is simulated.

2. Matching network design

  • The basic schematic considered for the detector is shown in Fig.
  • Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitationnew.aip.org/termsconditions.
  • On the other hand, if a poor input return loss level in wideband operation is considered using lossless matching network, a flat sensitivity in the bandwidth could be achieved, but the input matching result makes it unsuitable.
  • 21 Hence, a lossy matching network has been considered in order to compensate the slope in the sensitivity of the diode as well as to achieve large return loss in the detector.
  • The proposed matching network is designed combining microstrip low-loss and lossy transmission lines.

3. Detector circuit

  • A complete analysis of cascaded matrixes is performed as the combination of the matrix of the matching network defined in Eq. (9) and the additional transmission line with electrical length Φ4.
  • Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitationnew.aip.org/termsconditions.
  • The virtual ground is composed of two radial stubs in order to assure a good radio frequency ground in the whole band of interest, and between them a high impedance quarter-wavelength (Z4, Φ4) microstrip line is used.
  • The SMD capacitors are made of NP0/C0G dielectric, which shows a negligible temperature coefficient.
  • The TFRs are divided into small sections in order to have a better solution in terms of the layout, since a long line makes difficult to perform a suitable layout with a feasible area.

III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

  • The characterization of the detector is performed at room temperature in the coplanar probe station, and at cryogenic temperature inside the cryostat.
  • The result at cryogenic temperature is not very accurate since the measurement reference plane is not at the input of the detector, so the input return loss is severely masked by the access cable and feedthrough to the cryostat.
  • The input reflection coefficient of the diode under cryogenic conditions for low currents is close to its zero-bias room temperature reflection coefficient.
  • Therefore, the input reflection coefficient Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitationnew.aip.org/termsconditions.
  • Afterwards, the sensitivity of the detector versus frequency for a fixed input power is measured at both physical temperatures (300 K and 15 K).

IV. CONCLUSION

  • This work presents a squared law-detector design and fabrication and its performance analysis when its physical working temperature is modified from ambient temperature (300 K) to a cryogenic condition (15 K).
  • The detector was designed using an extracted model of Schottky diode based on measurements at both temperatures.
  • Besides an input matching network was designed considering the goals of large input return loss and flat sensitivity versus frequency, as well as stable behavior versus temperature.
  • The detector has performed successfully at room temperature (300 K) with a flat sensitivity performance versus frequency of around 1000 mV/mW ± 120 mV/mW from 26 to 36 GHz.
  • Furthermore, the detector also showed return loss better than 12 dB and input power for 1 dB compression of about −23 dBm at 300 K.

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Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at
cryogenic temperature
E. Villa, B. Aja, L. de la Fuente, and E. Artal
Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments 87, 014706 (2016); doi: 10.1063/1.4939730
View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4939730
View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/rsi/87/1?ver=pdfcov
Published by the AIP Publishing
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REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 87, 014706 (2016)
Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector
at cryogenic temperature
E. Villa,
a)
B. Aja, L. de la Fuente, and E. Artal
Departamento Ingeniería de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Plaza de la Ciencia s/n,
39005 Santander, Spain
(Received 1 October 2015; accepted 28 December 2015; published online 12 January 2016)
This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky
diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The
design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low eective Schottky
barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat
sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good
return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures.
A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when
it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a
minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.
C
2016 AIP
Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4939730]
I. INTRODUCTION
The use of Schottky diodes in wideband receivers has
been demonstrated in several applications, such as spectros-
copy, imaging, radio astronomy, or remote sensing.
14
These
receivers are usually composed of diode mixers in millimeter
and submillimeter wavelength, which are cooled down to cryo-
genic temperatures in order to have low noise and therefore
to improve the sensitivity.
57
On the other hand, other types
of microwave broadband receivers used in radio astronomy,
as well as in other radio physics applications, usually have
square-law detectors at their outputs, which make nonlinear
transforms with the aim of obtaining an output DC value
proportional to the variance of input noise-like signal.
8,9
These
receivers are very sensitive radiometers, where the received
microwave fluctuation electromagnetic radiation is detected
with a Schottky diode working as square-law device.
1013
In
order to improve their sensitivity, these receivers are partially
or fully cooled to cryogenic temperatures, and when a great
level of integration in the system is required, such as in
arrays of receivers, the diode detectors can be also working
under cryogenic conditions.
14
The Schottky diode detectors
are configured under dierent topologies,
1520
but normally
with reactive matching networks to compensate the imped-
ance of the diodes over a wide frequency range.
1517
Since
the diode intrinsic sensitivity varies with frequency, good
input matching and constant sensitivity over a wide frequency
range are not achievable only with reactive matching net-
works. In this sense, the sensitivity flatness and the input
return loss of the device are significant issues in this kind
of receivers since the eective bandwidth is directly aected
by the ripple in the responses.
21
Furthermore, the need of
having a good input matching is required over the working
bandwidth since the mismatching caused by each circuit or
a)
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail:
villae@unican.es
device that composed the system is directly observed in the
full receiver response with high ripple.
21
Besides, the lack of a
flat sensitivity significantly aects the eective bandwidth of
the receiver.
This paper presents the analysis, design, and character-
ization of a square-law detector at room (300 K) and cryo-
genic (15 K) temperatures working in the Ka-band suitable
for radio astronomy applications. The initial proposal for the
detector is to be used at room temperature in the receiver of
the QUIJOTE project
4
as part of the back-end module, but the
operation at cryogenic temperature of the whole receiver is
being considered in order to achieve a higher integration level,
which is a significant issue when many pixels compose the full
receiver.
14
In this case, it would be necessary to analyze and
to model the performance of the diode and the detector with
temperature. This work shows the analysis of a Schottky diode
detector which is able to work at both room and cryogenic
temperatures, considering the behavior of the diode over the
temperature. Besides, the comparison between both physical
temperature performances of the diode and the detector is
described, modelling and analyzing their behaviors.
The document is divided into four sections. The first one
gives an introduction and, then, the modelling of DC and
radio frequency performances of a Schottky diode at room and
cryogenic temperature and the design of the detector circuit are
analyzed and described in Section II. The experimental results
at both physical temperatures are presented and discussed in
Section III. Finally, Section IV draws general conclusions.
II. DETECTOR DESIGN
A. Design discussion
Most of the detector designs reported in the literature are
developed without the need of having a flat sensitivity response
over a frequency range.
1520
In this case, although the intrinsic
sensitivity of the diode is not flat with the frequency, the input
0034-6748/2016/87(1)/014706/8/$30.00 87, 014706-1 © 2016 AIP Publishing LLC
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014706-2 Villa et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 014706 (2016)
network does not need to compensate it, and only the matching
issue is concerned.
Moreover, significant return loss is required in order to
have a low ripple response receiver, which improves its eec-
tive bandwidth.
Considering the matching network needed to be added
to the diode, when reactive matching based on microstrip
transmission lines technology is used,
15,19,20
a non-flat sensi-
tivity is achieved within the bandwidth. On the other hand,
a resistive match using a shunt resistor
15
can provide a good
broadband return loss but at the expense of voltage conversion
ratio.
Therefore, the solution implemented in this work employs
a matching network which introduces additional losses to the
circuit, but it allows the compensation of the intrinsic sensi-
tivity curve of the diode. Besides, the lossy microstrip lines
network enable to achieve good matching results within the
desired frequency range.
B. Detector design development
The detector design is based on hybrid integration tech-
nology using a zero-bias gallium arsenide (GaAs) Schottky
diode. Among the main specifications in the detector design
are the input matching and the voltage sensitivity. During the
design, two demanding requirements related to the sensitivity
are taken into account: the magnitude of the sensitivity and its
flatness response, both versus a wide frequency range.
The detector design is divided into dierent steps: first of
all, it is needed to know the behavior of the Schottky diode
over small-signal and large signal regimes; then, the design of
a matching network intended to provide flat responses over a
frequency range in terms of radio frequency input power to DC
output voltage conversion and, additionally, a good behavior
over a wide range of temperatures. Therefore, the analysis of a
suitable matching network must include as load the variation
of the Schottky diode impedance over the analyzed frequency
range, in order to get an equalized response over the whole
band. Hence, a model for the Schottky diode is developed and
used for the analysis.
1. Schottky diode model extraction
The chosen diode is a GaAs planar-doped low-barrier
Schottky type. This is a zero-bias beam-lead diode model
HSCH-9161 from Agilent Technologies with a cut-o fre-
quency above 110 GHz, which makes it suitable to be used
at microwave frequencies.
Facing the possibility of having the same diode detector
design working under both room and cryogenic temperatures,
measurements of the Schottky diode were made in order to
obtain an accurate model which predicts its behavior. The
operation of a radio astronomy receiver at cryogenic temper-
ature is focused on the minimum reachable temperature, so
the model extraction and performance test presented in this
document are fulfilled only at two physical temperatures: room
temperatures of 300 K and 15 K as the cryogenic one. Since
there is not a small-signal model for the diode working under
cryogenics, a new one is developed for both physical temper-
atures in order to improve its accuracy, to provide further data
about the diode (saturation current or ideality factor), and to
foresee the cryogenic behavior which is not provided by the
manufacturer, as well as the non-linear response in the large
signal regime.
The model of the diode comprises of DC, radio frequency,
and non-linear performances through the measurement of the
current-voltage (I-V) feature and the small signal scattering
parameters up to 40 GHz at room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K)
temperatures.
In order to properly model the diode, the basic parameters
of a Schottky junction, such as the saturation current I
S
, the
ideality factor n, and the equivalent series resistance R
S
, are
obtained based on the I-V curve.
By cooling the device, the threshold voltage shifts to-
ward higher values due to an increase of the Schottky barrier
height.
22,23
Under no bias condition, the higher barrier voltage
implies a higher dynamic resistance, which is defined as the
change in current in the diode caused by a small change in
voltage across the diode at a fixed bias point. The increment
in the resistance prevents from delivering enough signal into
the diode in order to provide a detected voltage. This is solved
applying an additional DC bias current to bias the diode in a re-
gion of its characteristic curve with appropriate dynamic resis-
tance.
23
Additionally, the ideality factor in the model of the
Schottky diode is temperature-sensitive, increasing its value as
the temperature decreases.
22
Hence, the model obtained con-
siders the zero-bias condition of the diode at room temperature,
while a bias-dependence feature, when cryogenic temperature
is applied.
The model is performed in dierent steps. Initially, the I-V
feature is fitted, according to the exponential I-V expression of
a diode current given by
I = I
S
·
e
q·
(
V
C
I · R
S
)
n·k·T
1
, (1)
where I
S
is the saturation current (A), V
C
is the applied voltage
to the diode (V), n the ideality factor, R
S
is the equivalent
series resistance of the diode (), k the Boltzmann constant,
q the electron charge, and T the physical absolute temper-
ature (K).
The equivalent series resistance R
S
is modelled using a
pair of shunt individual resistances (R
S
1
and R
S
2
) in order to
accomplish the dual behavior at room and cryogenic temper-
atures. Both resistances R
S
1
and R
S
2
are defined to provide
the zero-bias, forward, and reverse conditions of the diode at
both temperatures. The resistance R
S
1
has a dependence on the
voltage and current of the diode,
24
given by
R
S1
=
0.001 · V
min
I + 10
30
1
I + 10
30
·
(
V
C
V
min
)
n · k · T
q
·
ln
I + 10
30
ln
(
I
min
)
, (2)
where the values of V
min
and I
min
are defined by a point in
the linear region of the I-V curve (listed in Table I) and V
C
is the applied voltage to the diode (V). When working at room
temperature, this resistance takes an infinite value so its eect
is negligible.
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014706-3 Villa et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 014706 (2016)
TABLE I. Schottky diode HSCH-9161: saturation current (I
S
), ideality fac-
tor (n), and constant resistance (R
SC
).
Parameter
Room temperature
(300 K)
Cryogenic
temperature (15 K)
n ideality factor 1.32 6.21
I
S
saturation current (A) 6.33 × 10
6
2.34 × 10
19
R
SC
constant resistance () 43.2 20
V
min
(V) 0.06 0.205
I
min
(A) 3.53 × 10
5
3.07 × 10
8
Besides, the resistance R
S
2
shows a dependence with the
current of the diode, given by
R
S2
= R
SC
·
1 + 10
6
· I
, (3)
where R
SC
is a constant value obtained from the non-linear
region of the I-V feature of the diode.
Then, the small signal model is fitted using the parameters
(n, I
S
, and R
SC
) obtained in the I-V fitting and the measured
scattering parameters. The small signal model of the diode
is shown in Fig. 1. The model of the Schottky junction is
performed with a shunt circuit composed of a capacitance C
j
,
which models the junction capacitance, and a resistance R
j
,
which models the junction resistance and it is given by
R
j
=
n · k · T
q
·
1
I + I
s
, (4)
where I is the current in the diode (A), I
S
is the saturation
current (A), n the ideality factor, k the Boltzmann constant,
q the electron charge, and T the physical absolute temperature
(K). Besides, parasitic elements (L
S
and C
P
) of contacts of the
device are included.
The measurements of the DC and radio frequency re-
sponses are performed at both room and cryogenic tempera-
tures in a coplanar probe station. The cryogenic test reached
a temperature of 15 K. The measurements are done using a
coplanar-to-microstrip transition to the anode of the diode and
its cathode is connected to ground.
The DC features are tested using a semiconductor device
parameter analyzer model B1500A from Agilent Technologies
FIG. 1. Small signal model of the diode HSCH-9161.
and a semiconductor parameter analyzer model 4155A from
Agilent Technologies for cryogenic tests.
The I-V characteristics of the diode measured at both
physical temperatures, and compared to the extracted model,
are shown in Fig. 2. The parameters of the exponential expres-
sion of a diode current feature for both temperatures are listed
in Table I. The model simulations are compared to measure-
ments of several diodes, achieving good agreement in all of
them.
The scattering parameters are tested using a network
analyzer E8364A from Agilent Technologies, with an input
power of 30 dBm in the frequency range from 1 to 40 GHz.
A low input power level is used since noise-like signals
with a low signal power will be measured when working
in the radiometer. The measurement at room temperature
is performed under zero-bias condition, while at cryogenic
temperature the parameters are tested for dierent diode cur-
rents. The measurements at both temperatures are performed
in a cryogenic probe station using a LRM (Line-Reflect-
Match) standards calibration technique. Fig. 3 shows the diode
impedance from 1 to 40 GHz, at room temperature (zero-bias)
and at cryogenic temperature from zero bias up to 215 µA
diode bias current. The input matching depends on the diode
junction resistance (R
j
) which at the same time depends on
the temperature and the DC bias for small signal operation.
25
The small signal model of the diode used in the simulation and
depicted in Fig. 1 is fitted with the parasitic elements and the
junction capacitance listed in Table II, which are considered
constant with the temperature.
FIG. 2. I-V characteristic in black lines using the diode model (black squares), compared to room temperature (300 K) measurements (red) and cryogenic
temperature (15 K) measurements (blue). (a) Linear scale. (b) Logarithmic scale.
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014706-4 Villa et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 014706 (2016)
FIG. 3. Input impedance of the diode HSCH-9161 (1–40 GHz). (a) At room temperature (300 K) under zero-bias. (b) At 15 K for dierent diode bias currents.
Finally, a non-linear model of the diode is made in order
to verify its radio frequency-to-DC response working as a
detector diode. The non-linear model employs an electrical
circuit of a diode junction
26
using the features obtained from
the DC and small signal modelling. The model is temperature
dependent and its currents and conductances are calculated
from the input parameters (I
S
, n,C
j
, . . .).
As this diode is going to be used in a microwave de-
tector, the voltage sensitivity parameter S
DIODE
is defined as
the conversion ratio between the DC voltage, V
DC
(V), at the
output of the device and the available power, P
avs
(W), of an
input radio frequency signal to the device, given by
S
DIODE
=
V
DC
P
avs
. (5)
Using the parameters obtained from the fitting of the I-
V characteristic and the small signal scattering parameters at
room temperature, the sensitivity predicted by the non-linear
model is simulated. This result is shown in Fig. 4 for a fixed
frequency of 31 GHz versus available power, together with
the measurement of the conversion of the diode under zero-
bias. Both the prediction of the model and the measurement are
performed with the cathode of the diode connected to a high
impedance load. The sensitivity of the diode shows compres-
sion for available powers above 27 dBm. These results show
a good agreement between measurement and simulation us-
ing the model at room temperature, so it validates its use as
TABLE II. Small signal model parameters of the Schottky diode HSCH-
9161: parasitic inductance and capacitance (L
S
, C
P
) and zero-bias junction
capacitance (C
j
).
Parameter Value
L
S
155 pH
C
P
0.035 pF
C
j
0.018 pF
design tool under zero-bias conditions at 300 K. The dierence
between the measured and simulated sensitivity is due to the
slight deviation in the input reflection coecient between the
model and the measurement, which is lower than 0.1 dB in
the whole frequency band.
2. Matching network design
The basic schematic considered for the detector is shown
in Fig. 5.
From the diode model, the HSCH-9161 is not a good
match to 50 because of the high value of the junction
resistance R
j
and other parasitic eects. So it is needed to
synthesize an input matching network that would transform
its impedance in the frequency band of interest (20% of band-
width at 31 GHz). The input matching should work for the
whole bandwidth, 26 GHz–36 GHz, and for the range of
FIG. 4. Sensitivity measured and simulated of the diode HSCH-9161 at
room temperature under zero-bias for a power sweep of the input signal at
a frequency of 31 GHz.
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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A wideband (30% relative bandwidth) correlation and detection module based on substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) technology intended for a radio astronomy polarimeter is presented, providing a real implementation of a functional system with improved bandwidth performance from 35 to 47 GHz.
Abstract: A wideband (30% relative bandwidth) correlation and detection module based on substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) technology intended for a radio astronomy polarimeter is presented. The SIW circuit is a six-port network with two input ports that are correlated in two hybrid couplers and their corresponding output signals are routed to Schottky diode detectors, which are designed using microstrip technology and assembled within the same system. The designed SIW structure includes hybrid couplers, power dividers, a 90° phase shifter, and 90° bends, providing a real implementation of a functional system with improved bandwidth performance from 35 to 47 GHz. Experimental results are in concordance with simulations, and they validate the module operation for the proposed application.

15 citations


Cites background from "Performance evaluation of a lossy t..."

  • ...Information about a previous version of this detector designed for a lower band can be found in [24] and [25]....

    [...]

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) satellite, launched 2001 June 30, will produce full sky maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation in five frequency bands spanning 20-106 GHz as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) satellite, launched 2001 June 30, will produce full sky maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation in five frequency bands spanning 20-106 GHz. MAP contains 20 differential radiometers built with High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers with passively cooled input stages. The design and test techniques used to evaluate and minimize systematic errors and the prelaunch performance of the radiometers for all five bands are presented.

112 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite, launched 2001 June 30, will produce full sky maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation in five frequency bands spanning 20-106 GHz.
Abstract: The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) satellite, launched June 30, 2001, will produce full sky maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation in 5 frequency bands spanning 20 - 106 GHz. MAP contains 20 differential radiometers built with High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers with passively cooled input stages. The design and test techniques used to evaluate and minimize systematic errors and the pre-launch performance of the radiometers for all five bands are presented.

96 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) as mentioned in this paper was designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.).
Abstract: The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

62 citations

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Q1. What have the authors contributed in "Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature" ?

In this paper, a squared law-detector design and fabrication and its performance analysis when its physical working temperature is modified from ambient temperature ( 300 K ) to a cryogenic condition ( 15 K ).