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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICE348803.2020.9122832

Performance improvement of PVT module with applications of nano-fluids and phase change materials: A review

01 Feb 2020-
Abstract: Performance improvement of the PVT module is a very important topic in recent decades. Solar energy is a vital resource for mankind. Continuous elevation of the cell temperature of the PVT module results in a decrease in PV electrical efficiency. This review paper discusses the different techniques to cool the solar cell in order to reduce its cell temperature increasing its electrical efficiency and, also use the collected vital thermal energy to heat water (increase thermal efficiency) in a heat exchanger. A brief study on PVT/PCM and PVT/Nano-fluid system is done in this review paper. Furthermore, the PVT system is observed to be a very effective way to extract most of the available solar energy. Therefore, work must be carried out to increase their efficiency with the application of nano-fluids and phase change materials along with fins, or the use of binary nano-fluids/ nano- PCM to reduce the cost. This review paper highlights the application of PCM and nano-fluids for the effective cooling of the PV panel.

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Topics: Solar energy (53%), Thermal efficiency (52%), Thermal energy (52%)
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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-981-33-6456-1_15
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: This chapter includes environment feasibility of solar hybrid systems. In this regard, drying system with PVT air collector has been studied in details. It is seen that the market has different types of PV modules (a-Si, CdTe p-Si, c-Si, and CIGS) are available in the market. Further, thermal modeling has been explored to calculate the thermal energy (TE). Weather-related data has been taken from IMD, Pune, for yearly analysis. Various temperatures, namely outlet air from collector, cell, drying chamber, and crop surface have been calculated through thermal modeling developed for the system. Further, energy payback time (EPBT) for 100% PV area with different PV technologies used on flat plate air collector-integrated drying system found between 3.2 and 1.59 years. Environmental feasibility has also been evaluated for various solar PV cell technologies integrated with the system.

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Open accessBook
01 Jan 2011-
Abstract: About the Editors. List of Contributors. Preface to the 2nd Edition. 1 Achievements and Challenges of Solar Electricity from Photovoltaics (Steven Hegedus and Antonio Luque). 1.1 The Big Picture. 1.2 What is Photovoltaics? 1.3 Photovoltaics Today. 1.4 The Great Challenge. 1.5 Trends in Technology. 1.6 Conclusions. 2 The Role of Policy in PV Industry Growth: Past, Present and Future (John Byrne and Lado Kurdgelashvili). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Policy Review of Selected Countries. 2.3 Policy Impact on PV Market Development. 2.4 Future PV Market Growth Scenarios. 2.5 Toward a Sustainable Future. 3 The Physics of the Solar Cell (Jeffery L. Gray). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Fundamental Properties of Semiconductors. 3.3 Solar Cell Fundamentals. 3.4 Additional Topics. 3.5 Summary. 4 Theoretical Limits of Photovoltaic Conversion and New-generation Solar Cells (Antonio Luque and Antonio Marti). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Thermodynamic Background. 4.3 Photovoltaic Converters. 4.4 The Technical Efficiency Limit for Solar Converters. 4.5 Very-high-efficiency Concepts. 4.6 Conclusions. 5 Solar Grade Silicon Feedstock (Bruno Ceccaroli and Otto Lohne). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Silicon. 5.3 Production of Silicon Metal/Metallurgical Grade Silicon. 5.4 Production of Polysilicon/Silicon of Electronic and Photovoltaic Grade. 5.5 Current Silicon Feedstock to Solar Cells. 5.6 Requirements of Silicon for Crystalline Solar Cells. 5.7 Routes to Solar Grade Silicon. 5.8 Conclusions. 6 Bulk Crystal Growth and Wafering for PV (Hugo Rodriguez, Ismael Guerrero, Wolfgang Koch, Arthur L. Endros, Dieter Franke, Christian Hassler, Juris P. Kalejs and H. J. Moller). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Bulk Monocrystalline Material. 6.3 Bulk Multicrystalline Silicon. 6.4 Wafering. 6.5 Silicon Ribbon and Foil Production. 6.6 Numerical Simulations of Crystal Growth Techniques. 6.7 Conclusions. 7 Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules (Ignacio Tobias, Carlos del Ca"nizo and Jesus Alonso). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Crystalline Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material. 7.3 Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. 7.4 Manufacturing Process. 7.5 Variations to the Basic Process. 7.6 Other Industrial Approaches. 7.7 Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules. 7.8 Electrical and Optical Performance of Modules. 7.9 Field Performance of Modules. 7.10 Conclusions. 8 High-efficiency III-V Multijunction Solar Cells (D. J. Friedman, J. M. Olson and Sarah Kurtz). 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Applications. 8.3 Physics of III-V Multijunction and Single-junction Solar Cells. 8.4 Cell Configuration. 8.5 Computation of Series-connected Device Performance. 8.6 Materials Issues Related to GaInP/GaAs/Ge Solar Cells. 8.7 Epilayer Characterization and Other Diagnostic Techniques. 8.8 Reliability and Degradation. 8.9 Future-generation Solar Cells. 8.10 Summary. 9 Space Solar Cells and Arrays (Sheila Bailey and Ryne Raffaelle). 9.1 The History of Space Solar Cells. 9.2 The Challenge for Space Solar Cells. 9.3 Silicon Solar Cells. 9.4 III-V Solar Cells. 9.5 Space Solar Arrays. 9.6 Future Cell and Array Possibilities. 9.7 Power System Figures of Merit. 9.8 Summary. 10 Photovoltaic Concentrators (Gabriel Sala and Ignacio Anton). 10.1 What is the Aim of Photovoltaic Concentration and What Does it Do? 10.2 Objectives, Limitations and Opportunities. 10.3 Typical Concentrators: an Attempt at Classification. 10.4 Concentration Optics: Thermodynamic Limits. 10.5 Factors of Merit for Concentrators in Relation to the Optics. 10.6 Photovoltaic Concentration Modules and Assemblies. 10.7 Tracking for Concentrator Systems. 10.8 Measurements of Cells, Modules and Photovoltaic Systems in Concentration. 10.9 Summary. 11 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells via High-temperature and Intermediate-temperature Approaches (Armin G. Aberle and Per I. Widenborg). 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Modelling. 11.4 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Intermediate-T Foreign Supporting Materials. 11.5 Conclusions. 12 Amorphous Silicon-based Solar Cells (Eric A. Schiff, Steven Hegedus and Xunming Deng). 12.1 Overview. 12.2 Atomic and Electronic Structure of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon. 12.3 Depositing Amorphous Silicon. 12.4 Understanding a-Si pin Cells. 12.5 Multijunction Solar Cells. 12.6 Module Manufacturing. 12.7 Conclusions and Future Projections. 13 Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells (William N. Shafarman, Susanne Siebentritt and Lars Stolt). 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Material Properties. 13.3 Deposition Methods. 13.4 Junction and Device Formation. 13.5 Device Operation. 13.6 Manufacturing Issues. 13.7 The Cu(InGa)Se2 Outlook. 14 Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells (Brian E. McCandless and James R. Sites). 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Historical Development. 14.3 CdTe Properties. 14.4 CdTe Film Deposition. 14.5 CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells. 14.6 CdTe Modules. 14.7 Future of CdTe-based Solar Cells. 15 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (Kohjiro Hara and Shogo Mori). 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 Operating Mechanism of DSSC. 15.3 Materials. 15.4 Performance of Highly Efficient DSSCs. 15.5 Electron-transfer Processes. 15.6 New Materials. 15.7 Stability. 15.8 Approach to Commercialization. 15.9 Summary and Prospects. 16 Sunlight Energy Conversion Via Organics (Sam-Shajing Sun and Hugh O'Neill). 16.1 Principles of Organic and Polymeric Photovoltaics. 16.2 Evolution and Types of Organic and Polymeric Solar Cells. 16.3 Organic and Polymeric Solar Cell Fabrication and Characterization. 16.4 Natural Photosynthetic Sunlight Energy Conversion Systems. 16.5 Artificial Photosynthetic Systems. 16.6 Artificial Reaction Centers. 16.7 Towards Device Architectures. 16.8 Summary and Future Perspectives. 17 Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics (Alan E. Delahoy and Sheyu Guo). 17.1 Introduction. 17.2 Survey of Materials. 17.3 Deposition Methods. 17.4 TCO Theory and Modeling: Electrical and Optical Properties and their Impact on Module Performance. 17.5 Principal Materials and Issues for Thin Film and Wafer-based PV. 17.6 Textured Films. 17.7 Measurements and Characterization Methods. 17.8 TCO Stability. 17.9 Recent Developments and Prospects. 18 Measurement and Characterization of Solar Cells and Modules (Keith Emery). 18.1 Introduction. 18.2 Rating PV Performance. 18.3 Current-Voltage Measurements. 18.4 Spectral Responsivity Measurements. 18.5 Module Qualification and Certification. 18.6 Summary. 19 PV Systems (Charles M. Whitaker, Timothy U. Townsend, Anat Razon, Raymond M. Hudson and Xavier Vallve). 19.1 Introduction: There is gold at the end of the rainbow. 19.2 System Types. 19.3 Exemplary PV Systems. 19.4 Ratings. 19.5 Key System Components. 19.6 System Design Considerations. 19.7 System Design. 19.8 Installation. 19.9 Operation and Maintenance/Monitoring. 19.10 Removal, Recycling and Remediation. 19.11 Examples. 20 Electrochemical Storage for Photovoltaics (Dirk Uwe Sauer). 20.1 Introduction. 20.2 General Concept of Electrochemical Batteries. 20.3 Typical Operation Conditions of Batteries in PV Applications. 20.4 Secondary Electrochemical Accumulators with Internal Storage. 20.5 Secondary Electrochemical Battery Systems with External Storage. 20.6 Investment and Lifetime Cost Considerations. 20.7 Conclusion. 21 Power Conditioning for Photovoltaic Power Systems (Heribert Schmidt, Bruno Burger and Jurgen Schmid). 21.1 Charge Controllers and Monitoring Systems for Batteries in PV Power Systems. 21.2 Inverters. 22 Energy Collected and Delivered by PV Modules (Eduardo Lorenzo). 22.1 Introduction. 22.2 Movement between Sun and Earth. 22.3 Solar Radiation Components. 22.4 Solar Radiation Data and Uncertainty. 22.5 Radiation on Inclined Surfaces. 22.6 Diurnal Variations of the Ambient Temperature. 22.7 Effects of the Angle of Incidence and of Dirt. 22.8 Some Calculation Tools. 22.9 Irradiation on Most Widely Studied Surfaces. 22.10 PV Generator Behaviour Under Real Operation Conditions. 22.11 Reliability and Sizing of Stand-alone PV Systems. 22.12 The Case of Solar Home Systems. 22.13 Energy Yield of Grid-connected PV Systems. 22.14 Conclusions. 23 PV in Architecture (Tjerk H. Reijenga and Henk F. Kaan). 23.1 Introduction. 23.2 PV in Architecture. 23.3 BIPV Basics. 23.4 Steps in the Design Process with PV. 23.5 Concluding Remarks. 24 Photovoltaics and Development (Jorge M. Huacuz, Jaime Agredano and Lalith Gunaratne). 24.1 Electricity and Development. 24.2 Breaking the Chains of Underdevelopment. 24.3 The PV Alternative. 24.4 Examples of PV Rural Electrification. 24.5 Toward a New Paradigm for Rural Electrification. References. Index.

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2,747 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2009.01.009
Abstract: In this paper, a thorough review of photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems is done on the basis of its performance based on electrical as well as thermal output. Photovoltaic systems are classified according to their use, i.e., electricity production and thermal applications along with the electricity production. The application of various photovoltaic systems is also discussed in detail. The performance analysis including all aspects, e.g., electrical, thermal, energy, and exergy efficiency are also discussed. A case study for PV and PV/T system based on exergetic analysis is presented.

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182 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0196-8904(99)00115-6
Abstract: The photovoltaic thermal solar collector, sometimes known as the hybrid solar collector generates both thermal and electrical energies simultaneously. A double pass photovoltaic thermal solar collector suitable for solar drying applications has been developed and tested. A steady state closed form solution to determine the outlet and mean photovoltaic panel temperature has been obtained for the differential equations of the upper and lower channels of the collector. Hence, the photovoltaic, thermal and combined photovoltaic thermal efficiencies can be obtained. An experimental setup has been developed. For given sets of operating and design conditions the theoretical and experimental outlet and mean photovoltaic panel temperatures can be obtained. Comparisons are made between the experimental and theoretical results and close agreement between these two values are obtained.

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Topics: Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector (79%), Solar cable (66%), Solar energy (63%) ...read more

158 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EGYPRO.2014.12.017
01 Jan 2014-Energy Procedia
Abstract: Nanofluids are embryonic fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluid. The application of nanofluids is to achieve the highest possible thermal properties at the smallest possible concentrations, by homogeneous dispersion and stable suspension of nanoparticles in the host fluids. Nanofluids plays vital role in various thermal applications such as automotive industries, heat exchangers, solar power generation etc. Mostly heat transfer augmentation in solar collectors is one of the key issues in energy saving, compact designs and different operational temperatures. In this paper, a comprehensive literature on thermophysical properties of nanofluids and the application of solar collector with nanofluids have been compiled and reviewed. Recent literatures indicate the conventional heat transfer using nanofluids and their specific applications in the solar collector.

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142 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOLENER.2006.04.005
Il-Song Kim1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 2007-Solar Energy
Abstract: A robust maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using sliding mode controller for the three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system has been proposed in this paper. Contrary to the previous controller, the proposed system consists of MPPT controller and current controller for tight regulation of the current. The proposed MPPT controller generates current reference directly from the solar array power information and the current controller uses the integral sliding mode for the tight control of current. The proposed system can prevent the current overshoot and provide optimal design for the system components. The structure of the proposed system is simple, and it shows robust tracking property against modeling uncertainties and parameter variations. Mathematical modeling is developed and the experimental results verify the validity of the proposed controller.

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Topics: Open-loop controller (69%), Maximum power point tracking (62%), Integral sliding mode (62%) ...read more

138 Citations


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