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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMED.2021.616106

Performance of a Point of Care Test for Detecting IgM and IgG Antibodies Against SARS-CoV-2 and Seroprevalence in Blood Donors and Health Care Workers in Panama

02 Mar 2021-Frontiers of Medicine in China (Front Med (Lausanne))-Vol. 8, pp 616106-616106
Abstract: Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has reached 28 million cases worldwide in 1 year. The serological detection of antibodies against the virus will play a pivotal role in complementing molecular tests to improve diagnostic accuracy, contact tracing, vaccine efficacy testing, and seroprevalence surveillance. Here, we aimed first to evaluate a lateral flow assay's ability to identify specific IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and second, to report the seroprevalence estimates of these antibodies among health care workers and healthy volunteer blood donors in Panama. We recruited study participants between April 30th and July 7th, 2020. For the test validation and performance evaluation, we analyzed serum samples from participants with clinical symptoms and confirmed positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, and a set of pre-pandemic serum samples. We used two by two table analysis to determine the test positive and negative percentage agreement as well as the Kappa agreement value with a 95% confidence interval. Then, we used the lateral flow assay to determine seroprevalence among serum samples from COVID-19 patients, potentially exposed health care workers, and healthy volunteer donors. Our results show this assay reached a positive percent agreement of 97.2% (95% CI 84.2-100.0%) for detecting both IgM and IgG. The assay showed a Kappa of 0.898 (95%CI 0.811-0.985) and 0.918 (95% CI 0.839-0.997) for IgM and IgG, respectively. The evaluation of serum samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients indicates a correlation between test sensitivity and the number of days since symptom onset; the highest positive percent agreement [87% (95% CI 67.0-96.3%)] was observed at ≥15 days post-symptom onset (PSO). We found an overall antibody seroprevalence of 11.6% (95% CI 8.5-15.8%) among both health care workers and healthy blood donors. Our findings suggest this lateral flow assay could contribute significantly to implementing seroprevalence testing in locations with active community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Seroprevalence (60%), Serology (52%)
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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.13.21257177
17 May 2021-Vox Sanguinis
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Blood donors are increasingly being recognized as an informative resource for surveillance. We aimed to review severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seroprevalence studies conducted among blood donors to investigate methodological biases and provide guidance for future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed and preprint publications between January 2020 and January 2021. Two reviewers used standardized forms to extract seroprevalence estimates and data on methodology pertaining to population sampling, periodicity, assay characteristics, and antibody kinetics. National data on cumulative incidence and social distancing policies were extracted from publicly available sources and summarized. RESULTS Thirty-three studies representing 1,323,307 blood donations from 20 countries worldwide were included (sample sizes ranged from 22 to 953,926 donations). The majority of the studies (79%) reported seroprevalence rates <10% (ranging from 0% to 76% [after adjusting for waning antibodies]). Overall, less than 1 in 5 studies reported standardized seroprevalence rates to reflect the demographics of the general population. Stratification by age and sex were most common (64% of studies), followed by region (48%). A total of 52% of studies reported seroprevalence at a single time point. Overall, 27 unique assay combinations were identified, 55% of studies used a single assay and only 39% adjusted seroprevalence rates for imperfect test characteristics. Among the nationally representative studies, case detection was most underrepresented in Kenya (1:1264). CONCLUSION By the end of 2020, seroprevalence rates were far from reaching herd immunity. In addition to differences in community transmission and diverse public health policies, study designs and methodology were likely contributing factors to seroprevalence heterogeneity.

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Topics: Seroprevalence (62%), Population (52%)

1 Citations


Posted ContentDOI: 10.21203/RS.3.RS-151037/V1
21 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Background: Currently in Nigeria, SARS CoV-2 infection control measures rely solely on RT-PCR testing of cases with high index of suspicion for COVID-19. The sero-prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in the populations remains unknown. We aimed to determine the sero-prevalence of SARS CoV-2 IgM and IgG in screened blood donors in two selected cities in Nigeria. Methods: A total of 113 blood samples from screened and accepted blood donors were tested for both SARS CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies using NOVATECH ELISA kits from Eurofins Germany. Results: The age range of donor was 21-48 years. Males were 96 %. Of the 113 blood donors 42% were positive for SARS CoV-2 IgG while 41% were positive for SARS CoV-2 IgM respectively. Only 11% and 19% of blood donors had equivocal test result for IgG and IgM respectively.Conclusions: Nearly a half of accepted blood donors in Nigeria had been exposed to SARS CoV-2 infection. Although it is not a blood transmissible infection, the blood banks must take adequate preventive measures to prevent spread amongst the bank staff and potential donors. It also implies a wider spread of the infection in Nigeria.Trial Registration: The study does not require registration.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13204-021-01900-W
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spreads and develops quickly worldwide as a new global crisis which has left deep socio-economic damage and massive human mortality. This virus accounts for the ongoing outbreak and forces an urgent need to improve antiviral therapeutics and targeted diagnosing tools. Researchers have been working to find a new drug to combat the virus since the outbreak started in late 2019, but there are currently no successful drugs to control the SARS-CoV-2, which makes the situation riskier. Very recently, new variant of SARS-CoV-2 is identified in many countries which make the situation very critical. No successful treatment has yet been shown although enormous international commitment to combat this pandemic and the start of different clinical trials. Nanomedicine has outstanding potential to solve several specific health issues, like viruses, which are regarded a significant medical issue. In this review, we presented an up-to-date drug design strategy against SARS-CoV-2, including the development of novel drugs and repurposed product potentials were useful, and successful drugs discovery is a constant requirement. The use of nanomaterials in treatment against SARS-CoV-2 and their use as carriers for the transport of the most frequently used antiviral therapeutics are discussed systematically here. We also addressed the possibilities of practical applications of nanoparticles to give the status of COVID-19 antiviral systems.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRAC.2021.116460
Abstract: Viruses are responsible for multiple infections in humans that impose huge health burdens on individuals and populations worldwide. Therefore, numerous diagnostic methods and strategies have been developed for prevention, management, and decreasing the burden of viral diseases, each having its advantages and limitations. Viral infections are commonly detected using serological and nucleic acid-based methods. However, these conventional and clinical approaches have some limitations that can be resolved by implementing other detector devices. Therefore, the search for sensitive, selective, portable, and costless approaches as efficient alternative clinical methods for point of care testing (POCT) analysis has gained much attention in recent years. POCT is one of the ultimate goals in virus detection, and thus, the tests need to be rapid, specific, sensitive, accessible, and user-friendly. In this review, after a brief overview of viruses and their characteristics, the conventional viral detection methods, the clinical approaches, and their advantages and shortcomings are firstly explained. Then, LFA systems working principles, benefits, classification are discussed. Furthermore, the studies regarding designing and employing LFAs in diagnosing different types of viruses, especially SARS-CoV-2 as a main concern worldwide and innovations in the LFAs' approaches and designs, are comprehensively discussed here. Furthermore, several strategies addressed in some studies for overcoming LFA limitations like low sensitivity are reviewed. Numerous techniques are adopted to increase sensitivity and perform quantitative detection. Employing several visualization methods, using different labeling reporters, integrating LFAs with other detection methods to benefit from both LFA and the integrated detection device advantages, and designing unique membranes to increase reagent reactivity, are some of the approaches that are highlighted.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.3.2000045
Victor M. Corman1, Olfert Landt, Marco Kaiser, Richard Molenkamp2  +20 moreInstitutions (5)
23 Jan 2020-Eurosurveillance
Abstract: Background The ongoing outbreak of the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) poses a challenge for public health laboratories as virus isolates are unavailable while there is growing evidence that the outbreak is more widespread than initially thought, and international spread through travellers does already occur. Aim We aimed to develop and deploy robust diagnostic methodology for use in public health laboratory settings without having virus material available. Methods Here we present a validated diagnostic workflow for 2019-nCoV, its design relying on close genetic relatedness of 2019-nCoV with SARS coronavirus, making use of synthetic nucleic acid technology. Results The workflow reliably detects 2019-nCoV, and further discriminates 2019-nCoV from SARS-CoV. Through coordination between academic and public laboratories, we confirmed assay exclusivity based on 297 original clinical specimens containing a full spectrum of human respiratory viruses. Control material is made available through European Virus Archive – Global (EVAg), a European Union infrastructure project. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the enormous response capacity achieved through coordination of academic and public laboratories in national and European research networks.

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Topics: European union (57%)

4,402 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/ALL.14238
Jin-jin Zhang1, Xiang Dong1, Yi yuan Cao1, Ya-dong Yuan2  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
19 Feb 2020-Allergy
Abstract: Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been widely spread. We aim to investigate the clinical characteristic and allergy status of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods Electronic medical records including demographics, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory data, and radiological materials of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with confirmed result of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, were extracted and analyzed. Results An approximately 1:1 ratio of male (50.7%) and female COVID-19 patients was found, with an overall median age of 57.0 years. All patients were community-acquired cases. Fever (91.7%), cough (75.0%), fatigue (75.0%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (39.6%) were the most common clinical manifestations, whereas hypertension (30.0%) and diabetes mellitus (12.1%) were the most common comorbidities. Drug hypersensitivity (11.4%) and urticaria (1.4%) were self-reported by several patients. Asthma or other allergic diseases were not reported by any of the patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 1.4%) patients and current smokers (1.4%) were rare. Bilateral ground-glass or patchy opacity (89.6%) was the most common sign of radiological finding. Lymphopenia (75.4%) and eosinopenia (52.9%) were observed in most patients. Blood eosinophil counts correlate positively with lymphocyte counts in severe (r = .486, P Conclusion Detailed clinical investigation of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 cases suggests eosinopenia together with lymphopenia may be a potential indicator for diagnosis. Allergic diseases, asthma, and COPD are not risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Older age, high number of comorbidities, and more prominent laboratory abnormalities were associated with severe patients.

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Topics: Eosinopenia (55%), Asthma (51%), COPD (50%)

2,325 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JMV.25678
Abstract: Since December 2019, a total of 41 cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology have been confirmed in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China. Wuhan city is a major transportation hub with a population of more than 11 million people. Most of the patients visited a local fish and wild animal market last month. At a national press conference held today, Dr. Jianguo Xu, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, who led a scientific team announced that a new-type coronavirus, tentatively named by World Health Organization as the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), had caused this outbreak (1).

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1,836 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3201/EID2607.200841
Nisreen M.A. Okba1, Marcel A. Müller2, Wentao Li3, Chunyan Wang3  +15 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: A new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently emerged to cause a human pandemic Although molecular diagnostic tests were rapidly developed, serologic assays are still lacking, yet urgently needed Validated serologic assays are needed for contact tracing, identifying the viral reservoir, and epidemiologic studies We developed serologic assays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing, spike protein-specific, and nucleocapsid-specific antibodies Using serum samples from patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, other coronaviruses, or other respiratory pathogenic infections, we validated and tested various antigens in different in-house and commercial ELISAs We demonstrated that most PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected persons seroconverted by 2 weeks after disease onset We found that commercial S1 IgG or IgA ELISAs were of lower specificity, and sensitivity varied between the 2 assays;the IgA ELISA showed higher sensitivity Overall, the validated assays described can be instrumental for detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies for diagnostic, seroepidemiologic, and vaccine evaluation studies

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Topics: Coronavirus (62%), Vaccine evaluation (54%), Serology (52%)

1,047 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/JCM.00512-20
Abstract: The COVID-19 outbreak has had a major impact on clinical microbiology laboratories in the past several months. This commentary covers current issues and challenges for the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the preanalytical stage, collecting the proper respiratory tract specimen at the right time from the right anatomic site is essential for a prompt and accurate molecular diagnosis of COVID-19. Appropriate measures are required to keep laboratory staff safe while producing reliable test results. In the analytic stage, real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays remain the molecular test of choice for the etiologic diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection while antibody-based techniques are being introduced as supplemental tools. In the postanalytical stage, testing results should be carefully interpreted using both molecular and serological findings. Finally, random-access, integrated devices available at the point of care with scalable capacities will facilitate the rapid and accurate diagnosis and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infections and greatly assist in the control of this outbreak.

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695 Citations


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