Abstract: An 8-km long MgB
wire for a prototype klystron magnet was made and evaluated. The wire was made by a typical in situ method; it has 10 filaments and 0.67 mm in outer diameter. The homogeneity of I
of this wire was evaluated by several methods. Deviation of I
values in short sample wires was very small. In addition, the current sharing temperature of the MgB
magnet (made of two reels of wire 2.9 km long each) agreed well with the estimated value of the I
-B-T properties in short sample wires. Based on the obtained results, it can be said that the I
properties of the entire wire length are quite uniform.
Abstract: A wind-and-react MgB2 solenoid magnet for klystrons has been developed. While the current normal-conducting (Cu) magnet consumes 20 kW per magnet, this MgB2 magnet consumes less than 3 kW in refrigerator power. The conduction-cooled half coil of the magnet is 337 mm in inner diameter; the winding pack, 19.4 mm wide × 136.6 mm high, uses 2.7 km of 10 filament circular conductor, which is insulated with glass 0.83 mm in diameter, and is reacted after being wound onto a stainless steel bobbin. The coil has Cu plates of 0.2 mm in thickness between each coil layer and on the inner and outer sides. The magnet has two coils and produces 0.8 T in the center and its stored energy is 11.8 kJ. Together with the above-mentioned coil structure, these coils can consume stored energy in itself at quench without a special quench protection system. A performance test of the magnet was successful.
Cites background from "Performance of MgB2 Superconductor ..."
...However, to save energy as mentioned above, decreasing the current is effective, so the MgB2 conductor for the magnet has been developed ....
Abstract: High-temperature superconductors (HTS) and MgB2 may potentially improve the usability of superconducting magnets dramatically owing to their large energy margin. When HTS and MgB2 wires are used for magnets operated in the persistent current mode, such as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, the electric field generated in the wires must be lower than 10−10 V m−1. In this paper, critical current density, J c, defined at an electric field criterion of 10−10 V m−1 is evaluated from a magnetisation decay measurement for state-of-the-art monofilamentary MgB2 wires. By using the obtained J c, a critical line of our multifilamentary MgB2 wire is shown on the temperature-magnetic field plane. Here, the critical line is defined as a line on which an electric field of 10−10 V m−1 is generated at a coil current density of 150 A mm−2. The area inside the critical line is demonstrated to be large enough to fulfil the requirement of 1.5 T MRI scanners operated at 10K–15K. In addition, the iso energy-margin lines are shown on the temperature-magnetic field plane and compared with those of NbTi wires. The MgB2 wire has an order of magnitude greater energy margin than the NbTi wires in most of the area inside the critical line. This suggests that the MgB2 wire is highly unlikely to be quenched due to mechanical disturbances.
Abstract: An MgB2 superconducting solenoid magnet has been developed for electron beam focusing in X-band (12 GHz) klystrons for particle accelerator RF systems, to provide a central field of 0.8 T at 57 A and at ≥20 K. It has successfully realized significant AC-plug power saving in one order of magnitude compared with that for a conventional Cu solenoid magnet. The large-scale application may be expected for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) project proposed as a future accelerator candidate at CERN. It requires ~5,000 klystrons, and the MgB2 magnet application will realize significant AC-plug power saving. This paper describes progress in a prototype MgB2 superconducting solenoid magnet development and discusses the future prospect.
Cites background from "Performance of MgB2 Superconductor ..."
...4 shows superconductor performance of the MgB2 conductor ....
Abstract: Critical bending strains at room temperature and Ic values at 10-20 K of two kinds of in situ round MgB2 wires (“A” and “B” hereafter) were measured. Wire A is a mono-core wire with an Fe/Cu sheathe enclosing mechanically milled powder with coronene (C24H12) as a dopant. Wire B is a 10-filaments wire made with Fe, Cu, Monel, and ball-milled powder. These MgB2 wires were sintered at several temperature and times, and the influences of sintering conditions on critical bending strains and Ic values of the short sample wires were investigated. The results of the investigations revealed that critical bending strains of both wires were improved by raising sintering temperature from 600 °C to 700 °C.
Abstract: In the light of the tremendous progress that has been made in raising the transition temperature of the copper oxide superconductors (for a review, see ref. 1), it is natural to wonder how high the transition temperature, Tc, can be pushed in other classes of materials. At present, the highest reported values of Tc for non-copper-oxide bulk superconductivity are 33 K in electron-doped CsxRbyC60 (ref. 2), and 30 K in Ba1-xKxBiO3 (ref. 3). (Hole-doped C60 was recently found4 to be superconducting with a Tc as high as 52 K, although the nature of the experiment meant that the supercurrents were confined to the surface of the C60 crystal, rather than probing the bulk.) Here we report the discovery of bulk superconductivity in magnesium diboride, MgB2. Magnetization and resistivity measurements establish a transition temperature of 39 K, which we believe to be the highest yet determined for a non-copper-oxide bulk superconductor.
"Performance of MgB2 Superconductor ..." refers background in this paper
...THE critical temperature of magnesium diboride is 39 K , which allows equipment containing MgB2 wires and magnets to be made highly energy-efficient and liquid helium-free....
Abstract: Following a dedicated R&D program, ASG Superconductors has recently developed techniques for designing and constructing open cryogen free MRI magnets, refrigerated by two double stage cryocoolers only. The magnet consists of two coils both made with six double pancakes, each double pancake being obtained reacting and winding 1600 m of multifilamentary, copper-stabilized MgB2 tape supplied by Columbus Superconductors. Here we report the thermal and electromagnetic characterization and the achieved targets of the first prototype, evaluated on a long term activity period. The MRI images, acquired starting from November 2006, further demonstrate the accomplishment of remarkable magnet performances. In parallel to the long term tests on the first prototype, ASG Superconductors has designed and constructed a second MRI magnet with improved characteristics. We present here the related test results and a comparison with the previous ones.
"Performance of MgB2 Superconductor ..." refers methods in this paper
...6 km in length made by the ex situ method has already been implemented as the first practical use of MgB2 ....
TL;DR: Conductor technology is an important, but not the only, issue in introduction of HTS / MgB2 conductor into commercial MRI magnets, and in some cases the prospects for developing an MRI-ready conductor are more favorable, but significant developments are still needed.
Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a powerful medical diagnostic tool, is the largest commercial application of superconductivity. The superconducting magnet is the largest and most expensive component of an MRI system. The magnet configuration is determined by competing requirements including optimized functional performance, patient comfort, ease of siting in a hospital environment, minimum acquisition and lifecycle cost including service. In this paper, we analyze conductor requirements for commercial MRI magnets beyond traditional NbTi conductors, while avoiding links to a particular magnet configuration or design decisions. Potential conductor candidates include MgB2, ReBCO and BSCCO options. The analysis shows that no MRI-ready non-NbTi conductor is commercially available at the moment. For some conductors, MRI specifications will be difficult to achieve in principle. For others, cost is a key barrier. In some cases, the prospects for developing an MRI-ready conductor are more favorable, but significant developments are still needed. The key needs include the development of, or significant improvements in: (a) conductors specifically designed for MRI applications, with form-fit-and-function readily integratable into the present MRI magnet technology with minimum modifications. Preferably, similar conductors should be available from multiple vendors; (b) conductors with improved quench characteristics, i.e. the ability to carry significant current without damage while in the resistive state; (c) insulation which is compatible with manufacturing and refrigeration technologies; (d) dramatic increases in production and long-length quality control, including large-volume conductor manufacturing technology. In-situ MgB2 is, perhaps, the closest to meeting commercial and technical requirements to become suitable for commercial MRI. Conductor technology is an important, but not the only, issue in introduction of HTS / MgB2 conductor into commercial MRI magnets. These new conductors, even when they meet the above requirements, will likely require numerous modifications and developments in the associated magnet technology.
Abstract: Main magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are largely constructed with low temperature superconducting material. Most commonly used superconductors for these magnets are niobium-titanium (NbTi). Such magnets are operated at 4.2 K by being immersed in a liquid helium bath for long time operation. As the cost of liquid helium has increased threefold in the last decade and the market for MRI systems is on average increasing by more than 7% every year, there is a growing demand for an alternative to liquid helium. Superconductors such as magnesium-diboride (MgB2) and niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) demonstrate superior current carrying quality at higher critical temperatures than 4.2 K. In this article, electromagnetic designs for conduction cooled main magnets over the range of medium field strengths (1.5 T) to ultrahigh field strengths (7.0 T) are presented. These designs are achieved by an improved functional approach coming from a series of developments by the present research group and using properties of the state-of-the-art second generation MgB2 wires and Nb3Sn wires developed by Hyper Tech Research Inc. The MgB2 magnet designs operated at different field strengths demonstrate excellent homogeneity and shielding properties at an operating temperature of 10 K. At ultrahigh field, the high current density on Nb3Sn allowed by the larger magnetic field on wire helps to reduce the superconductor volume in comparison with high field NbTi magnet designs. This allows for a compact magnet design that can operate at a temperature of 8 K. Overall, the designs created show promise in the development of conduction cooled dry magnets that would reduce dependence on helium.
TL;DR: An overview of the Best PATHS project is presented, including the main tasks and challenges ahead, as well as the partners and their roles.
Abstract: BEST PATHS (acronym for “BEyond State-of-the-art Technologies for rePowering Ac corridors and multi-Terminal HVDC Systems”) is a collaborative project within the FP7 framework of the European Commission that includes an MgB2-based power transmission line among its five constituent demonstrators. Led by Nexans and bringing together transmission operators, industry and research organizations, this demonstrator aims at validating the novel MgB2 technology for very high power transfer (gigawatt range). The project foresees the development of a monopole cable system operating in helium gas in the range of 5–10 kA/200–320 kV, corresponding to a transmitted power from 1 to 3.2 GW. The main research and demonstration activities that will be pursued over the four-year project duration are: 1) development and manufacturing of MgB2 wires and of the cable conductor; 2) design and manufacturing of the HVDC electrical insulation of the cable; 3) optimization of the required cryogenic system; 4) electromagnetic field analysis; 5) design and construction of a prototype electrical feeding system, including terminations and connectors; 6) testing of the demonstrator; 7) study of grid connection procedures and integration of a superconducting link into a transmission grid; and finally, 8) a socio-economic analysis of the MgB2 power transmission system. CIGRE recommendations will be used to take into account the established international practices, and guidance will be given on newly addressed technical aspects. An overview of the project is presented in this paper, including the main tasks and challenges ahead, as well as the partners and their roles.