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Journal ArticleDOI

Performance of the ATLAS silicon strip detector modules

TL;DR: The performance of the silicon strip detector prototypes developed for use in ATLAS at the LHC is reported in this article, where the tracking efficiency, noise occupancy, and position resolution were measured as a function of bias voltage, binary hit threshold, and detector rotation angle in a 156 T magnetic field.
Abstract: The performance of the silicon strip detector prototypes developed for use in ATLAS at the LHC is reported Baseline detector assemblies (“modules”) of 12 cm length were read out with binary electronics at 40 MHz clock speed For both irradiated and unirradiated modules, the tracking efficiency, noise occupancy, and position resolution were measured as a function of bias voltage, binary hit threshold, and detector rotation angle in a 156 T magnetic field Measurements were also performed at a particle flux comparable to the one expected at the LHC

Summary (2 min read)

1. Introduction

  • ATLAS is a large general purpose magnetic spectrometer planned for use at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [l].
  • The solution adopted by ATLAS is to use single-sided strip detectors glued back-to-back to form an effective double-sided detector with small angle stereo readout.
  • Noise occupancy must be well below 10m3 not to exceed the bandwidth of the data transmission system.
  • And electronics designed to meet the ATLAS specifications described above were used.

2. Experimental setup

  • Fig. 1 shows the overall layout of the experimental setup.
  • Wire bonds were made from the hybrid to pads near the middle of the 12 cm active strip.
  • The second chip, CDP128 [14], was a 1 bit binary pipeline clocked at 40 MHz, which stored the hit bit from the CAFE at a time corresponding to a beam trigger recorded by the experiment.
  • This threshold is kept fixed during normal data taking, but in these measurements threshold scans were performed at each of the operating conditions (bias and detector angle) in order to investigate the performance of the detectors.
  • The ATT7 module was uniformly irradiated to a fluence in excess of 1014 equivalent high energy protons/cm2.

3. Data analysis

  • The analysis identified tracks in the beam telescope or the anchor planes, predicted their locations in the DUTs, and correlated found hits with tracks.
  • Events with more than one track found were eliminated.
  • The efficiency was defined as the ratio of tracks with a match in the DUT to all tracks.
  • Depending on the track definition, different cuts were employed: for tracks found in the telescope , a match was found if the predicted position of the track agreed with a hit within + 3 strips.
  • The noise performance of the detectors was characterized by the “off-track occupancy”, which was the number of hits outside of 500 pm of a track, divided by the total number of strips.

4. I, Bias dependence of the response

  • In order to determine the operating conditions of the detectors, bias voltage scans were performed with no applied magnetic field and at zero rotation angle.
  • As mentioned above, one measures instead the median of the single strip pulse height, i.e. the threshold giving 50% efficiency as extracted from threshold curves.
  • Thus the Lorentz angle has to be determined and the response of the detector for particles crossing with angles up to &- 13” relative to that direction has to be measured.
  • The fact that the irradiated module ATT7 has a 1% lower efficiency is an indication that the bias was not sufficient to deplete the detector and to guarantee full charge collection.
  • The angular distributions can be corrected for this track length variation by resealing the threshold considered by the cosine of the angle of incidence.

5. Conclusions

  • The position resolution was about 20 urn for both detectors independent of the angle.
  • The tracking efficiency was determined at beam intensities comparable to those predicted for ATLAS operation and was found to be the same as at low intensity.

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Title
Performance of the ATLAS silicon strip detector modules
Permalink
https://escholarship.org/uc/item/76w9h22k
Journal
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators,
Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 403(2-3)
ISSN
0168-9002
Authors
Albiol, F
Ballester, F
Barbier, G
et al.
Publication Date
1998-02-01
DOI
10.1016/S0168-9002(97)01102-9
Copyright Information
This work is made available under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution
License, availalbe at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Peer reviewed
eScholarship.org Powered by the California Digital Library
University of California

NUCLEAR
lNSTRlJMlNTS
BMETNODS
IN PHYSICS
RESEARCH
EIXMER
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 403 (1998) 247-255
Sect~cn A
Performance of the ATLAS silicon strip detector modules
F. Albiol”, F. Ballestera, G. Barbierb, J. Bernabeua, R. Boninob, A. Ciocio”, A.G. Clarkb,
C. Couyoumtzelisb, J. Daned, P. Demierreb, J. Dewitt”, D.E. Dorfane, T. Dubbs”, J. Emes”,
D. Faschingf, J. Fustera, C. Garciaa, M.G.D. Gilchriese”, J. Godlewskig, S. Gonzalez’,
A. Grewalh, A.A. Grille”, C. Haber”, C. Hackettd, P. Haesler’, J.C. Hillj, S. Holland”,
H. Iwasakik, Y. Iwata’, R. Jaredf, S. Kashigin”, I. Kipnis”, U. Koetzm, T. Kondok,
R. Kowalewskib, W. Kroegere, A. Lankfordd, J. Lozano Bahilo”, G. Moorhead’,
D. Morgan”, D.J. Mundayj, W. Murraym*‘,
R. Nickerson”, T. Ohsugi’, V. O’SheaP,
E. Perrinb, S. Pierd, P.W. Phillips”, T. Pulliam”, J. Richardsong, W.A. Rowe”,
A. Saavedra’, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski”T*, J. Salt”, J. Sanchez”, B. Schmidd, A. Seiden’,
P.J. Sellin”, M. Shapiro”, J. Siegrist”, E. Spencer”, H. Spieler”, S. Stapne9,
R. Takashima’, N. Tamura”, G. Taylor’, S. Teradak, Y. Unnok, B. Vuaridelb,
SM. Walsh”, R. Wastieh, M. Weberb, A. Webstere, R. Wichmann”, M. Wilder”
a IFIC, CSIC-Univ. of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
b Univ. of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
‘Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
Univ. of California, Irvine, CA, USA
‘SCIPP, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz. CA, USA
f Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison. WI, USA
g INP, Krakow, Poland
h Univ. of Oxfbrd, Oxford, UK
i Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
i Cavendish Laboratory, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
KEK, Tsttkuba, Japan
‘Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima, Japan
m CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
n Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
‘Rutherford Appleton LaboratoT. Chilton, UK
p Univ. of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
4 Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
r Univ. of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Univ. of Oslo, Oslo. Norwa?)
‘Kyoto Univ. of Education, Kyoto. Japan
Okayama Unit , Okayama. Japan
Received 17 June 1997; received in revised form 19 August 1997
* Correspondence
address: SCIPP. Nat. Sci.
2, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064. USA.
Tel.: + 1
408 459 4670: fax: + 1 408 459 5777; e-mail:
hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu.
0168-9002/98/$19,00 6 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved
PII SO168-9002(97)01102-9

248
F. Albiol et al.lNucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A 403 (1998) 247-255
Abstract
The performance of the silicon strip detector prototypes developed for use in ATLAS at the LHC is reported.
Baseline detector assemblies (“modules”) of 12 cm length were read out with binary electronics at 40 MHz clock speed.
For both irradiated and unirradiated modules, the tracking efficiency, noise occupancy, and position resolution
were measured as a function of bias voltage, binary hit threshold, and detector rotation angle in a 1.56 T magnetic
field. Measurements were also performed at a particle flux comparable to the one expected at the LHC. 0
1998 Elsevier
Science B.V. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
ATLAS is a large general purpose magnetic spec-
trometer planned for use at the CERN Large Had-
ron Collider (LHC) [l]. The Semiconductor
Tracker (SCT) [2] will be placed between radii of
30 and 54 cm from the LHC interaction point. The
basic specifications for this tracker include a re-
sponse time of 25 ns to match the LHC collision
frequency of 40 MHz, operation after a fluence of
2 x 10’4/cmZ MIP equivalent irradiation, and
a point resolution of about 20 pm. The solution
adopted by ATLAS is to use single-sided strip de-
tectors glued back-to-back to form an effective
double-sided detector with small angle stereo
readout. These so-called modules have a strip
length of 12 cm. Readout will be AC-coupled from
n-type implant strips in n-bulk crystals. After radi-
ation induced type inversion of the bulk and in-
creased depletion voltage [3], the junctions will be
at the n-strips allowing the possibility of operation
under partial depletion of the silicon. The readout
electronics [4] employs a 1 bit binary scheme
whereby only hits above a single threshold are
recorded. In such a scheme the required resolution
is achieved with 75 pm pitch detectors. Noise occu-
pancy must be well below 10m3 not to exceed the
bandwidth of the data transmission system. A key
performance requirement of such a system is to
maintain high tracking efficiency at low noise occu-
pancy.
and electronics designed to meet the ATLAS speci-
fications described above were used. Both irra-
diated and unirradiated detectors and electronics
were employed. These components were operated
at - 10°C in a 1.56 T magnetic field. Measure-
ments were made at various silicon bias voltages
and at rotation angles between + 27” and - 12”
with respect to the beam line, in excess of the
crossing angles expected at ATLAS [ 111.
2. Experimental setup
Fig. 1 shows the overall layout of the experi-
mental setup. The devices under test (DUT) were
denoted ATT7 (irradiated) and ATT8 (unir-
radiated) and were placed with their strips vertical
in a combined shielding and cooling box which
could be rotated about the direction of the vertical
magnetic field of the dipole magnet “Mopurgo”.
Beam particles were tracked by two independent
systems. One was a beam telescope (Tl-T4), con-
sisting of silicon strip detectors with 50 pm pitch
and slow analog electronics, capable of locating
track positions in the DUTs to 2 pm [12]. The
other was a pair of two-sided binary readout planes
(LBIC2, LBICl) with 75 pm pitch, These were
mounted in the shielding box and used as anchor
planes to allow independent, albeit coarser, resolu-
tion tracking. Both systems were used off-line for
various phases of the analysis.
The present work builds on a series of previous
The DUTs were geometrically and mechanically
beam tests and experience with binary readout elec-
identical and were constructed as follows. Each
tronics [S-lo]. In this paper a report is given of
module was single-sided and consisted of a pair of
measurements made during the Summer of 1996 in
6 cm x 6 cm, n-strip in n-bulk, AC-coupled de-
the CERN H8 beam line. In this data set, detectors
tectors with 75 pm pitch readout. The strips were

F. Albiol et al. INucl. Instr. and Meth. in Ph_vs. Res. A 403 (1998) 247-255
249
Tl T2 A B C D
T’? T4
ROTATING
A : LBlC2
COOLING BOX
B: A-7
C: Al-V3
@ Z FIELD
D : LBlCl
Tl , T2,73, T4 : BEAM TEST TELESCOPE PLANES
Fig. 1. Top view of the experimental setup in the 1.56 T magnet.
isolated by a continuous p-frame. The detectors
were manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics. The
two detectors were butt-joined end-to-end and wire
bonded to form a 12 cm active strip. The backsides
were biased negative and the n-type implants were
held at ground. The front-end electronics (FEE)
was mounted on a ceramic hybrid which was glued
directly upon the silicon, close to the butt joint.
Wire bonds were made from the hybrid to pads
near the middle of the 12 cm active strip. The FEE
consisted of a two chip set. The first chip, CAFE
[13], was a bipolar preamp, shaper, and discrimi-
nator. The second chip, CDP128 [14], was a 1 bit
binary pipeline clocked at 40 MHz, which stored
the hit bit from the CAFE at a time corresponding
to a beam trigger recorded by the experiment. The
CAFE output showed a hit if the pulse height in the
detector exceeded the externally controllable ana-
log threshold applied to the CAFE discriminator.
This threshold is kept fixed during normal data
taking, but in these measurements threshold scans
were performed at each of the operating conditions
(bias and detector angle) in order to investigate the
performance of the detectors. A typical threshold
region for high efficiency was around l&1.4 fC
equivalent input charge, for a most likely deposited
signal charge of 4 fC.
The ATT8 module was unirradiated and had
a depletion voltage of 70 V. The ATT7 module was
uniformly irradiated to a fluence in excess of 1014
equivalent high energy protons/cm2. The irradia-
tion was performed at the 88” Cyclotron at Law-
rence Berkeley National Laboratory with 55 MeV
protons. The hybrid with powered FEE and the
detectors were irradiated separately and then as-
sembled into a module. The irradiated detectors
underwent type inversion [3]. Given the temper-
ature dependence of the annealing effects [l&16]
the detectors were stored near - 20°C except for
short periods. A capacitance versus bias voltage
(C-V) measurement performed 10 weeks after the
end of the beam test determined the depletion volt-
age to be 290 f 10 V. This depletion voltage
matches closely the one expected at the end of the
SCT lifetime at the LHC.
3. Data analysis
The analysis identified tracks in the beam tele-
scope or the anchor planes, predicted their loca-
tions in the DUTs, and correlated found hits with
tracks. Events with more than one track found were
eliminated. The efficiency was defined as the ratio
of tracks with a match in the DUT to all tracks.
Depending on the track definition, different cuts
were employed: for tracks found in the telescope
(anchors), a match was found if the predicted posi-
tion of the track agreed with a hit within + 3 strips.
The noise performance of the detectors was charac-
terized by the “off-track occupancy”, which was the
number of hits outside of 500 pm of a track, divided
by the total number of strips. In addition, the occu-
pancy associated with noisy channels was deter-
mined with beam-off data.
4. Results
4. I, Bias dependence of the response
In order to determine the operating conditions of
the detectors, bias voltage scans were performed
with no applied magnetic field and at zero rotation
angle. By varying the threshold to the CAFE chip,
both the efficiency and median pulse height of the
single strip signal could be measured. The latter
corresponds to the threshold which results in
a 50% hit finding efficiency. Fig. 2 shows the effi-
ciency for the unirradiated module, ATT& for thre-
sholds of 1.0 and 1.2 fC. We find, as in previous

2.50
F. Albiol et al. JNucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Rex A 403 (1998) 247-255
0 50 100 150 200
250 300
BIAS VOLTAGE [V]
Fig. 2. Efficiency of ATT8 (unirradiated) and ATT7 (irradiated)
as a function of bias voltage, for V,, = 1.0, 1.2, 1.4 fC.
tests [9], that the unirradiated n-strip in n-bulk
detectors require an over-bias to achieve high effi-
ciency. In later measurements, ATT8 was operated
at 125 V which is still not fully efficient at 1.2 fC.
Previous studies [17] indicated an optimum bias in
excess of 150 V to minimize inter strip capacitance
and noise.
At the time of the beam test, the depletion volt-
age of the irradiated module, ATT7, had not yet
been determined by the C-V characteristic. The
depletion voltage was underestimated. Bias voltage
scans, shown in Fig. 2, were done up to 275 V, still
short of the 290 V depletion point. At 275 V bias
the efficiency approaches 100%. In later measure-
ments, this module was operated at 250 V bias
where inefficiencies would be expected for 1.4 fC
and above. Fig. 2 also confirms an effect seen in
earlier work [8,9,18], that if biased at half the
depletion voltage (150 V), the efficiency of the in-
verted detector is still above 95%.
The binary readout does not yield the pulse
height directly. As mentioned above, one measures
instead the median of the single strip pulse height,
i.e. the threshold giving 50% efficiency as extracted
from threshold curves. In Fig. 3, the median pulse
height is shown for both unirradiated and irra-
diated modules as a function of the bias voltage.
The absolute pulse height scale is known for both
modules to about 10%. The unirradiated module
shows a plateau in the pulse height above 150 V.
For the irradiated module, the pulse height is still
rising at 275 V, a confirmation of the subsequent
s
g 3-: oOoO
00
I
z 2 -1 0
2 0 0
2 1
--
0 0 0 ATT& An7- irradiated unirradiated
Y 0 ~~“j”‘L~’ ‘~~““l”‘~~~“‘J
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Bias Voltage [VI
Fig. 3. Median pulse height of ATT7 and ATT8 as a function of
bias voltage.
C-V measurement mentioned in Section 2. At
150 V the median pulse height is 50% of the unir-
radiated value. In the following, ATT8 was biased
at 125 V which results in a small signal loss and
ATT7 was biased at 250 V, at about 80% of the full
depletion voltage.
4.2. EfJiciency and noise occupancy
The parameters which have direct application in
tracking algorithms are position resolution, effi-
ciency and noise occupancy. They have been deter-
mined in threshold scans for the different modules.
Fig. 4 shows both the efficiency and noise occu-
pancy as a function of the applied threshold voltage
in mV for ATT8 for 12” rotation in the magnetic
field; 90 mV corresponds to 1 fC. The efficiency and
noise occupancy for the irradiated module ATT7
for the same conditions is shown in Fig. 5. Here the
1 fC point is at 80 mV. The difference in the thre-
shold scale of the two modules is due to the CAFE
chips used which come from different fabrication
runs, respectively. The efficiency and noise occu-
pancy curves, Figs. 4 and 5, suggest that operation
with a threshold between 0.8 and 1.2 fC is possible
with large enough noise suppression and efficiency.
Noise occupancies taken without beam are about
a factor 10 lower at 1 fC. Correlation of hit loca-
tions in the different modules indicates that part of
the occupancy at larger thresholds is associated
with an additional track, missed in the original
track finding step. In order to compare the

Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
09 Nov 1997
TL;DR: The development of silicon microstrip detectors for high luminosity application at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described in this paper, where the technical choices are most severely restricted by the anticipated radiation damage.
Abstract: The development of silicon microstrip detectors for high luminosity application at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The technical choices are most severely restricted by the anticipated radiation damage. A radiation-tolerant choice for the silicon tracker of the LHC detector ATLAS are sandwiches of single-sided detectors with n-strips in n-type bulk.

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Abstract: High energy physics detectors span a wide range of applications with greatly differing requirements. Although the detector configurations are very different, the application of only a few basic signal acquisition principles is required. The LHC required novel designs, but built on a wide range of previous developments that had been completed for other experiments. The high luminosity drove up the event rates, but multiple interactions per bunch crossing also made occupancy a major challenge. The large scale of detector subsystems imposed efficient designs where cost was a major consideration, but the difficulty of accessing detector components added reliability to the list of more severe requirements. Radiation damage, especially in the inner detectors, added additional crucial constraints. This paper will discuss electronics requirements, the configurations of major LHC detectors, and the readout systems. After a discussion of front-end implementations and radiation effects, systems with extreme performance requirements are described in more detail, i.e. silicon strip and pixel systems.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a beam test of prototype silicon microstrip detectors and front-end electronics developed for use in the LHC detector ATLAS is reported, where both irradiated and unirradiated modules were measured in a 1.56-T magnetic field for efficiency, noise occupancy, and position resolution as a function of bias voltage, binary hit threshold, and detector rotation angle with respect to the beam direction.
Abstract: Results are reported from a beam test of prototype silicon microstrip detectors and front-end electronics developed for use in the LHC detector ATLAS. The detector assemblies (“modules”) were 12 cm long and were read out with binary electronics. Both irradiated and unirradiated modules were measured in a 1.56 T magnetic field for efficiency, noise occupancy, and position resolution as a function of bias voltage, binary hit threshold, and detector rotation angle with respect to the beam direction.

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References
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TL;DR: In this article, a two-level parametrization is used to describe donor removal and acceptor state creation during proton irradiation of silicon strip detectors and photodiodes, and the change of the effective doping concentration was monitored by measuring diode C-V curves.
Abstract: Silicon strip detectors and photodiodes were irradiated in an 800 MeV proton beam. The change of the effective doping concentration was monitored by measuring diode C-V curves. Type inversion is observed at a fluence Φ = 1.5 × 1013 cm−2. Further evidence for type inversion is obtained from a study of pulses generated by an infrared LED in silicon strip detectors. A two-level parametrization is used to describe donor removal and acceptor state creation during proton irradiation: Neff = N0 exp(−cφ)−βφ. We measure values of c = (5.5 ± 1.1) × 1014 cm2 and β = (0.031 ± 0.006) cm−1. After type inversion the depletion voltage increases with proton fluence. This may set the limit for the lifetime of silicon detectors at future colliders. However, the occurence of type inversion does not degrade the performance of silicon strip detectors. The effective doping concentration showed a complex post irradiation behaviour. After a short term annealing period the doping concentration increased beyond the value that had been reached immediately after the exposure.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the effect of temperature on the depletion voltage of silicon PIN detectors damaged by radiation in the range from −10°C to +50°C and as a function of 800 MeV proton fluence.
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83 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Nov 1996
TL;DR: In this article, the ATLAS SCT detector was constructed by butting two detectors and a beam test was carried out for the non-irradiated and the irradiated detector modules.
Abstract: A large area (60 mm/spl times/60 mm) n-bulk and n-strip readout silicon strip detector prototype was fabricated for the ATLAS SCT detector. Detector modules with a strip length of 12 cm were made by butting two detectors. One of the 12 cm modules was irradiated with protons to a fluence of 1.2/spl times/10/sup 14/ p/cm/sup 2/, and a beam test was carried out for the non-irradiated and the irradiated detector modules. Efficiency and noise occupancy were analyzed using the beam test data. High efficiency was obtained for both detectors in the bias voltages down to about half the full depletion voltage. The noise occupancy was <2/spl times/10/sup -4/ for the 12 cm strips. The measurement of the edge region exhibited a difference in the sensitivity under the bias resistance where no extension of the n/sup +/-implant was fabricated: the non-irradiated detector showed sensitivity while the irradiated detector did not. The result was confirmed with a laser.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present their experience in design, construction, testing and operation of the front-end electronics (FEE) for the LPS silicon strip detectors for HERA.
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12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A double-sided silicon strip detector with a radiation-tolerant design was fabricated and characterized in a sequence of beam tests at KEK using 4 GeV/c pions as mentioned in this paper.
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The performance of the silicon strip detector prototypes developed for use in ATLAS at the LHC is reported.