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Personal values and the acceptance of immigrants: why national identification matters / Los valores personales y la aceptación de inmigrantes: ¿Por qué es importante la identificación nacional?

05 Jul 2018-Revista De Psicologia Social (Routledge)-Vol. 33, Iss: 3, pp 682-714
TL;DR: In this article, a study focused on the relations between Italian nationals' personal values and their expectations towards the way ethnic minorities should acculturate, and the main aim was to understand whether n...
Abstract: The study focused on the relations between Italian nationals’ personal values and their expectations towards the way ethnic minorities should acculturate. The main aim was to understand whether n...

Summary (5 min read)

Introduction

  • Keywords: nationalism; patriotism; personal values; acculturation attitudes; intergroup relationships Resumen: Este estudio se centra en la relación entre los valores personales de la población italiana y sus expectativas sobre los métodos de aculturación de las minorías éticas.
  • Preferences towards assimilationism, segregationism and exclusionism are driven by the feeling of being threatened by the presence of immigrants and by the tendency to endorse authoritarian and ethnocentric belief systems (cf. Montreuil & Bourhis, 2001).
  • Research focusing on specific values helps to clarify their role in the relation with positive and negative attitudes towards immigration.
  • These relationships were understood in terms of consistency among values’ motivational goals (e.g., personal security, response to cultural threats, conservation of norms and tradition versus concern for others’ welfare, favour of individual freedom of thought and behaviour, and openness to new experiences) and the goals promoted by the political values.

The current study

  • The research aimed to examine the relationships between values, nationalism and patriotism, and majority members’ acculturation preferences in a population of young Italians.
  • And despite the fact that the country has been experiencing immigration since the 1990s, there are no consistent Italian policies covering the integration of immigrants, so Italy can be considered ‘a country without an established model of integration or pluralism’ (Allievi, 2014, p. 724).
  • In the current study, the authors named that structure resistence to otherness vs. diversity supporting (RO-DS).
  • Tendency for universalism would be related to the propensity for diversity-supporting preferences.
  • Nationalism mediates the relation between basic values (i.e., tendency for security and tendency for universalism) and the propensity for acculturation preference.

Participants

  • A population of 479 secondary school student was involved.
  • To control participants’ ethnic background, questions about students’ and their parents’ place of birth were included, leading to the exclusion from the data set of 25 participants.
  • Eight subjects did not fully complete the questionnaire.
  • Participants were contacted during their school lessons and were informed that they were participating in a study on relevant social issues concerning Italian society.
  • The choice of this specific population was based on the idea that secondary school students are representative of the forthcoming society on the one hand, and are in many ways used to living side by side in school and in society with youths of an immigrant background.

Procedure

  • Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire.
  • Upon the schools’ board of direction approval, questionnaires were administered in classrooms with the teachers’ permission.
  • Participants volunteered to be part of the research without receiving any reward; they agreed to anonymously complete a questionnaire in accordance with the Italian law on privacy.
  • The questionnaire included background indicators of the socio-demographic attributes of participants.

Personal values

  • Table 3 shows the correlations among the values of self-direction, security, universalism and power, acculturation preferences, nationalism and patriotism.
  • Specifically, self-direction and security measured the latent variable SD-SC, and universalism and power measured the latent variable U-P. SDSC and U-P latent variables were inter-correlated because they are part of a circumplex value structure (Davidov & Meuleman, 2012; Schwartz, 1994).
  • Latent variables Nationalism and Patriotism were also inter-correlated.

National identification

  • Respondents’ national identification was assessed through the Patriotism/ Nationalism Questionnaire (Kosterman & Feshbach, 1989).
  • On the patriotism scale, to improve internal consistency and to maintain the same item cardinality of the nationalism scale, items were reduced to five by item analysis and reliability, that is to say, selecting the best items subset in terms of Cronbach’s alpha values.
  • The alpha coefficients were .60 for nationalism and .86 for patriotism.
  • The items were reversed when needed, such that the lowest scores indicate low levels of patriotism and nationalism.
  • Scores were calculated by the mean of the items belonging to each scale.

Host acculturation preferences

  • The authors assessed the preferences towards exclusionism, segregationism, assimilationism, integrationism and individualism through 15 items on the Italian adaptation of the Host Community Acculturation Scale (HCAS; Barrette, Bourhis, Capozza, & Hichy, 2005).
  • Each acculturation preference was assessed though three life domains: culture, endogamy/exogamy and employment.
  • Participants expressed their opinions on a five-point scale ranging from 1, ‘strongly disagree’, to 5, ‘strongly agree’.
  • Scores were calculated by the mean of the items belonging to each sub-scale.

Data analyses

  • The descriptive analysis of data, including the reliability coefficients of scales and correlation analysis, was performed using IBM SPSS 22.0 Statistic.
  • The structure of the Host Community Acculturation Scale was preliminary examined by a confirmatory factor analysis, while the path of relations among values, national identifications and acculturation preferences was tested through structural equation modeling (SEM; Bollen, 1989) by Amos 16.0.
  • The model estimation was conducted by applying the bootstrap procedure (Shrout & Bolger, 2002) on the covariance matrix of indicators.
  • As is usually recommended (Hu & Bentler, 1999), the authors tested the model fit using both incremental and absolute fit indices: χ2, CFI (Comparative Fit Index; Bentler, 1990), SRMR (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual; Hu & Bentler, 1999) and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation; Steiger, 1990).
  • For CFI, values higher than .95 were considered satisfactory (cf. Bentler, 1990); an SRMR smaller than .08 indicates a good fit.

Results

  • Statistics about the variables in the study are shown in Table 1.
  • Descriptives on values were calculated on the summed scores because the statistics on ipsatized scores would be uninformative.
  • As expected, preferences for forms of acculturation that support diversity (individualism and integrationism) were positively related to each other and negatively related to the three preferences that imply progressive aversion to otherness (assimilationism, segregationism and exclusionismism).
  • The pattern of relationships enlightened a clear homogeneity within preferences that belong to the same pole, and an equally sharp opposition between the two polarities RO-DS.
  • Furthermore, chauvinism and patriotism were positively associated; unexpectedly, patriotism was slightly positively related to segregationism.

Discussion

  • The current study addressed the issue of interethnic relationships and focused on the relationships between nationals’ personal values and their readiness to accept or refuse immigrants.
  • Results highlighted that nationalism totally mediates the relationship between the endorsement of security values and the acculturation continuum, whilst universalism holds a direct relationship with acculturation preferences that support diversity.
  • This limitation prevents a generalization of results, which should be overcome through future studies on a more general and representative sample of Italian society.
  • The present research contributes towards clarifying the role of values in shaping intergroup relationships.
  • Por lo que concierne a la comunidad receptora, las preferencias de aculturación de los nacionales consisten en las expectativas albergadas por las mayorías locales dominantes sobre ‘la mejor manera’ en que las minorías inmigrantes deberían relacionarse con ellos.

Valores básicos y actitudes interétnicas

  • Los valores son principios abstractos que apuntalan las actitudes individuales respecto a objetos específicos (e.g., Morselli, Spini, & Devos, 2012; Spini & Doise, 1998).
  • Los estudios previos han abordado los valores como conceptos unificados de valores (i.e, teniendo en cuenta las cuatro metas motivacionales) y también como valores individuales.
  • En ambos casos, si tenemos en cuenta la investigación sobre las actitudes respecto a los inmigrantes y la inmigración, los resultados sugieren consistentemente que las actitudes positivas están motivadas por valores de apertura al cambio y de autotrascendencia y las actitudes negativas por valores de conservación.
  • Hasta donde sabemos, las relaciones entre nacionalismo, patriotismo y valores básicos están muy lejos de haber sido investigadas en profundidad.
  • Esta evidencia está en línea con los resultados de un estudio longitudinal sobre la relación entre los valores y el voto político realizado en Italia (Schwartz, Caprara, & Vecchione, 2010).

El presente estudio

  • Con la presente investigación se pretendía analizar las relaciones entre valores, nacionalismo y patriotismo, así como las preferencias de aculturación de los miembros del grupo mayoritario en una población de jóvenes de nacionalidad italiana.
  • Para definir la variable dependiente, tuvimos en cuenta la afirmación de Berry (1997; véase también Montreuil & Bourhis, 2001; Zick et al., 2001) de que las preferencias de aculturación de la población local se expresan mejor a través de una estructura unidimensional cuyos polos son exclusión/separatismo e integración, respectivamente.
  • En línea con el modelo circumplejo de Schwartz (1994), que resume los valores en dos dimensiones principales, Apertura al cambio (AC)-Conservación (C) y Autopromoción (AP)-Autotrascendencia (AT), nos centramos en muestras de contenido de estos conflictos, teniendo en cuenta la oposición entre los valores de autodirección y seguridad (AD-S) y el conflicto entre universalismo y poder (U-P).
  • Sobre esta base, esperamos que: ● La tendencia hacia la seguridad tendrá una relación negativa con la predisposición hacia preferencias en defensa de la diversidad.
  • El nacionalismo tendrá una relación inversa con la predisposición hacia las preferencias en defensa de la diversidad, mientras que el patriotismo estará positivamente relacionado con estas.

Participantes

  • La muestra estaba formada por una población de 479 estudiantes de bachillerato.
  • El contacto con los participantes tuvo lugar durante sus clases habituales y se les informó de que participarían en un estudio sobre temas sociales relacionados con la sociedad italiana.
  • Todos los participantes cursaban el último año de bachillerato.

Procedimiento

  • Tras obtener la aprobación del consejo de dirección de las respectivas escuelas, los estudiantes completaron el cuestionario durante sus clases normales con el permiso de los profesores.
  • Los participantes se ofrecieron voluntariamente sin recibir nada a cambio y aceptaron completar los cuestionarios de manera anónima, de acuerdo con las leyes italianas sobre la privacidad de datos.
  • El cuestionario incluía indicadores de las características sociodemográficas de los participantes.

Identificación nacional

  • En la escala de nacionalismo, uno de los ítems (‘Realmente no es importante que nuestra nación sea número uno en todo lo que hace’) resultó tener poca consistencia con los demás (correlación total entre ítems = .12) y se excluyó del análisis.
  • Los coeficientes resultantes eran .60 para el nacionalismo y .86 para el patriotismo.
  • Cuando se consideró necesario, se invirtieron los ítems de modo que los valores inferiores indicaban niveles reducidos de patriotismo y de nacionalismo.
  • Los valores se obtuvieron calculando las medias de los ítems de cada escala.

Preferencias de aculturación de la comunidad receptora

  • Para evaluar las preferencias de los participantes hacia la exclusión, segregación, asimilación, integración e individualismo, utilizamos los 15 ítems de la adaptación italiana de la Escala de aculturación de la comunidad receptora (HCAS, por sus siglas en inglés; Barrette, Bourhis, Capozza, & Hichy, 2005).
  • Los participantes expresaron sus opiniones sobre una escala Likert de cinco puntos que iba del 1 (‘totalmente en desacuerdo’) al 5 (‘totalmente de acuerdo’).
  • Para obtener las puntuaciones, calculamos la media de los ítems de cada subescala.

Resultados

  • El chovinismo obtuvo una puntuación mayor que el patriotismo.
  • Los estadísticos descriptivos se calcularon a partir de las puntuaciones totales, dado que los estadísticos de las puntuaciones ipsatizadas no resultarían informativas.
  • Los participantes se mostraban más comprometidos con el universalismo y la autodirección que con el poder; la puntuación media de seguridad era bastante elevada.

Preferencias de aculturación e identificación nacional

  • Como esperábamos, las preferencias hacia los tipos de aculturación que favorecen la diversidad (individualismo e integración) mantenían una relación positiva entre ellos y negativa con las tres preferencias de aculturación que implican aversión a la otredad (asimilación, segregación y exclusión).
  • El patrón de relaciones reveló una clara homogeneidad entre las preferencias que pertenecen al mismo polo, así como una oposición igualmente clara entre las dos polaridades RO-DD.
  • Además, el chovinismo y el patriotismo tienen una relación positiva; sorprendentemente, se observó una relación levemente positiva del patriotismo con la segregación.

El papel de la identificación nacional en la relación entre los valores personales y las preferencias de aculturación

  • El nacionalismo se relaciona positivamente con las preferencias tendentes a la resistencia a los otros y negativamente con las que apoyan la diversidad, mientras que el patriotismo no mantiene relación alguna con las preferencias de aculturación.
  • Por otro lado, los resultados ponen de relieve que las actitudes positivas frente a la integración de los inmigrantes van más allá de cualquier forma de identificación nacional, pero están impulsadas por una preocupación general por el bienestar universal y un menor interés en mantener un control etnocéntrico sobre los recursos de la sociedad.

ORCID

  • An examination of similarities in personal, social and cultural value structures.
  • The influence of blind and constructive patriotism on attitudes toward multiculturalism and immigration.

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Revista de Psicología Social
International Journal of Social Psychology
ISSN: 0213-4748 (Print) 1579-3680 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rrps20
Personal values and the acceptance of
immigrants: why national identification
matters / Los valores personales y la aceptación
de inmigrantes: ¿Por qué es importante la
identificación nacional?
Anna Miglietta, Stefano Tartaglia & Barbara Loera
To cite this article: Anna Miglietta, Stefano Tartaglia & Barbara Loera (2018): Personal values
and the acceptance of immigrants: why national identification matters / Los valores personales
y la aceptación de inmigrantes: ¿Por qué es importante la identificación nacional?, Revista de
Psicología Social, DOI: 10.1080/02134748.2018.1482058
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2018.1482058
Published online: 05 Jul 2018.
Submit your article to this journal
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Personal values and the acceptance of immigrants: why national
identification matters / Los valores personales y la aceptación de
inmigrantes: ¿Por qué es importante la identificación nacional?
Anna Miglietta , Stefano Tartaglia, and Barbara Loera
University of Turin
(Received 6 April 2017; accepted 6 December 2017)
Abstract: : The study focused on the relations between Italian nationals
personal values and their expectations towards the way ethnic minorities
should acculturate. The main aim was to understand whether nationals
personal values predict their acculturation preferences towards immigrants,
both directly and through national identity. Four hundred and forty-six Italian
high school students (M
age
= 19.1; SD = 0.57; females = 54.4%) completed a
self-administered questionnaire assessing personal values, nationalism, patri-
otism, acculturation preferences and demographics. An SEM model with
bootstrapping estimations was tested. As expected, the results highlighted
that personal values predict acculturation preferences towards immigrants in
two ways directly and also through an indirect effect on nationalism
supporting the claim that ingroup and outgroup definitions are closely inter-
twined. The results also highlighted the need to differentiate betw een nation-
alism and patriotism, wi th the latter having no influence on Italian nationals
readiness to accept immigrants. Overall, the research demonstrates the rele-
vance of personal values in studying intergroup relations and draws attention
to the potential value of communication policies centred on self-transcendence
values to improve interethnic relations.
Keywords: nationalism; patriotism; personal values; acculturation attitudes;
intergroup relationships
Resumen: Este estudio se centra en la relación entre los valores personales de
la población italiana y sus expectativas sobre los métodos de aculturación de
las minorías éticas. El objetivo principal era comprender si los valores perso-
nales de la población italiana predicen sus preferencias de aculturación de la
población inmigrante, bien directamente o a través de la identidad nacional.
Para ello, un total de 446 estudiantes italianos de bachillerato (M
edad
= 19.1;
DT = 0.57; mujeres = 54.4%) completaron un cuestionario autoadministrado
sobre valores personales, nacionalismo, patriotismo, preferencias de
aculturación y datos demográficos. Se probó un modelo de ecuaciones
English version: pp. 115 / Versión en español: pp. 1631
References / Referencias: pp. 3133
Translated from English / Traducci ón del inglés: Mercè Rius
Authors Address / Correspondencia con los autores: Stefano Tartaglia, Dipartimento di
Psicologia, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Verdi 10, 10124 Torino, Italy.
E-mail: stefano.tartaglia@unito.it
Revista de Psicología Social / International Journal of Social Psychology, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1080/02 134748.2 018.1482 058
© 2018 Fundacion Infancia y Aprendizaje

estructurales (MES) con bootstrapping. Como se esperaba, los resultados
indicaron que los valores personales predicen las preferencias de
aculturación respecto de los inmigrantes de dos maneras: directamente y
también a través de un efecto indirecto sobre el nacionalismo, lo que corro-
bora que las definiciones de endogrupo y exogrupo están estrechamente
relacionadas. Los resultados también señalan la necesidad de diferenciar
entre nacionalismo y patriotismo, con nula influencia de este último sobre la
predisposición de los italianos a aceptar a los inmigrantes. En general, la
investigación demuestra la relevancia de los valores personales en el estudio
de las relaciones endogrupales y pone de relieve el valor potencial de las
políticas de comunicación centradas en valores autotransc endentes para
mejorar las relaciones interétnicas.
Palabras clave: nacionalismo; patriotismo; valores personales; actitudes de
aculturación; relaciones intergrupales
Acculturation refers to the process of social, psychological and cultural change
that stems from the blending between cultures. Literature agrees in distinguishing
five acculturation orientations, named individualism, integration, assimilation,
segregation and exclusion (Bourhis & Bougie, 1998). As bidirectional, accultura-
tion involves all the cultures that stay in a continuative and prolonged contact
(Herskovits, Linton, & Redfield, 1936); however, generally the cultural changes
requested of immigrants are far deeper than those enacted by the receiving culture.
Even if similar, acculturation orientations have different origins when referring to
immigrants or to the national community. In the former case, acculturation
strategies stem from the crossing of two latent and interrelated dimensions con-
cerning immigrants willingness (a) to maintain their heritage culture and (b) to
adopt the one from the receiving country (Berry, 1997). Concerning the receiving
community, nationals acculturation preferences consist of the expectations held
by dominant host majorities towards the best way in which immigrant minorities
should relate to them. In this case, a preference towards individualism and
integrationism is rooted in the belief that immigrants are interested in having
contact with the host majority. Preferences towards assimilationism, segregation-
ism and exclusionism are driven by the feeling of being threatened by the
presence of immigrants and by the tendency to endorse authoritarian and ethno-
centric belief systems (cf. Montreuil & Bourhis, 2001). So, nationals accultura-
tion preferences are best represented by a one-dimensional structure whose poles
are integration on the one hand and segregation, exclusion and assimilation on the
other (Berry, 1997; see also Zick, Wagner, Van Dick, & Petzel, 2001).
Individualism and integrationism shape the inclusive pole through positive beliefs
about immigrants willingness to have contact with nationals. On the other pole,
segregationism, exclusionism and assimilationism can be understood as responses
to the need to enhance ingroup distinctiveness: the former two through a clear
refusal to include immigrants as rightful members of the group majority
(Montreuil & Bourhis, 2001, p. 716), whilst assimilationism by eliminating the
differences among groups by absorbing immigrants within the host majority. This
presumed egalitarianism, however, does not come at a low cost for immigrant
2 A. Miglietta et al.

minorities because it is based on the expectation that immigrants fully adopt host
society cultural features and relinquish their original cultural traits, legitimizing
the superiority of majority attributes. Overall, nationals acculturation preferences
can be considered reliable predictors of individual behaviour in relation to ethnic
minorities (Zick et al., 2001).
The current study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the way in
which acculturation preferences are formed in a majority group. Previous
research has focused on the relationships between basic values and specific
attitudes towards immigrants, as the willingness to accept valued and devalued
immigrants in Europe (Schwartz, 2007) and immigration (Davidov, Meuleman,
Billiet, & Schmidt, 2008) or the perception of the consequences of immigration
(Vecchione, Caprara, Schoen, Castro, & Schwartz, 2012). However, despite the
considerable amount of research in this field, only a few studies have been
concerned with a more in-depth examination of the relation between indivi-
duals values and their acculturation preferences (e.g., Sapienza, Hichy,
Guarnera, & Nuovo, 2010). Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, no
previous studies have directly tested whether personal values also participate
in the formation of majority group members acculturation preferences through
national identification.
Basic values and inter-ethnic attitudes
Values are abstract principles underpinning individuals attitudes towards specific
objects (e.g., Morselli, Spini, & Devos, 2012; Spini & Doise, 1998). The Theory
of Basic Human Values (Schwartz, 1994) identifies 10 motivationally distinct
values, each expressing a different motivational goal that can be summarized in
two dimensions: Self-Enhancement vs. Self-Transcendence and Openness to
Change vs. Conservation (hereinafter SE-ST and O-C). The first dimension
reflects a conflict between the pursuit of self-interests (power, achievement) and
a concern for the welfare and interests of others (universalism, benevolence); the
second emphasizes independent actions, thoughts, feelings and readiness for new
experiences (self-direction, stimulation) versus self-restriction, order and resis-
tance to change (security, tradition, conformity; Schwartz, 2005).
Research has approached values both as unified value concepts (i.e., consider-
ing the four motivational goals) and as single values. In both cases, when
considering research on attitudes towards immigrants and immigration, results
consistently suggest that positive attitudes are driven by O and ST values and
negative attitudes by C values. For example, Kuşdil and Şimşek (2008) found that
O and ST values positively relate to the support for human and minorities rights;
Sapienza et al. (2010) found that ST values help to endorse integrationism and
individualism whilst assimilationism, segregationism and exclusionism are
enhanced by the endorsement of C values. Consistently, in a study based on
EES data, Davidov and Meuleman (2012) found a lower support for the rejection
of immigrants among self-transcendent individuals, whereas conservative indivi-
duals rejected immigration more strongly.
Personal values and acceptance of immigrants / Valores personales y aceptación de inmigrantes 3

Research focusing on specific values helps to clarify their role in the relation with
positive and negative attitudes towards immigration. Several studies underline the
relevance of universalism and self-direction in the formation of positive attitudes,
consistently with their motivational goals. Universalism is defined by understanding,
appreciation, tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature,in
contrast with the ingroup focus of benevolence values (Schwartz, 2012, p. 7). Self-
direction derives from organismic needs for control and mastery and interactional
requirements of autonomy and independence and is defined by the goals of inde-
pendent thought and action-choosing (Schwartz, 2012, p. 5). Consistently, univers-
alism and self-direction positively predict individuals readiness for contact with
outgroup members (Sagiv & Schwartz, 1995), the acceptance of immigrants in
European societies (Schwartz, 2007) and Belgians acceptance of the Islamic veil
(Saroglou, Lamkaddem, Van Pachterbeke, & Buxant, 2009). In 2012, Vecchione and
colleagues found that universalism predicts positive perceptions of the consequences
of immigrations in Italy (Vecchione et al., 2012).
Conversely, security values sometimes together with tradition, conformity
and power seem to be the most relevant to predicting negative attitudes
towards immigrants. Security values defining goals concern safety, harmony and
general stability, and serve both individual and group interests (see also Schwartz
et al., 2012). Tradition and conformity are motivationally close values sharing the
goal of subordinating the self to socially imposed expectations. However, tradition
relates subordination to abstract objects (i.e., religion, cultural customs) whilst
conformity refers subordination to persons living in the individuals microsystems
(e.g., parents, teachers, bosses). Finally, power is defined by the goal of social
status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources (Schwartz,
2012, pp. 56). Consistently, individuals readiness for contact is negatively
predicted by tradition, security and conformity (Sagiv & Schwartz, 1995); security
and conformity oppose the acceptance of immigrants (Schwartz, 2007); the refusal
of the Islamic veil is fostered by security and power (Saroglou et al., 2009); and
security alone enhances negative perceptions of the consequences of immigration
(Vecchione et al., 2012).
National identification and attitudes towards the outgroup
According to Kosterman and Feshbach (1989; see also Adorno, Frenkel-
Brunswik, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950), we can distinguish between two
forms of national identification: nationalism and patriotism. Nationalism, also
called chauvinism or blind patriotism (Blank & Schmidt, 2003), includes
feelings of attachment and devotion to ones own country and its goals.
Chauvinists uncritically support any action of their national group and share
a view of superiority and dominance of the ingroup over the outgroup.
Patriotism, or constructive patriotism, represents feelings of attachment to
ones
own country based on critical consciousness and critical loyalty to the
group (Bar-Tal, 1997; Schatz, Staub, & Lavine, 1999; Staub, 1997) and is not
conducive to outgroup derogation (Brewer, 1999; Raijman, Davidov, Schmidt,
4 A. Miglietta et al.

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Abstract: Strong interpersonal bonds between group members have been found to either increase intergroup antipathy or improve intergroup attitudes, depending on the intergroup situation. However, the question of whether close ties with fellow group members can contribute positively and negatively to intergroup attitudes at the same time remains unexplored. We explore this question in the context of a national group taking the example of Finns' acculturation attitudes toward immigrants. One adolescent sample (N = 401) and one adult student sample (N = 285) completed surveys assessing these factors. Across both studies, strong interpersonal bonds with fellow nationals showed a negative effect on acculturation attitudes toward immigrants via an increase in blind patriotism. At the same time, interpersonal bonds also had a direct and positive effect on attitudes toward contact with Finns and (among younger respondents only) attitudes toward cultural maintenance. Our results indicate that the strength of interpersonal bonds with fellow nationals has simultaneous and opposing associations with acculturation attitudes via a combination of direct and indirect pathways. Based on these results we argue that groups can be simultaneously both caring and moral communities.

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Abstract: We analyzed the relationship between modern forms of populism and citizen support for exclusive welfare policies and proposals, and we focused on support for left-wing- and right-wing-oriented welfare policies enacted or proposed during the Lega Nord (LN)–Five Star Movement (FSM) government in Italy (2018–2019). In light of the theoretical perspective of political ideology as motivated by social cognition, we examined citizens’ support for the two policies considering adherence to populist attitudes, agreement on the criteria useful to define ingroup membership, and personal values. We also took into account the role of cognitive sophistication in populism avoidance. A total of 785 Italian adults (F = 56.6; mean age = 35.8) completed an online survey in the summer of 2019 based on the following: support for populist policies and proposals, political ideologies and positioning, personal values, and ingroup boundaries. We used correlation and regression analyses. The results highlight the relationships between populism and political conservatism. Populism was related to the vertical and horizontal borders defining the “people”; cognitive sophistication was not a relevant driver. We identified some facilitating factors that could promote adherence to and support for public policies inspired by the values of the right or of the left, without a true ideological connotation.

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the adequacy of the conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice were examined, and the results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to.95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and G...
Abstract: This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and G...

76,383 citations


"Personal values and the acceptance ..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...…is usually recommended (Hu & Bentler, 1999), we tested the model fit using both incremental and absolute fit indices: χ2, CFI (Comparative Fit Index; Bentler, 1990), SRMR (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual; Hu & Bentler, 1999) and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation; Steiger, 1990)....

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  • ...…Bentler, 1999), se comprobó el ajuste del modelo utilizando tanto índices incrementales como absolutos: χ2, CFI (índice de ajuste comparativo; Bentler, 1990), SRMR (residuo cuadrático medio estandarizado; Hu & Bentler, 1999) y RMSEA (raíz del error cuadrático medio de aproximación; Steiger, 1990)....

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  • ...Como suele recomendarse (Hu & Bentler, 1999), se comprobó el ajuste del modelo utilizando tanto índices incrementales como absolutos: χ2, CFI (índice de ajuste comparativo; Bentler, 1990), SRMR (residuo cuadrático medio estandarizado; Hu & Bentler, 1999) y RMSEA (raíz del error cuadrático medio de…...

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  • ...As is usually recommended (Hu & Bentler, 1999), we tested the model fit using both incremental and absolute fit indices: χ2, CFI (Comparative Fit Index; Bentler, 1990), SRMR (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual; Hu & Bentler, 1999) and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation; Steiger,…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new coefficient is proposed to summarize the relative reduction in the noncentrality parameters of two nested models and two estimators of the coefficient yield new normed (CFI) and nonnormed (FI) fit indexes.
Abstract: Normed and nonnormed fit indexes are frequently used as adjuncts to chi-square statistics for evaluating the fit of a structural model A drawback of existing indexes is that they estimate no known population parameters A new coefficient is proposed to summarize the relative reduction in the noncentrality parameters of two nested models Two estimators of the coefficient yield new normed (CFI) and nonnormed (FI) fit indexes CFI avoids the underestimation of fit often noted in small samples for Bentler and Bonett's (1980) normed fit index (NFI) FI is a linear function of Bentler and Bonett's non-normed fit index (NNFI) that avoids the extreme underestimation and overestimation often found in NNFI Asymptotically, CFI, FI, NFI, and a new index developed by Bollen are equivalent measures of comparative fit, whereas NNFI measures relative fit by comparing noncentrality per degree of freedom All of the indexes are generalized to permit use of Wald and Lagrange multiplier statistics An example illustrates the behavior of these indexes under conditions of correct specification and misspecification The new fit indexes perform very well at all sample sizes

21,588 citations


"Personal values and the acceptance ..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...As is usually recommended (Hu & Bentler, 1999), we tested the model fit using both incremental and absolute fit indices: χ2, CFI (Comparative Fit Index; Bentler, 1990), SRMR (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual; Hu & Bentler, 1999) and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation; Steiger, 1990)....

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  • ...For CFI, values higher than .95 were considered satisfactory (cf. Bentler, 1990); an SRMR smaller than .08 indicates a good fit....

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  • ...…is usually recommended (Hu & Bentler, 1999), we tested the model fit using both incremental and absolute fit indices: χ2, CFI (Comparative Fit Index; Bentler, 1990), SRMR (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual; Hu & Bentler, 1999) and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation; Steiger, 1990)....

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  • ...Para el CFI, se consideraron satisfactorios valores superiores a .95 (cf. Bentler, 1990); un SRMR inferior a .08 indica un buen ajuste....

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  • ...…(Hu & Bentler, 1999), se comprobó el ajuste del modelo utilizando tanto índices incrementales como absolutos: χ2, CFI (índice de ajuste comparativo; Bentler, 1990), SRMR (residuo cuadrático medio estandarizado; Hu & Bentler, 1999) y RMSEA (raíz del error cuadrático medio de aproximación; Steiger,…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Efron and Tibshirani as discussed by the authors used bootstrap tests to assess mediation, finding that the sampling distribution of the mediated effect is skewed away from 0, and they argued that R. M. Kenny's (1986) recommendation of first testing the X --> Y association for statistical significance should not be a requirement when there is a priori belief that the effect size is small or suppression is a possibility.
Abstract: Mediation is said to occur when a causal effect of some variable X on an outcome Y is explained by some intervening variable M. The authors recommend that with small to moderate samples, bootstrap methods (B. Efron & R. Tibshirani, 1993) be used to assess mediation. Bootstrap tests are powerful because they detect that the sampling distribution of the mediated effect is skewed away from 0. They argue that R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny's (1986) recommendation of first testing the X --> Y association for statistical significance should not be a requirement when there is a priori belief that the effect size is small or suppression is a possibility. Empirical examples and computer setups for bootstrap analyses are provided.

8,940 citations


"Personal values and the acceptance ..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...The model estimation was conducted by applying the bootstrap procedure (Shrout & Bolger, 2002) on the covariance matrix of indicators....

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  • ...Para realizar la estimación del modelo, aplicamos un procedimiento de remuestreo o bootstrap (Shrout & Bolger, 2002) sobre la matriz de indicadores de covarianza....

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Book
01 Jan 1950
TL;DR: The Authoritarian Personality "invented a set of criteria by which to define personality traits, ranked these traits and their intensity in any given person on what it called the 'F scale' (F for fascist)".
Abstract: The Authoritarian Personality "invented a set of criteria by which to define personality traits, ranked these traits and their intensity in any given person on what it called the 'F scale' (F for fascist)." The personality type Adorno et al. identified can be defined by nine traits that were believed to cluster together as the result of childhood experiences. These traits include conventionalism, authoritarian submission, authoritarian aggression, anti-intellectualism, anti-intraception, superstition and stereotypy, power and "toughness", destructiveness and cynicism, projectivity, and exaggerated concerns over sex.

7,003 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
John W. Berry1
TL;DR: In this paper, a conceptual framework for cross-cultural psychology has been proposed, and some general findings and conclusions based on a sample of empirical studies have been presented, with a consideration of the social and psychological costs and benefits of adopting a pluralist and integrationist orientation to these issues.
Abstract: La psychologie interculturelle a montre qu'il existait des rapports etroits entre le contexte culturel et le developpement comportemental de l'individu. Cette relation etablie, l'effort des recherches interculturelles a de plus en plus porte sur ce qu'il advenait des individus quand ils tentaient de refaire leur vie dans une culture differente de leur culture d'origine. Les consequences psychologiques a long terme de ce processus d'acculturation sont tres variables, dependant de variables sociales et personnelles qui renvoient a la societe de depart, a la societe d'accueil et a des phenomenes qui existent avant, mais qui emergent pendant la periode d'acculturation. Cet article esquisse un schema conceptuel a partir duquel acculturation et adaptation peuvent ětre etudiees, puis presente quelques conclusions et resultats generaux tires d'un echantillon de travaux empiriques. On envisage des applications possibles a la politique et aux programmes d'insertion en prenant en consideration les couts et les benefices sociaux et psychologiques emanant de l'adoprion d'une orientation pluraliste et integrationniste. Cross-cultural psychology has demonstrated important links between cultural context and individual behavioural development. Given this relationship, cross-cultural research has increasingly investigated what happens to individuals who have developed in one cultural context when they attempt to re-establish their lives in another one. The long-term psychological consequences of this process of acculturation are highly variable, depending on social and personal variables that reside in the society of origin, the society of settlement. and phenomena that both exist prior to, and arise during, the course of acculturation. This article outlines a conceptual framework within which acculturation and adaptation can be investigated, and then presents some general findings and conclusions based on a sample of empirical studies. Applications to public policy and programmes are proposed. along with a consideration of the social and psychological costs and benefits of adopting a pluralist and integrationist orientation to these issues.

6,705 citations


"Personal values and the acceptance ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…de ecuaciones estructurales (MES) para comprobar las relaciones de mediación Para mantener la referencia a la estructura unidimensional señalada por Berry (1997) como la que mejor representa las preferencias de aculturación de las mayorías receptoras (véase también Zick et al., 2001), comprobamos…...

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  • ...Dotted arrows mean not significant relations. idea that nationals’ acculturation preferences are best represented by a onedimensional structure (Berry, 1997; Montreuil & Bourhis, 2001; Zick et al., 2001)....

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  • ...In the former case, acculturation strategies stem from the crossing of two latent and interrelated dimensions concerning immigrants’ willingness (a) to maintain their heritage culture and (b) to adopt the one from the receiving country (Berry, 1997)....

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  • ...Así, las preferencias de aculturación de los nacionales están mejor representadas por una estructura unidimensional cuyos polos son, por un lado, la integración y, por el otro, la segregación, la exclusión y la asimilación (Berry, 1997; véase también Zick, Wagner, Van Dick, & Petzel, 2001)....

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  • ...En el caso de los primeros, las estrategias de aculturación surgen del cruce de dos dimensiones latentes e interrelacionadas que tienen que ver con la predisposición de los inmigrantes a (a) mantener su herencia cultural y (b) adoptar la cultura del país receptor (Berry, 1997)....

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Frequently Asked Questions (2)
Q1. What are the contributions mentioned in the paper "Personal values and the acceptance of immigrants: why national identification matters" ?

: The study focused on the relations between Italian nationals ’ personal values and their expectations towards the way ethnic minorities should acculturate. The main aim was to understand whether nationals ’ personal values predict their acculturation preferences towards immigrants, both directly and through national identity. As expected, the results highlighted that personal values predict acculturation preferences towards immigrants in two ways — directly and also through an indirect effect on nationalism — supporting the claim that ingroup and outgroup definitions are closely intertwined. Overall, the research demonstrates the relevance of personal values in studying intergroup relations and draws attention to the potential value of communication policies centred on self-transcendence values to improve interethnic relations. 

This limitation prevents a generalization of results, which should be overcome through future studies on a more general and representative sample of Italian society. On the one hand, it adds further evidence on the relevance of the values of security, self-direction, universalism and power in orienting the relationships between nationals and immigrants. Overall, the current study adds further evidence to the argument that a valuerelated approach to studying intergroup relations is relevant and suggests the possibility for policy makers and the media to act on values to improve interethnic relations.