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Journal ArticleDOI

Personality trait change at work: Associations with organizational socialization and identification

01 Dec 2020-Journal of Personality (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 88, Iss: 6, pp 1217-1234
TL;DR: The Big five personality traits showed significant mean level changes across the three-year training program, and although these changes were not fully consistent with theoretical expectations, they did predict two aspects of organizational adjustment (socialization and identification).
Abstract: Author(s): Alessandri, Guido; Perinelli, Enrico; Robins, Richard W; Vecchione, Michele; Filosa, Lorenzo | Abstract: ObjectiveThis study investigates associations between Big Five personality trait change, organizational socialization, and organizational identification during a 3-year police officer training program (N = 416 police officer cadets).MethodParticipants completed a questionnaire measuring the Big Five personality traits when they entered the training academy, and then, completed the same personality questionnaire, along with measures of organizational socialization and identification, during their 2nd (n = 360) and 3rd (n = 397) year of training.ResultsResults corroborated the hypotheses that (a) the Big Five traits can show systematic changes even across a relatively short time period and (b) this change is functional, given that the latent difference scores of all Big Five traits significantly predicted increases in organizational socialization and identification.ConclusionThe Big five personality traits showed significant mean level changes across the 3-year training program. Although these changes were not fully consistent with theoretical expectations, they did predict two aspects of organizational adjustment (socialization and identification). The theoretical and practical implications of these findings were discussed.

Summary (2 min read)

Introduction

  • UC Davis UC Davis Previously Published Works Title Personality trait change at work: Associations with organizational socialization and identification.
  • Psychological and Organizational Mechanisms Contributing to Personality Trait Change From a personality perspective, occupational preferences are best understood as resulting from the interplay between youths’ personality and their specific environment, and as such they represent an example of characteristics adaptations (see McCrae & Costa, 2008).
  • Becoming a police cadet imposes numerous specific behavioral demands that shape personality by rewarding role-appropriate behavior and punishing inappropriate conduct (Hudson, Roberts, & LodiSmith, 2012).
  • Their hypotheses were represented in the model as follows.
  • The significance of this prediction would corroborate the hypothesis that investment in the 13 processes of organizational socialization and organizational identification may lead to subsequent personality changes.

Measures

  • Organizational socialization was measured by the 6-item “full member” subscale from the Organizational Socialization Questionnaire (OSQ; Livi, Theodorou, Rullo, Cinque, & Alessandri, 2018).
  • “I have learned how to carry out my work-related activities and duties well”, also known as Sample item is.
  • Cronbach’s alpha was .87 at W2 and .86 at W3. Organizational identification.
  • When I talk about [company name], I usually say ‘we’ rather than ‘they’.
  • Personality traits were measured using the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ; Caprara, Barbaranelli, Borgogni, & Vecchione, 1993).

Data Analytic Strategy

  • First, the authors built a measurement model for each construct (i.e., each Big Five trait, organizational socialization, and organizational identification) at each time point (W1, W2, and W3 for Big Five traits; W2 and W3 for organizational socialization and organizational identification).
  • After establishing the best model to describe the observed change in each of the Big Five trait, the authors next investigated their longitudinal associations with organizational socialization and identification.
  • The goodness of fit of each model was evaluated using the χ2 test, the comparative fit index (CFI), and the root-mean-square error of approximation .
  • There was no significant effect of covariates on the intercept, the slope, or any of the difference change scores.
  • Indeed, changes on openness and neuroticism showed to best fit to a dual change model (that includes a constant change factor), whereas changes in extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were best represented by a proportional change with constant rate model (that includes only wave-specific change factors).

Longitudinal effects of organizational socialization and

  • As shown at the bottom of Table 3 (parameter OIW2 → Δ2P) organizational identification did not predict any latent trait change from W2 to W3.
  • Instead, the authors found that organizational socialization significantly predicted the Δ2P of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness (see Table 3, parameter OSW2 → Δ2P).
  • None of the covariates had a significant effect in the conscientiousness model.
  • Discussion Understanding the environmental mechanisms that shape the development of personality is an important and fascinating area of research (e.g., Costa, McCrae, & Löckenhoff, 2019).
  • Compared to other civilian occupations, police academies present some important peculiarities that leaded us to expect that they may exert a strong influence on youths’ personality development.

Personality Trait Change

  • As hypothesized, openness to experience and neuroticism were the personality traits showing change across the entire three-year training period.
  • In part, it is likely that this increase in neuroticism is determined by exposure to the harsh and strict discipline characteristic of police training, where youths go through openly oppressive phases (such as the “plebs” phase, see Caforio, 2018) aimed at helping them transition from civilian to military life.
  • Whereas extraversion remained stable across all three waves, conscientiousness and agreeableness showed a tendency to decrease slightly from W1 to W2.
  • The observed changes were small and mostly limited to the first academic year.
  • The idea that organizational socialization would act as a mediator of the longitudinal relation between personality trait change and organizational identification was supported for extraversion, openness, and neuroticism, but not for agreeableness and conscientiousness.

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UC Davis
UC Davis Previously Published Works
Title
Personality trait change at work: Associations with organizational socialization and
identification.
Permalink
https://escholarship.org/uc/item/0k04781x
Journal
Journal of personality, 88(6)
ISSN
0022-3506
Authors
Alessandri, Guido
Perinelli, Enrico
Robins, Richard W
et al.
Publication Date
2020-12-01
DOI
10.1111/jopy.12567
Peer reviewed
eScholarship.org Powered by the California Digital Library
University of California

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D'"/E". "?:1?()
$%!>!!"?:1A(
'' "' #(("'"
F".2 '"% =%
 ((") )'")
GC)( %'!
%!! %
)'!2("?:1A"
%'!(
!!!"!!$'
!'!8 
!"'
(!!$
8 @"?:11'!!$
9

!&).D"?::AB&)."?::7"
!!!!' G
)%!$!%
2 .+"?:16B,.%"
1;;H('  '%
!'!%  !
'(!'!$ 8 !! 
$!!! 
("!'$)%
>!!'!!
D("?:1?"$!'  '
 ")" 
$ "!"%'' %"
?:1A(,$"!!$'
! '" ""
">$!%'"*"
'"I %'".'"1;;?B*.)"?::7"
$%3)"".,$"?:16B
)" '"".,$"?:19(
  '!'
%>!!'%"
?:1A"!(?<6"8 %'
!%!'"
)%."1;;7B0"* ="."?:11( "
%$$)$"$"'
6

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Book ChapterDOI
09 Apr 2017

22 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The literature suggests that persons’ cognitive complexity at any point in time results partially from a stable and generalizable trait component that accounts for a small-to-moderate amount of variance.
Abstract: Researchers have long assumed that complex thinking is determined by both situational factors and stable, trait-based differences. However, although situational influences on complexity have been d...

8 citations


Cites background from "Personality trait change at work: A..."

  • ..., psychological features of the situation), and error (Alessandri et al., 2020; Cole, 2012; Kenny & Zautra, 1995, 2001; Kuster & Orth, 2013; Orth & Robins, 2019)....

    [...]

  • ...…(SEM) on longitudinal data to determine the proportion of variance in the data that can be attributed to the trait, the state (e.g., psychological features of the situation), and error (Alessandri et al., 2020; Cole, 2012; Kenny & Zautra, 1995, 2001; Kuster & Orth, 2013; Orth & Robins, 2019)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors argue that learning can be viewed as a complex process between the individual and information, learning takes place both within and outside the police system as well as during and before employment.
Abstract: For professional policing, learning is key. Since learning can be viewed as a complex process between the individual and information, learning takes place both within and outside the police system as well as during and before employment. The current conceptual analysis delineates different areas of (non-)learning related to policing and argues for the management of learning as a key issue for the police’s professionalization. According to this assumption a Police Learning Management Framework is presented, in which the relevant areas of learning as well as the related challenges for police learning on an individual and organizational level are specified. The proposed model calls for a more focused view on police learning which is a prerequisite for professionally coping with the pressing challenges of contemporary policing.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2022-Heliyon
TL;DR: In this article , the authors investigated the effect of emotional intelligence and some personality traits on safe behavior and needle stick injuries among the nurses in a cross-sectional study performed on 200 nursing staff of a hospital in Iran.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the effect of beginning a job for the first time on self-esteem development, using data from 368 adolescents assessed up to six times across a 14-year time span.
Abstract: Abstract Introduction Previous studies examined the trajectory of self‐esteem during critical developmental periods and over the life‐span. However, little is known about how self‐esteem changes during the school‐to‐work transition. Method We examined the effect of beginning a job for the first time on self‐esteem development, using data from 368 adolescents assessed up to six times across a 14‐year time span. Specifically, we analyzed the pattern of self‐esteem change during the transition to work and whether the self‐esteem trajectory varied as a function of several school‐ and job‐related variables, while controlling for important covariates. Results Results revealed linear increases in self‐esteem across the 14‐year study period, with partial support that the rate of increase slowed slightly after the school‐to‐work transition. We found significantly greater variability in the slopes after the transition, supporting the idea that people differ in the way they cope with the developmental tasks associated with important life transitions. We also found evidence for an interaction between college graduation and educational expectations, such that the positive effect of college graduation on self‐esteem change was stronger for those who graduated with low (vs. high) educational expectations. Conclusion School‐to‐work transition has an effect on self‐esteem development. Developmental processes of findings were discussed.

4 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Jacob Cohen1
TL;DR: A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is providedHere the sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests.
Abstract: One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.

38,291 citations


"Personality trait change at work: A..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Before discussing these changes, it is important to keep in mind that most were relatively small in magnitude (i.e., .20 per year) according to Cohen (1992) or “medium” at best according to Funder and Ozer (2019)....

    [...]

Book ChapterDOI
09 Jan 2004
TL;DR: A theory of intergroup conflict and some preliminary data relating to the theory is presented in this article. But the analysis is limited to the case where the salient dimensions of the intergroup differentiation are those involving scarce resources.
Abstract: This chapter presents an outline of a theory of intergroup conflict and some preliminary data relating to the theory. Much of the work on the social psychology of intergroup relations has focused on patterns of individual prejudices and discrimination and on the motivational sequences of interpersonal interaction. The intensity of explicit intergroup conflicts of interests is closely related in human cultures to the degree of opprobrium attached to the notion of "renegade" or "traitor." The basic and highly reliable finding is that the trivial, ad hoc intergroup categorization leads to in-group favoritism and discrimination against the out-group. Many orthodox definitions of "social groups" are unduly restrictive when applied to the context of intergroup relations. The equation of social competition and intergroup conflict rests on the assumptions concerning an "ideal type" of social stratification in which the salient dimensions of intergroup differentiation are those involving scarce resources.

14,812 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the change in the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) when cross-group constraints are imposed on a measurement model and found that the change was independent of both model complexity and sample size.
Abstract: Measurement invariance is usually tested using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis, which examines the change in the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) when cross-group constraints are imposed on a measurement model. Although many studies have examined the properties of GFI as indicators of overall model fit for single-group data, there have been none to date that examine how GFIs change when between-group constraints are added to a measurement model. The lack of a consensus about what constitutes significant GFI differences places limits on measurement invariance testing. We examine 20 GFIs based on the minimum fit function. A simulation under the two-group situation was used to examine changes in the GFIs (ΔGFIs) when invariance constraints were added. Based on the results, we recommend using Δcomparative fit index, ΔGamma hat, and ΔMcDonald's Noncentrality Index to evaluate measurement invariance. These three ΔGFIs are independent of both model complexity and sample size, and are not correlated with the o...

10,597 citations


"Personality trait change at work: A..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...A non-significant Δχ2 and a ΔCFI .01 were considered indicators of equivalent models (Cheung & Rensvold, 2002)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Various facets of such multimodel inference are presented here, particularly methods of model averaging, which can be derived as a non-Bayesian result.
Abstract: The model selection literature has been generally poor at reflecting the deep foundations of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and at making appropriate comparisons to the Bayesian information...

8,933 citations


"Personality trait change at work: A..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Non-nested models were compared by using differences in Akaike’s Information Criterion (ΔAIC), rescaled according to recommendations by Burnham and Anderson (2004): ΔAIC = AICi – AICmin, where AICmin is the minimum of the observed AIC values (among the i competing models)....

    [...]

  • ...If the difference lies between 4 ≤ and ≤ 7 there is considerably less support, whereas models with ΔAIC > 10 have essentially no support (Burnham & Anderson, 2004, p. 271)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article argued that social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons, and social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors that traditionally are associated with group formation.
Abstract: It is argued that (a) social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons; (b) social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors that traditionally are associated with group formation; and (c) social identification leads to activities that are congruent with the identity, support for institutions that embody the identity, stereotypical perceptions of self and others, and outcomes that traditionally are associated with group formation, and it reinforces the antecedents of identification. This perspective is applied to organizational socialization, role conflict, and intergroup relations.

8,480 citations


"Personality trait change at work: A..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Identified individuals are expected to perceive themselves as psychologically interconnected with and attached to the organization (Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Dutton, Dukerich, & Harquail, 1994; Tajfel & Turner, 1986; van Dick et al., 2004)....

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Q1. What are the contributions mentioned in the paper "In press (journal of personality) personality trait change at work: associations with organizational socialization and identification" ?

This study investigates associations between Big Five personality trait change, organizational socialization, and organizational identification during a three-year police officer training program ( N = 416 police officer cadets ).