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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18052532

Pharmaceuticals Market, Consumption Trends and Disease Incidence Are Not Driving the Pharmaceutical Research on Water and Wastewater.

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (MDPI AG)-Vol. 18, Iss: 5, pp 2532
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals enhance our quality of life; consequently, their consumption is growing as a result of the need to treat ageing-related and chronic diseases and changes in the clinical practice. The market revenues also show an historic growth worldwide motivated by the increase on the drug demand. However, this positivism on the market is fogged because the discharge of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites into the environment, including water, also increases due to their inappropriate management, treatment and disposal; now, worldwide, this fact is recognized as an environmental concern and human health risk. Intriguingly, researchers have studied the most effective methods for pharmaceutical removal in wastewater; however, the types of pharmaceuticals investigated in most of these studies do not reflect the most produced and consumed pharmaceuticals on the market. Hence, an attempt was done to analyze the pharmaceutical market, drugs consumption trends and the pharmaceutical research interests worldwide. Notwithstanding, the intensive research work done in different pharmaceutical research fronts such as disposal and fate, environmental impacts and concerns, human health risks, removal, degradation and development of treatment technologies, found that such research is not totally aligned with the market trends and consumption patterns. There are other drivers and interests that promote the pharmaceutical research. Thus, this review is an important contribution to those that are interested not only on the pharmaceutical market and drugs consumption, but also on the links, the drivers and interests that motivate and determine the research work on certain groups of pharmaceuticals on water and wastewater.

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Citations
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9 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JWPE.2021.102107
Abstract: The growth of industries and population is accompanied by the introduction of emerging chemical pollutants such as pharmaceutical compounds into natural water sources. The purification of these pollutants is essential to protect the environment and promote community health. The present study aims to investigate the removal of acetaminophen (ACT), one of the most widely used pharmaceutical compounds, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) through a completely environmentally friendly biological method, namely cyclic biological reactor (CBR). This process is performed using high-load synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater on a laboratory scale. During the study the effect of cycle time, hydraulic retention time (HRT), ACT and COD concentration, and temperature on reactor performance are inspected. Finally, the performances of two CBR and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) are compared. Financial analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and nonlinear regression are applied to study the influence of cycle time and concentration of ACT and COD on CBR performance. Two cubic models have been developed for the effect of cycle and concentration on ACT and COD removal efficiencies using design expert software. The models are utilized to calculate the optimum operating conditions. At 18-h cycle and 500 mg/L ACT and 7600 mg/L COD concentrations, the models show 98 % and 95 % removal efficiencies for ACT and COD, respectively. Results showed that CBR is an economically proper process to treat various types of wastewaters thanks to its low-space occupation, easy operation, low-energy consumption, and, high efficiency. It can also be used to upgrade old treatment plants in the future.

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Topics: Chemical oxygen demand (54%), Population (51%), Sequencing batch reactor (51%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PH14050466
Abstract: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) (PAR), caffeine (CAF) and tramadol hydrochloride (TRA) are important drugs widely used for many clinical purposes. Determination of their contents is of the paramount interest. In this respect, a quick, simple and sensitive isocratic RP-HPLC method with photodiode array detection was developed for the determination of paracetamol, caffeine and tramadol in pharmaceutical formulations. An improved sensitive procedure was also evolved for tramadol using a fluorescence detector system. A C18 column and a mobile phase constituted by methanol/phosphate were used. LODs were found to be 0.2 μg/mL, 0.1 μg/mL and 0.3 μg/mL for paracetamol, caffeine and tramadol hydrochloride, respectively, using photodiode-array detection. Alternatively, LOD for tramadol decreased to 0.1 μg/mL with the fluorescence detector. Other notable analytical figures of merit include the linear concentration ranges, 0.8-270 μg/mL, 0.4-250 μg/mL and 1.0-300 (0.2-40) μg/mL, for the same ordered analytes (including the fluorescence detector). The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of the three drugs in tablet dosage forms.

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Topics: Tramadol Hydrochloride (61%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JMRT.2021.10.069
Abstract: In this work, silica-based adsorbents were prepared by a facile and straightforward sol–gel route. The adsorption capacity of the prepared materials was investigated using methylene blue (MB) and metamizole (sodium dipyrone – DIP) as reference pollutants. We observed that the samples prepared here, regardless of the absence of catalyst, templating agent, or heat treatment step during their preparation, are promising materials for adsorption purposes. The adsorption kinetics was investigated based on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetic laws of Lagergren. The most promising sample showed an adsorption capacity of 36.9 mg g−1 (removal capacity of 92.3%) for MB and 8.5 mg g−1 (20.5%) for DIP in aqueous media kept at a pH = 7.0. We observed that the adsorption of these species is strongly associated with the electrostatic interaction between the pollutant molecules and the silica surface. Such an interaction was increased when the pH of the solution increased from 3.0 to 4.5, 7.0, or 9.0. The incorporation of amino groups derived from (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) increased the affinity of silica for MB and DIP. These functional groups were incorporated into silica via post-grafting and co-condensation. Furthermore, it was shown that the silica matrices tested here can be easily regenerated by heat treatment in air at 450 °C for periods as short as 15 min, allowing its reuse in subsequent adsorption cycles.

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Topics: Adsorption (59%), Triethoxysilane (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18157969
Abstract: Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals are being increasingly used for disease treatment; hence, their distribution and factors influencing them in the aquatic environment need to be investigated. This study observed the effect of human and animal populations, usage, purchasing criteria (prescription vs. non-prescription), and land use to identify the spatio-temporal distribution of eight pharmaceuticals at twenty-four sites of the tributaries of the Han River watershed. In rural areas, the mean concentration (detection frequency) of non-prescription pharmaceuticals (NPPs) was higher (lower) compared to that of prescription pharmaceuticals (PPs); in urban areas, a reverse trend was observed. Pharmaceutical concentrations in urban and rural areas were mainly affected by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and non-point sources, respectively; concentrations were higher downstream (4.9 times) than upstream of the WWTPs. The concentration distribution (according to the target) was as follows: human–veterinary > human > veterinary. Correlation between total concentration and total usage of the pharmaceuticals was high, except for NPPs. Most livestock and land use (except cropland) were significantly positively correlated with pharmaceutical concentrations. Concentrations were mainly higher (1.5 times) during cold seasons than during warm seasons. The results of this study can assist policymakers in managing pharmaceutical pollutants while prioritizing emerging pollutants.

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Topics: Population (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18189476
Abstract: Due to the large quantity of expired and unused drugs worldwide, pharmaceutical disposal has become a serious problem that requires increased attention. In the present paper, the study on recycling ceftazidime (CZ) as an additive in copper and nickel electrodeposition from acid baths is highlighted. CZ is the active substance from expired commercial drug Ceftamil®. Its electrochemical behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry. As well, kinetic parameters for copper and nickel electrodeposition were determined using Tafel plots method at different temperatures and CZ concentrations in these acid baths. The activation energy was calculated from Arrhenius plots. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the charge transfer resistance and coverage degree in the electrolyte solutions at several potential values. Gibbs free energy values, calculated from Langmuir adsorption isotherms, revealed the chemical nature of CZ–electrode surface interactions. The favorable effect of the organic molecules added in copper and nickel electroplating baths was emphasized by optical microscope images. The morphology of the obtained deposits without and with 10−4 mol L−1 CZ was compared. The experimental results revealed that expired Ceftamil® is suitable as additive in copper and nickel electroplating processes from acid baths.

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Topics: Nickel electroplating (58%), Copper (53%), Nickel (53%) ... show more

References
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76 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ES011055J
Abstract: To provide the first nationwide reconnaissance of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey used five newly developed analytical methods to measure concentrations of 95 OWCs in water samples from a network of 139 streams across 30 states during 1999 and 2000. The selection of sampling sites was biased toward streams susceptible to contamination (i.e. downstream of intense urbanization and livestock production). OWCs were prevalent during this study, being found in 80% of the streams sampled. The compounds detected represent a wide range of residential, industrial, and agricultural origins and uses with 82 of the 95 OWCs being found during this study. The most frequently detected compounds were coprostanol (fecal steroid), cholesterol (plant and animal steroid), N,N-diethyltoluamide (insect repellant), caffeine (stimulant), triclosan (antimicrobial disinfectant), tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (fire retardant), and 4-nonylphenol (nonionic detergent metabolite). Measured concentrations for this study were generally low and rarely exceeded drinking-water guidelines, drinking-water health advisories, or aquatic-life criteria. Many compounds, however, do not have such guidelines established. The detection of multiple OWCs was common for this study, with a median of seven and as many as 38 OWCs being found in a given water sample. Little is known about the potential interactive effects (such as synergistic or antagonistic toxicity) that may occur from complex mixtures of OWCs in the environment. In addition, results of this study demonstrate the importance of obtaining data on metabolites to fully understand not only the fate and transport of OWCs in the hydrologic system but also their ultimate overall effect on human health and the environment.

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6,628 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2008.11.086
Klaus Kümmerer1Institutions (1)
01 Apr 2009-Chemosphere
Abstract: Although antibiotics have been used in large quantities for some decades, until recently the existence of these substances in the environment has received little notice. It is only in recent years that a more complex investigation of antibiotic substances has been undertaken in order to permit an assessment of the environmental risks they may pose. Within the last decade, an increasing number of studies covering antibiotic input, occurrence, fate and effects have been published. Antibiotics are one of the most important groups of pharmaceuticals. Antibiotic resistance is one of the major challenges for human medicine and veterinary medicine. However, there is still a lack of understanding and knowledge about sources, presence and significance of resistance of bacteria against antibiotics in the aquatic environment despite the numerous studies performed. This review summarizes this topic. It names important open questions and addresses some significant issues which must be tackled in the future for a better understanding of resistance related to antibiotics in the environment.

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3,109 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0378-4274(02)00041-3
Thomas Heberer1Institutions (1)
10 May 2002-Toxicology Letters
Abstract: The occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. In some investigations carried out in Austria, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and the U.S., more than 80 compounds, pharmaceuticals and several drug metabolites, have been detected in the aquatic environment, Several PhACs From various prescription classes have been found at concentrations up to the mug/l-level in sewage influent and effluent samples and also in several surface waters located downstream from municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). The studies show that some PhACs originating from human therapy are not eliminated completely in the municipal STPs and are, thus, discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. Under recharge conditions, polar PhACs Such as clofibric acid, carbamazepine, primidone or iodinated contrast agents can leach through the subsoil and have also been detected in several groundwater samples in Germany. Positive findings of PhACs have, however, also been reported in groundwater contaminated by landfill leachates or manufacturing residues. To date, only in a few cases PhACs have also been detected at trace-levels in drinking water samples. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved

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2,700 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AQUATOX.2005.09.009
Karl Fent, Anna Weston, Daniel Caminada1Institutions (1)
10 Feb 2006-Aquatic Toxicology
Abstract: Low levels of human medicines (pharmaceuticals) have been detected in many countries in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents, surface waters, seawaters, groundwater and some drinking waters. For some pharmaceuticals effects on aquatic organisms have been investigated in acute toxicity assays. The chronic toxicity and potential subtle effects are only marginally known, however. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about human pharmaceuticals in the environment and address several key questions. What kind of pharmaceuticals and what concentrations occur in the aquatic environment? What is the fate in surface water and in STP? What are the modes of action of these compounds in humans and are there similar targets in lower animals? What acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects may be elicited by pharmaceuticals and by mixtures? What are the effect concentrations and how do they relate to environmental levels? Our review shows that only very little is known about long-term effects of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms, in particular with respect to biological targets. For most human medicines analyzed, acute effects to aquatic organisms are unlikely, except for spills. For investigated pharmaceuticals chronic lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) in standard laboratory organisms are about two orders of magnitude higher than maximal concentrations in STP effluents. For diclofenac, the LOEC for fish toxicity was in the range of wastewater concentrations, whereas the LOEC of propranolol and fluoxetine for zooplankton and benthic organisms were near to maximal measured STP effluent concentrations. In surface water, concentrations are lower and so are the environmental risks. However, targeted ecotoxicological studies are lacking almost entirely and such investigations are needed focusing on subtle environmental effects. This will allow better and comprehensive risk assessments of pharmaceuticals in the future.

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2,587 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2013.12.065
Yunlong Luo1, Wenshan Guo1, Huu Hao Ngo1, Long D. Nghiem2  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Micropollutants are emerging as a new challenge to the scientific community. This review provides a summary of the recent occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment including sewage, surface water, groundwater and drinking water. The discharge of treated effluent from WWTPs is a major pathway for the introduction of micropollutants to surface water. WWTPs act as primary barriers against the spread of micropollutants. WWTP removal efficiency of the selected micropollutants in 14 countries/regions depicts compound-specific variation in removal, ranging from 12.5 to 100%. Advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, advanced oxidation processes, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and membrane bioreactors can achieve higher and more consistent micropollutant removal. However, regardless of what technology is employed, the removal of micropollutants depends on physico-chemical properties of micropollutants and treatment conditions. The evaluation of micropollutant removal from municipal wastewater should cover a series of aspects from sources to end uses. After the release of micropollutants, a better understanding and modeling of their fate in surface water is essential for effectively predicting their impacts on the receiving environment.

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2,291 Citations


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