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Journal ArticleDOI

Pharmacognostic standardization of Macrocybe crassa: An imminent medicinal mushroom

28 Jul 2015-Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology)-Vol. 8, Iss: 7, pp 860-866
TL;DR: The above parameters, which are being reported for the first time, are significant towards establishing the pharmacognostic standards for future identification and authentication of genuine mushroom material.
Abstract: The aim of present study was to establish standardization parameters for pharmacognostic evaluation of Macrocybe crassa, a wild edible mushroom of West Bengal. For this purpose, microscopic features of powder such as physical characters, spore measurement, type of hyphae were examined and recorded. Physico-chemical parameters like organoleptic features, loss on drying (10.53%), total ash (17.04%), swelling capacity (66.66 ml/g), water holding capacity (174.69 g/g), water solubility index (406.65%) and fluorescent behaviour against 16 reagents were also determined. Alcoholic extract was prepared using methanol as solvent where extractive value was 27.52%. Preliminary mycochemical analysis indicated the presence of cardiac glycoside, carbohydrate, flavonoid, phenol, saponin and terpenoids while absence of alkaloid and steroid in methanol extract. While quantitatively major bioactive components were present in the following order of flavonoid> phenol> ascorbic acid> s-carotene> lycopene. In addition, HPTLC and HPLC profiles were recorded to determine phenolic fingerprint. HPTLC characterization showed presence of at least 5 components as detected by scanning the plate at 300 nm. HPLC chromatogram of the extract indicated existence of minimum 14 peaks which might be of phenolic compounds. Along with, DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50 value 2.455 mg/ml) and total antioxidant capacity (7.4 ± 1.24 µg AAE/mg of extract) were determined to evaluate antioxidant activity. The above parameters, which are being reported for the first time, are significant towards establishing the pharmacognostic standards for future identification and authentication of genuine mushroom material.
Topics: Ascorbic acid (54%), Macrocybe crassa (52%), DPPH (51%)
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Abstract: Over the generations, Macrocybe lobayensis has become an integral part of tribal cuisines of India particularly for its aroma and taste. However, no investigation has been carried out so far on its secondary metabolites that may account for therapeutic potential. Therefore, aim of the present study was to identify major constituents of methanol extract isolated from the wild mushroom and examine spectrum of pharmacological activities. Chemical characterization by spectrophotometry and HPLC depicted that the fraction was mainly consisted of phenolic compounds (p-hydroxybenzoic acid< p-coumaric acid< cinnamic acid< salicylic acid< pyrogallol); while ascorbic acid and carotenoids were detected in lesser extent. In terms of screening medicinal prospects, the extract presented strong radical scavenging activity (DPPH. and ABTS.+), chelating ability of ferrous ion, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. The methanol formulation also exhibited antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, with MIC values ranging from 245.13-1585.81 µg/ml. Finally, Hep3B human liver carcinoma cells were challenged with the extract to assess cytotoxic effect and result showed concentration dependent decrease in cell viability (IC50 of 234.31 µg/ml). Overall, features described in this work provides the first attempt to establish medicinal prospects of phenolic compounds from M. lobayensis empowering its use in pharmaceutical industry.

14 citations


Cites background from "Pharmacognostic standardization of ..."

  • ...Among them, phenolics are one of the major group of dietary components that have proved to be associated with antioxidant (Acharya et al., 2015a, Acharya et al., 2015b, Acharya et al., 2016, Acharya et al., 2017a, Acharya et al., 2017b), antimicrobial (Khatua et al., 2015) and anticancer abilities…...

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  • ...Based on the outcome, it can be said that M. lobayensis may possess stronger radical scavenging and total antioxidant potentiality than methanol extract isolated from M. crassa (Khatua and Acharya 2014), Pleurotus djamor (Acharya et al., 2017b) and Grifola frondosa (Acharya et al., 2015a)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Schizophyllum commune Fr. is valued for its high nutritional composition and medicinal importance. However, quality standards of this species have not been reported till date. The aim of the present study was to provide quality control standardization of S. commune based on organoleptic, microscopic, physico-chemical, chromatographic, molecular features and to partially screen its antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical parameters such as percentage of loss on drying, total ash, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, water solubility index and methanol extractive value were documented. In addition, fluorescence analysis of the powder using 16 different chemical reagents were carried out which exhibit a remarkable variation of colour against treating agents. Quantification of the major bioactive compounds present in the extract showed the following order phenol > flavonoid > ascorbic acid > β-carotene > lycopene. The antioxidant potentials of the extract were determined using experiments of DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50 value 1.07 mg/ml) and total antioxidant capacity (19 μg AAE/mg of extract). Phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract revealed high contents of phenolics which was confirmed by HPLC and HPTLC studies. Rf values and their corresponding peaks serve as a signature marker for identification of this mushroom. On the other hand, molecular studies including DNA extraction and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region of the genomic DNA serve as a molecular standard. The above distinctive parameters would significantly serve towards establishing the pharmacognostic as well as molecular standards for identification, authentication and quality control of the genuine mushroom.

9 citations


Cites background from "Pharmacognostic standardization of ..."

  • ...Pharmacognostic profile of some medicinally important mushrooms were documented in recent times (Giri et al. 2012b; Acharya et al. 2015a, b, c, d)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Extensive evidence indicates that ample intake of dietary antioxidants may be of great benefit in improving quality of life and neutralizing free radicals is important for cell protection and antioxidants play an essential role in this context.
Abstract: Oxidation is an essential process in living organisms that enables body to transform nutrients into energy. However, a significant portion of oxygen is incompletely reduced during respiration leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).1 These free radicals are not harmful at low concentration as they play necessary role in normal physiological conditions such as signal transduction and immune function.2 Nevertheless, the situation becomes bizarre when external factors like ozone, tobacco smoke and stress also take part in radical generation inside body. Gradually, level of ROS exceeds the defence mechanism and the circumference becomes extremely destructive to organism. These radicals can then damage nucleic acid, oxidize proteins and cause lipid peroxidation affecting many cellular functions.3 Thus, neutralizing free radicals is important for cell protection and antioxidants play an essential role in this context. Consequently, extensive evidence indicates that ample intake of dietary antioxidants may be of great benefit in improving quality of life.4 Besides, worldwide escalation in antibiotic resistance has also become a major public health problem. It has recently been estimated that about 70% bacteria causFunctional Ingredients and Medicinal Prospects of Ethanol Extract from Macrocybe lobayensis

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
02 Jan 2019-Cytotechnology
TL;DR: Overall study implied that the immense bioactive potential of R. alatoreticula could possibly be utilized as a good source of natural supplement to combat against free radicals, pathogenic bacteria and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as in food safety industry.
Abstract: Since antiquity, numerous macrofungi are being worshiped as food and natural medicine especially in Asian tribal communities. Recent investigation has correlated these medicinal properties with bioactive components including phenols and flavonoids. However, research on mushrooms is not satisfactory; as several traditionally prized members remain undiscovered or poorly explored yet. This backdrop tempted us to unveil secondary metabolites empowered with therapeutics from an ethnic delicacy, Russula alatoreticula that was justified as a novel macrofungus in our previous publication. Accordingly, methanol extract was prepared from dried basidiocarps that was found to be enriched with phenolic compounds (pyrogallol > cinnamic acid > p-coumaric acid) and ascorbic acid. As a result, the fraction exhibited strong antioxidant activity evident by the ability of quenching free radicals, chelating Fe2+ ion and reducing components with EC50 of 263–2382 µg/ml. Besides, effective antibacterial potential against six investigated microbes was also noticed where MIC value ranged from 99 to 2673.74 µg/ml. Furthermore, the extract revealed promising anticancer property as it induced apoptosis of Hep3B cell (IC50 358.57 µg/ml) by imparting morphological changes, interfering cell cycle, depleting MMP and alleviating ROS through Bax, Bcl2, caspases 9 and 3 intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Overall study implied that the immense bioactive potential of R. alatoreticula could possibly be utilized as a good source of natural supplement to combat against free radicals, pathogenic bacteria and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as in food safety industry.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this study was to quantify the anti-oxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Macrocybe crassa and its anti-proliferative activity on normal and cancer cells.
Abstract: Since time immemorial, edible mushrooms have been closely associated with the food habit of a large population of this world mainly belonging to ethnic and tribal groups, not only for its delicious earthy flavour but also it acts as a healthy supplements. Besides highly nutritive, mushrooms possess several chemically diverse groups of biologically active secondary metabolites mainly belong to phenolic, flavonoids,1 β-glucan,2 heteropolysaccharides,3 glycosides, saponin, terpenoids groups4 etc which are beneficial to health. So mushrooms can be appropriately called “Gift of the God” or “the pharmaceutical store-house of nature’’. Mushrooms can grow very easily during the growing season and it is cultivated also in mass amount nowadays, so they are easily available. Those novel bioactive compounds from mushrooms have shown several pharmacological activities like anti-oxidant,5 antimicrobial,6 anticancer,7 immuno-modulatory,8 anti-diabetic,9 anti-ulcer,10 cardio-protective11 and hepato-protective12 etc. Free radicals are extremely reactive and highly unstable molecules with an unpaired electron. Free radicals can steal or donate electrons from several sources like DNA, lipid of the cell membrane and proteins etc to get stability and overtime cause oxidative damage accumulation to the cell that is responsible for several diseases like cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and ageing, etc. Free radicals are produced as a by-product of normal metabolic processes like respiration or from other external sources like cigarette smoking, x-rays, polluted air, and industrial chemicals, etc. To combat the gener ation of oxidative stress exogenous anti-oxidant is necessary to neutralize the ROS.13 Cancer, one of the most potent and dangerous ancient disease. It is of several types like lung, breast, colon, skin, blood cancer etc, all of which share a common characteristic-the uncontrolled proliferation and growth of cells. According to the report of the International Agency of Research for Cancer ( IARC), cancer will be rise by about 50% in the next twenty years.14 Although the rate of mortalities can vary from cancer to cancer, some of which are really fatal like lung cancer with a death rate of about 70%,followed by colon cancer (50%) and breast cancer (17%), prostate cancer (13%) in the United State in 2013.15 The aim of our present study is to access the anticancer and anti-oxidant potential of a wild edible mushroom Macrocybe crassa belonging to division Basidiomycotina. A lot of investigation has been already done on anticancer activity of mushrooms and the observations informed that several gifted mushrooms possess some active compounds that have immense anti-cancer properties. The role of mushrooms in cancer treatment also complement chemotherapy and radiation therapy which have many side effects like anaemia, bone marrow suppression and nausea etc. Some examples are Phellinus linteus, Inonotus obliquus, Grifola frondosa, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus ostreatus, Cordycep smilitaris, Lentinula edodes, Funalia trogii, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum and many more.16 Some of active anticancer substances possess by this mushrooms are hispolon, lectin, krestin, lentinan, illudin S, calcaelin, psilocybin, and grifolinect.16 Besides the polysaccharides, beta-glucan having ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to quantify the anti-oxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Macrocybe crassa and its anti-proliferative activity on normal and cancer cells. Methods: The anti-oxidant potential of the extract was determined by several in vitro assay system like DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide anion scavenging activity, percentage inhibition of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. Anti-proliferative activity was tested by MTT assay on breast cancer cell line MCF7, Human acute T lymphoblastic leukaemic cell MOLT-4 and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells or PBMC isolated from a healthy donor to check its cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Results: Results indicated that the methanolic extract of Macrocybe crassa shows appreciable anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer cell line MCF7 and negligible effect on MOLT4 cells. In contrast no significant anti-proliferative effect has been observed in normal PMMCs. Moderate anti-oxidant activity was recorded in methanolic extract. Conclusion: Methanolic extract of of Macrocybe crassa with moderate anti-oxidant activity and specific anti-proliferative effect on MCF7 holds a great promise can be used for isolation of bio molecules for treating Breast Cancer.

4 citations


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