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Journal ArticleDOI

Phase-shifted Fresnel axicon.

01 Jun 2012-Optics Letters (Optical Society of America)-Vol. 37, Iss: 11, pp 1980-1982

TL;DR: An optical element: a phase-shifted Fresnel axicon for generation of multiple Bessel beams by giving a binary phase modulation to the standard Fresnels axicon is generated.

AbstractWe propose an optical element: a phase-shifted Fresnel axicon for generation of multiple Bessel beams. By giving a binary phase modulation to the standard Fresnel axicon, the proposed element is generated. The phase profile of the binary phase modulation is engineered to generate two and three Bessel beams of equal intensities. This composite optical element is fabricated using electron beam direct writing. The performance of the fabricated device is evaluated using a semiconductor laser, and the generation of two and three Bessel beams is successfully demonstrated.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method based on the idea of compressing a normalized angular spectrum is developed, which makes it possible and provides a practical tool for the design of a quasi-non-diffracting beam with super-oscillatory sub-wavelength transverse size.
Abstract: Quasi-non-diffracting beams are attractive for various applications, including optical manipulation, super-resolution microscopes, and materials processing. However, it is a great challenge to design and generate super-long quasi-non-diffracting beams with sub-diffraction and sub-wavelength size. In this paper, a method based on the idea of compressing a normalized angular spectrum is developed, which makes it possible and provides a practical tool for the design of a quasi-non-diffracting beam with super-oscillatory sub-wavelength transverse size. It also presents a clear physical picture of the formation of super-oscillatory quasi-non-diffracting beams. Based on concepts of a local grating and super-oscillation, a lens was designed and fabricated for a working wavelength of λ = 632.8 nm. The validity of the idea of normalized angular spectrum compression was confirmed by both numerical investigations and experimental studies. An optical hollow needle with a length of more than 100λ was experimentally demonstrated, in which an optical hollow needle was observed with a sub-diffraction and sub-wavelength transverse size within a non-diffracting propagation distance of 94λ. Longer non-diffracting propagation distance is expected for a lens with larger radius and shorter effective wavelength.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An optimization-free design approach is proposed and the possibility of generating sub-diffraction quasi-non-diffracting beams with sub-wavelength size for different polarizations by a binary-phase Fresnel planar lens is demonstrated.
Abstract: Sub-diffraction quasi-non-diffracting beams with sub-wavelength transverse size are attractive for applications such as optical nano-manipulation, optical nano-fabrication, optical high-density storage, and optical super-resolution microscopy. In this paper, we proposed an optimization-free design approach and demonstrated the possibility of generating sub-diffraction quasi-non-diffracting beams with sub-wavelength size for different polarizations by a binary-phase Fresnel planar lens. More importantly, the optimization-free method significantly simplifies the design procedure and the generation of sub-diffracting quasi-non-diffracting beams. Utilizing the concept of normalized angular spectrum compression, for wavelength λ0 = 632.8 nm, a binary-phase Fresnel planar lens was designed and fabricated. The experimental results show that the sub-diffraction transverse size and the non-diffracting propagation distances are 0.40λ0–0.54λ0 and 90λ0, 0.43λ0–0.54λ0 and 73λ0, and 0.34λ0–0.41λ0 and 80λ0 for the generated quasi-non-diffracting beams with circular, longitudinal, and azimuthal polarizations, respectively.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The acknowledgement in the Letter “Phase-shifted Fresnel axicon” [Opt Lett 37, 1980 (2012)] was incomplete and is therefore corrected in this erratum

6 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A search for a universal-focus lens has led to a new class of optical elements. These are called axicons. There are many different kinds of axicons but probably the most important one is a glass cone. It may be either transmitting or reflecting. Axicons form a continuous straight line of images from small sources.One application is in a telescope. The usual spherical objective is replaced by a cone. This axicon telescope is in focus for targets from a foot or so to infinity without the necessity of moving any parts. It can be used to view simultaneously two or more small sources placed along the line of sight.If a source of light is suitably added to the telescope it becomes an autocollimator. Like ordinary autocollimators it can be used to determine the perpendicularity of a mirror. In addition, it can simultaneously act as a telescope for a point target which may be an illuminated pinhole in the mirror.The axicon autocollimator is also a projector which projects a straight line of images into space.

889 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The most common axicon is a flat cone. A small source of light on the axis of the cone is imaged into a line along a portion of the axis. In lenses the spot diagram has been useful in evaluating image quality. In axicons a corresponding line diagram where lines take the place of dots is useful. In general, axicon instruments correspond to the usual optical instruments. For example, an axicon may be used as an objective to form a telescope. The resulting axicon telescope may be used in aligning machinery such as paper mills. Similarly, an axicon autocollimator may be used to precisely set mirrors perpendicular to a line. One form of axicon microscope has been tried out for the special purpose of locating the position of shiny surfaces without touching them. A most useful form of optical aligner is the reflection cone axicon. It is used as a straight edge. One example is a reflecting cone of 6 in. diam and maximum range of 40 ft with precision of 5 or 6 wavelengths over the entire range. Another example is a 5 in. diam cone with a range of 10 ft and precisions of about 1 wavelength. In this case the use of a suitable radius for the reflecting surface had the effect of making the image brightness substantially uniform over the 10 ft range. Photo cell pickup has been shown to be successful with very high precisions of setting. This opens the way for automatic machine guiding to very high precisions.

211 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New optical combinations of axicons and axicons with spherical mirrors and lenses suitable for laser machining are presented and potential new laser applications are discussed in relation to these optical devices.
Abstract: New optical combinations of axicons and axicons with spherical mirrors and lenses suitable for laser machining are presented. Linear and annular focusing, coaxially and radially to the laser beam, are possible. Most combinations allow continuous adjustment of exit beam parameters, focal line length, focal ring diameter, and magnification, by varying the relative position of one of the axicons. Potential new laser applications are also discussed in relation to these optical devices.

164 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The exposure distribution function in electron beam lithography, which is needed to perform proximity correction, is usually simulated by Monte Carlo techniques, assuming a Gaussian distribution of the primary beam. The resulting backscattered part of the exposure distribution is usually also fitted to a Gaussian term. In this paper we demonstrate a technique, using a very high contrast resist, whereby the normalized point exposure distribution can be measured experimentally, both on solid substrates which cause backscattering, and on thin substrates where backscattering is negligible. The data sets so obtained can be applied directly to proximity correction and represent the practical conditions met in pattern writing. Results are presented of the distributions obtained on silicon, gallium arsenide, and thin silicon nitride substrates at different beam energies. Significant deviations from the commonly assumed double Gaussian distributions are apparent. On GaAs substrates the backscatter distribution cannot adequately be described by a Gaussian function. Even on silicon a significant amount of exposure is found in the transition region between the two Gaussian terms. This deviation, which can be due to non‐Gaussian tails in the primary beam and to forward scattering in the resist, must be taken into account for accurate proximity correction in most submicron lithography, and certainly on the sub‐100 nm scale.

162 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence is presented that strong space-time coupling results in a time-dependent interference zone and significant changes of contrast, envelope function, and spatial frequency spectrum in comparison with continuous wave data.
Abstract: Multiple quasi-Bessel beams are generated by transmission of sub-30-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser through refractive thin-film microaxicon arrays. Time-integrated intensity distributions at several axial positions and for pulse durations of 26 and 12.5 fs reveal significant changes of contrast, envelope function, and spatial frequency spectrum in comparison with continuous wave data. Evidence is presented that strong space-time coupling results in a time-dependent interference zone.

66 citations