# Phase switching in population cycles

22 Nov 1998-Proceedings of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (The Royal Society)-Vol. 265, Iss: 1411, pp 2229-2234

TL;DR: In this paper, phase shifts correspond to stochastic jumps between basins of attraction in an appropriate phase space which associates the different phases of a periodic cycle with distinct attractors, which accounts for two-cycle phase shifts and the occurrence of asynchronous replicates in experimental cultures of Tribolium.

Abstract: Oscillatory populations may exhibit a phase change in which, for example, a high–low periodic pattern switches to a low–high pattern. We propose that phase shifts correspond to stochastic jumps between basins of attraction in an appropriate phase space which associates the different phases of a periodic cycle with distinct attractors. This mechanism accounts for two-cycle phase shifts and the occurrence of asynchronous replicates in experimental cultures of Tribolium .

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the TSIR model to predict the long-term dynamics of measles and the balance between noise and determinism, as a function of population size.

Abstract: Two key linked questions in population dynamics are the relative importance of noise vs. density-dependent nonlinearities and the limits on temporal predictability of population abundance. We propose that childhood microparasitic infections, notably mea- sles, provide an unusually suitable empirical and theoretical test bed for addressing these issues. We base our analysis on a new mechanistic time series model for measles, the TSIR model, which captures the mechanistic essence of epidemic dynamics. The model, and parameter estimates based on short-term fits to prevaccination measles time series for 60 towns and cities in England and Wales, is introduced in a companion paper. Here, we explore how well the model predicts the long-term dynamics of measles and the balance between noise and determinism, as a function of population size. The TSIR model captures the basic dynamical features of the long-term pattern of measles epidemics in large cities remarkably well (based on time and frequency domain analyses). In particular, the model illustrates the impact of secular increases in birth rates, which cause a transition from biennial to annual dynamics. The model also captures the observed increase in epidemic irregularity with decreasing population size and the onset of local extinction below a critical community size. Decreased host population size is shown to be associated with an increased impact of demographic stochasticity. The interaction between nonlinearity and noise is explored using local Lyapunov exponents (LLE). These testify to the high level of stability of the biennial attractor in large cities. Irregularities are due to the limit cycle evolving with changing human birth rates and not due to complex dynamics. The geometry of the dynamics (sign and magnitude of the LLEs across phase space) is similar in the cities and the smaller urban areas. The qualitative difference in dynamics between small and large host communities is that demographic and extinction-recolonization stochasticities are much more influential in the former. The regional dynamics can therefore only be understood in terms of a core-satellite metapopulation structure for this host-enemy system. We also make a preliminary exploration of the model's ability to predict the dynamic consequences of measles vaccination.

235 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a model- predicted sequence of transitions (bifurcations) in the dynamic behavior of a population from stable equilibria to quasiperiodic and periodic cycles to chaos to three-cycles using cultures of the flour beetle Tribolium.

Abstract: A defining hypothesis of theoretical ecology during the past century has been that population fluctuations might largely be explained by relatively low-dimensional, non- linear ecological interactions, provided such interactions could be correctly identified and modeled. The realization in recent decades that such nonlinear interactions might result in chaos and other exotic dynamic behaviors has been exciting but tantalizing, in that attri- buting the fluctuations of a particular real population to the complex dynamics of a particular mathematical model has proved to be an elusive goal. We experimentally tested a model- predicted sequence of transitions (bifurcations) in the dynamic behavior of a population from stable equilibria to quasiperiodic and periodic cycles to chaos to three-cycles using cultures of the flour beetle Tribolium. The predictions arose from a system of difference equations (the LPA model) describing the nonlinear life-stage interactions, predominantly cannibalism. We built a stochastic version of the model incorporating demographic vari- ability and obtained conditional least-squares estimates for the model parameters. We gen- erated 2000 ''bootstrapped data sets'' with a time-series bootstrap technique, and for each set we reestimated the model parameters. The resulting 2000 bootstrapped parameter vectors were used to obtain confidence intervals for the model parameters and estimated distri- butions of the Liapunov exponents for the deterministic portion (the skeleton) of the model as well as for the full stochastic model. Frequency distributions of estimated dynamic behaviors of the skeleton at each experimental treatment were produced. For one treatment, over 83% of the bootstrapped parameter estimates corresponded to chaotic attractors, and the remainder of the estimates yielded high-period cycles. The low-dimensional skeleton accounted for at least 90% of the variability in the population abundances and accurately described the responses of populations to experimental demographic manipulations, in- cluding treatments for which the predicted dynamic behavior was chaos. Demographic stochasticity described the remaining noise quite well. We conclude that the fluctuations of experimental flour beetle populations are explained largely by known nonlinear forces involving cannibalistic-stage interactions. Claims of dynamic behavior such as periodic cycles or chaos must be accompanied by a consideration of the reliability of the estimated parameters and a realization that the population fluctuations are a blend of deterministic forces and stochastic events.

187 citations

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TL;DR: The long-term history of Zeiraphera diniana Gn.

Abstract: The long-term history of Zeiraphera diniana Gn. (the larch budmoth, LBM) outbreaks was reconstructed from tree rings of host subalpine larch in the European Alps. This record was derived from 47513...

176 citations

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TL;DR: This work used 1/ƒ β models to test cycles in the wavelet spectrum against a null hypothesis that takes into account the highly autocorrelated nature of ecological time series and used the maximum covariance analysis to compare the time-frequency patterns of numerous time series.

Abstract: In nature, non-stationarity is rather typical, but the number of statistical tools allowing for non-stationarity remains rather limited. Wavelet analysis is such a tool allowing for non- stationarity but the lack of an appropriate test for statistical inference as well as the difficulty to deal with multiple time series are 2 important shortcomings that limits its use in ecology. We present 2 approaches to deal with these shortcomings. First, we used 1/ƒ β models to test cycles in the wavelet spectrum against a null hypothesis that takes into account the highly autocorrelated nature of ecological time series. To illustrate the approach, we investigated the fluctuations in bluefin tuna trap catches with a set of different null models. The 1/ƒ β models approach proved to be the most consistent to discriminate significant cycles. Second, we used the maximum covariance analysis to compare, in a quantitative way, the time-frequency patterns (i.e. the wavelet spectra) of numerous time series. This approach built cluster trees that grouped the wavelet spectra according to their time-frequency patterns. Controlled signals and time series of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Mediterranean Sea were used to test the ability and power of this approach. The results were satisfactory and clusters on the SST time series displayed a hierarchical division of the Mediterranean into a few homogeneous areas that are known to display different hydrological and oceanic patterns. We discuss the limits and potentialities of these methods to study the associations between ecological and environmental fluctuations.

105 citations

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TL;DR: This work compared the predictions of discrete-state and continuous-state population models and suggested that such lattice effects could be an important component of natural population fluctuations.

Abstract: Animals and many plants are counted in discrete units. The collection of possible values (state space) of population numbers is thus a nonnegative integer lattice. Despite this fact, many mathematical population models assume a continuum of system states. The complex dynamics, such as chaos, often displayed by such continuous-state models have stimulated much ecological research; yet discrete-state models with bounded population size can display only cyclic behavior. Motivated by data from a population experiment, we compared the predictions of discrete-state and continuous-state population models. Neither the discrete- nor continuous-state models completely account for the data. Rather, the observed dynamics are explained by a stochastic blending of the chaotic dynamics predicted by the continuous-state model and the cyclic dynamics predicted by the discrete-state models. We suggest that such lattice effects could be an important component of natural population fluctuations.

87 citations

##### References

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01 Jan 2015

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce differential equations and dynamical systems, including hyperbolic sets, Sympolic Dynamics, and Strange Attractors, and global bifurcations.

Abstract: Contents: Introduction: Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems.- An Introduction to Chaos: Four Examples.- Local Bifurcations.- Averaging and Perturbation from a Geometric Viewpoint.- Hyperbolic Sets, Sympolic Dynamics, and Strange Attractors.- Global Bifurcations.- Local Codimension Two Bifurcations of Flows.- Appendix: Suggestions for Further Reading. Postscript Added at Second Printing. Glossary. References. Index.

12,485 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce differential equations and dynamical systems, including hyperbolic sets, Sympolic Dynamics, and Strange Attractors, and global bifurcations.

Abstract: Contents: Introduction: Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems.- An Introduction to Chaos: Four Examples.- Local Bifurcations.- Averaging and Perturbation from a Geometric Viewpoint.- Hyperbolic Sets, Sympolic Dynamics, and Strange Attractors.- Global Bifurcations.- Local Codimension Two Bifurcations of Flows.- Appendix: Suggestions for Further Reading. Postscript Added at Second Printing. Glossary. References. Index.

12,370 citations

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01 Jan 1934

TL;DR: For three-quarters of a century past more has been written about natural selection and the struggle for existence that underlies the selective process, than perhaps about any other single idea in the whole realm of Biology as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: For three-quarters of a century past more has been written about natural selection and the struggle for existence that underlies the selective process, than perhaps about any other single idea in the whole realm of Biology. We have seen natural selection laid on its Sterbebett, and subsequently revived again in the most recent times to a remarkable degree of vigor. There can be no doubt that the old idea has great survival value.

2,636 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that as a hump steepens, the dynamics goes from a stable point, to a bifurcating hierarchy of stable cycles of period 2n, into a region of chaotic behavior where the population exhibits an apparently random sequence of "outbreaks" followed by "crashes".

Abstract: Many biological populations breed seasonally and have nonoverlapping generations, so that their dynamics are described by first-order difference equations, Nt+1 = F (Nt). In many cases, F(N) as a function of N will have a hump. We show, very generally, that as such a hump steepens, the dynamics goes from a stable point, to a bifurcating hierarchy of stable cycles of period 2n, into a region of chaotic behavior where the population exhibits an apparently random sequence of "outbreaks" followed by "crashes." We give a detailed account of the underlying mathematics of this process and review other situations (in two- and higher dimensional systems, or in differential equation systems) where apparently random dynamics can arise from bifurcation processes. This complicated behavior, in simple deterministic models, can have disturbing implications for the analysis and interpretation of biological data.

1,099 citations

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01 Jan 1987

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a case study of multispecies interactions with continuous models of age-structured models and show that these models can be used in a variety of applications.

Abstract: Preface 1 Discrete Models Matrix Models Autonomous Single Species Models Some Applications A Case Study Multispecies Interactions 2 Continuous Models Age-Structured Models Autonomous Age-Structured Models Some Applications Multispecies Interactions Other Structured Models 3 Population Level Dynamics Ergodicity and Nonlinear Models The Linear Chain Trick Hierarchical Models Total Population Size in Age-Structured Models Appendix A Stability Theory for Maps Linear Maps Linearization of Maps Appendix B Bifurcation Theorems A Global Bifurcation Theorem Local Parameterization Appendix C Miscellaneous Proofs Bibliography Index

574 citations

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