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Journal ArticleDOI

Phenolic profile and content of sorghum grains under different irrigation managements.

01 Jul 2017-Food Research International (Elsevier)-Vol. 97, pp 347-355

TL;DR: Findings will be valuable for the selection of sorghum genotypes for grain production as human food under water deficit conditions, since polyphenol levels can affect the grain's nutritional value and health properties.
Abstract: Sorghum grain is widely consumed in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, as a staple food due to its adaptation to harsh environments. The impact of irrigation regime: full irrigation (100%); deficit irrigation (50%); and severe deficit irrigation (25%) on phenolic profile and content of six sorghum grain genotypes was investigated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). A total of 25 individual polyphenols were unequivocally or tentatively identified. Compared to the colored-grain genotypes, the white grained sorghum var. Liberty had a simpler polyphenol profile. The concentrations of the sorghum-specific 3-deoxyanthocyanidins luteolinidin and apigeninidin, were higher under deficit irrigation compared to the other two regimes in all genotypes. These findings will be valuable for the selection of sorghum genotypes for grain production as human food under water deficit conditions, since polyphenol levels can affect the grain's nutritional value and health properties.
Topics: Deficit irrigation (60%), Sorghum (57%), Irrigation (53%), Apigeninidin (51%), Luteolinidin (51%)

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1
Phenolic profile and content of sorghum grains under different irrigation managements
1
Gangcheng Wu
1
, Sarita J. Bennett
2
, Janet F. Bornman
3
, Michael W. Clarke
4
, Zhongxiang Fang
5*
, Stuart
2
K. Johnson
1*
.
3
1
School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845,
4
Australia
5
2
Department of Environment and Agriculture, School of Science, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845,
6
Australia
7
3
International Institute of Agri-Food Security (IIAFS), Curtin University, PO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845,
8
Australia
9
4
Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis - M310, Perth, WA, 6009, Australia
10
5
Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010,
11
Australia.
12
13
*Corresponding Authors:
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Email: zhongxiang.fang@unimelb.edu.au;Tel:+61-3-83445063 (ZF);
15
Email: S.Johnson@curtin.edu.au; Tel: +61-8-9266 9486 (SKJ)
16
Wu, G. and Bennett, S. and Bornman, J. and Clarke, M. and Fang, Z. and Johnson, S. 2017. Phenolic profile and content of
sorghum grains under different irrigation managements. Food Research International. 97: pp. 347-355.

2
Abstract:
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Sorghum grain is widely consumed in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, as a staple food
18
due to its adaptation to harsh environments. The impact of irrigation regime: full
19
irrigation (100%); deficit irrigation (50%); and severe deficit irrigation (25%) on
20
phenolic profile and content of six sorghum grain genotypes was investigated by high
21
performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and
22
electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). A total of 25
23
individual polyphenols were unequivocally or tentatively identified. Compared to the
24
colored-grain genotypes, the white grained sorghum var. Liberty had a simpler
25
polyphenol profile. The concentrations of the sorghum-specific
26
3-deoxyanthocyanidins luteolinidin and apigeninidin, were higher under deficit
27
irrigation compared to the other two regimes in all genotypes. These findings will be
28
valuable for the selection of sorghum genotypes for grain production as human food
29
under water deficit conditions, since polyphenol levels can affect the grain’s
30
nutritional value and health properties.
31
Keywords: sorghum; genotype; irrigation; polyphenols; HPLC-MS
32

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1. Introduction
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Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is the fifth most valuable global cereal crop,
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widely grown in semi-arid and arid regions of the world because of its tolerance to
35
drought and high temperatures (Taylor, Schober, & Bean, 2006). In many parts of
36
Africa and Asia, sorghum grain provides nutrients and energy for millions of local
37
people, whereas in the developed countries such as the USA and Australia, it is used
38
primarily as an animal feed or for biofuel production (Stefoska-Needham, Beck,
39
Johnson, & Tapsell, 2015). However, the number of people consuming sorghum grain
40
is slowly but steadily increasing in developed countries mainly due to sorghum’s
41
gluten-free property and antioxidant potential from polyphenolic phytochemicals
42
(Taylor et al., 2006).
43
Polyphenols have antioxidant activity due to their free-radical scavenging
44
capability, and thus may protect against some chronic diseases, such as coronary heart
45
disease and type 2 diabetes (Dykes & Rooney, 2007). Polyphenols in sorghum grain
46
consist of simple phenolic acids (e.g. ferulic and p-coumaric acids),
47
3-deoxyanthocyanidins, flavanones, flavones and other flavonoids, as well as
48
condensed tannins (Awika & Rooney, 2004). In particular, the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins,
49
including apigeninidins, luteolinidins, 5-methoxyluteolinidin and
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7-methoxyapigeninidin, are at high levels in some sorghum grain genotypes, but are
51
absent in other cereal grains (Awika & Rooney, 2004; L Dykes & Rooney, 2007). The
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amounts and profiles of polyphenols in sorghum grain vary significantly between
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genotypes. For example, it has been reported that red and yellow sorghum genotypes
54

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contained high amounts of flavones, and sorghum genotypes with pigmented testa
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have higher content of condensed tannins (Taleon, Dykes, Rooney, & Rooney, 2014;
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Wu et al., 2016a).
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Under a changing climate, annual mean precipitation is projected to decrease in
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many mid-latitude and subtropical dry regions, in which crops, such as sorghum,
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maize and pearl millet, will invariably suffer from moisture stress (Pachauri et al.,
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2014). Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of plant materials may be affected
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by water deficit, and their changes depend on plant species (Cohen & Kennedy, 2010).
62
Tovar, Motilva, and Romero (2001) planted young olive trees under seven irrigation
63
treatments. They found that the concentration of the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid
64
and oleuropein aglycon of the olive oils and the antioxidant activity significantly
65
increased as the amount of irrigation water decreased to deficit levels. Buendía,
66
Allende, Nicols, Alarcn, and Gil (2008) investigated the effects of regulated deficit
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irrigation and full irrigation on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of peaches, and
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reported that the content of phenolics, mainly anthocyanins and procyanidins, and
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antioxidants increased under regulated deficit irrigation. In another study, comparing
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irrigated and non-irrigated grapevines, the levels of proanthocyanidins and flavonols
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increased in fruit from irrigated vines (Zarrouk et al., 2012). There is little information
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in the literature from controlled studies investigating how level of irrigation
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influences profile and concentrations of polyphenols of sorghum grain. In our recent
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study, it was found that the levels of total polyphenol and antioxidant activity of
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sorghum grain significantly increased when the amount of water was reduced (Wu,
76

5
Johnson, Bornman, Bennett, & Fang, 2017). However, individual polyphenols of
77
sorghum grain were not measured in the previous study, and it is also still unknown
78
how irrigation treatment influences the profile of polyphenols in sorghum grain.
79
Therefore, in the present study, using an as yet unreported trial, the effects of three
80
levels of irrigation treatments on the individual phenolic compounds of six different
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sorghum genotypes were determined by the powerful analytical technique of high
82
performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and
83
electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS).
84
2. Materials and methods
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2.1. Plant material and treatments
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The sorghum field experiment was conducted at Curtin University’s Field Trials
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Area, Western Australia (latitude 32°00
/
S, longitude115°53
/
E, altitude 20 m). Daily
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rainfall and minimum/ maximum air temperature were obtained from the Perth
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Airport Bureau of Meteorology weather station 9.6Km away from the experimental
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site (Supplementary Fig S1) (BOM, 2013).
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Six sorghum genotypes comprised of two hybrid lines (‘Liberty white pericarp and
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‘MR Bazley’ red pericarp) and four inbred lines (Alpha red pericarp; IS1311C and
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IS8237C both brown pericarp; and Shawaya Short Black 1’, dark red-black
94
pericarp). All seeds were provided from the Australian sorghum pre-breeding program,
95
a partnership between the University of Queensland, the Queensland Department of
96
Agriculture and Fisheries and the Grains Research and Development Corporation,
97
courtesy of Professor David Jordan. All samples were planted in 1 m x 1 m fibre glass
98

Citations
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Joseph M. Awika1, Lloyd W. Rooney1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Sorghum is a rich source of various phytochemicals including tannins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, phytosterols and policosanols. These phytochemicals have potential to significantly impact human health. Sorghum fractions possess high antioxidant activity in vitro relative to other cereals or fruits. These fractions may offer similar health benefits commonly associated with fruits. Available epidemiological evidence suggests that sorghum consumption reduces the risk of certain types of cancer in humans compared to other cereals. The high concentration of phytochemicals in sorghum may be partly responsible. Sorghums containing tannins are widely reported to reduce caloric availability and hence weight gain in animals. This property is potentially useful in helping reduce obesity in humans. Sorghum phytochemicals also promote cardiovascular health in animals. Such properties have not been reported in humans and require investigation, since cardiovascular disease is currently the leading killer in the developed world. This paper reviews available information on sorghum phytochemicals, how the information relates to current phytonutrient research and how it has potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

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"Phenolic profile and content of sor..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In particular, the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, 49 including apigeninidins, luteolinidins, 5-methoxyluteolinidin and 50 7-methoxyapigeninidin, are at high levels in some sorghum grain genotypes, but are 51 absent in other cereal grains (Awika & Rooney, 2004; L Dykes & Rooney, 2007)....

    [...]

  • ...Polyphenols in sorghum grain 46 consist of simple phenolic acids (e.g. ferulic and p-coumaric acids), 47 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, flavanones, flavones and other flavonoids, as well as 48 condensed tannins (Awika & Rooney, 2004)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sorghum and millets have considerable potential in foods and beverages, and potential by-products such as the kafirin prolamin proteins and the pericarp wax have potential as bioplastic films and coatings for foods, primarily due to their hydrophobicity.
Abstract: Sorghum and millets have considerable potential in foods and beverages. As they are gluten-free they are suitable for coeliacs. Sorghum is also a potentially important source of nutraceuticals such antioxidant phenolics and cholesterol-lowering waxes. Cakes, cookies, pasta, a parboiled rice-like product and snack foods have been successfully produced from sorghum and, in some cases, millets. Wheat-free sorghum or millet bread remains the main challenge. Additives such as native and pre-gelatinised starches, hydrocolloids, fat, egg and rye pentosans improve bread quality. However, specific volumes are lower than those for wheat bread or gluten-free breads based on pure starches, and in many cases, breads tend to stale faster. Lager and stout beers with sorghum are brewed commercially. Sorghum’s high-starch gelatinisation temperature and low beta-amylase activity remain problems with regard to complete substitution of barley malt with sorghum malt . The role of the sorghum endosperm matrix protein and cell wall components in limiting extract is a research focus. Brewing with millets is still at an experimental stage. Sorghum could be important for bioethanol and other bio-industrial products. Bioethanol research has focused on improving the economics of the process through cultivar selection, method development for low-quality grain and pre-processing to recover valuable by-products. Potential by-products such as the kafirin prolamin proteins and the pericarp wax have potential as bioplastic films and coatings for foods, primarily due to their hydrophobicity. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

485 citations


"Phenolic profile and content of sor..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, the number of people consuming sorghum grain is slowly but steadily increasing in developed countries mainly due to sorghum’s gluten-free property and antioxidant potential from polyphenolic phytochemicals (Taylor et al., 2006)....

    [...]

  • ...However, the number of people consuming sorghum grain 40 is slowly but steadily increasing in developed countries mainly due to sorghum’s 41 gluten-free property and antioxidant potential from polyphenolic phytochemicals 42 (Taylor et al., 2006)....

    [...]


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