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Phenomenological Research Methods

27 Jul 1994-

AbstractHuman Science Perspectives and Models Transcendental Phenomenology Conceptual Framework Phenomenology and Human Science Inquiry Intentionality, Noema and Noesis Epoche, Phenomenological Reduction, Imaginative Variation and Synthesis Methods and Procedures for Conducting Human Science Research Phenomenological Research Analyses and Examples Summary, Implications and Outcomes A Phenomenological Analysis

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: (2000). Determining Validity in Qualitative Inquiry. Theory Into Practice: Vol. 39, Getting Good Qualitative Data to Improve Eduational Practice, pp. 124-130.

7,470 citations


Cites background from "Phenomenological Research Methods"

  • ...They may create a separate section on the "role of the researcher," provide an epilogue, use interpretive commentary throughout the discussion of the findings, or bracket themselves out by describing personal experiences as used in phenomenological methods (Moustakas, 1994)....

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  • ...They may create a separate section on the “role of the researcher,” provide an epilogue, use interpretive commentary throughout the discussion of the findings, or bracket themselves out by describing personal experiences as used in phenomenological methods (Moustakas, 1994)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Roy Suddaby is asked to tackle another “big issue” that the editorial team has noticed with respect to qualitative submissions to AMJ: overly generic use of the term “grounded theory” and confusion regarding alternative epistemological approaches to qualitative research.
Abstract: Editor’s Note. Three years ago, I invited Robert (Bob) Gephart to write a “From the Editors” column designed to help authors improve their chances of success when submitting qualitative research to AMJ. Judging from the increasing number of qualitative studies that have been accepted and published in AMJ since that time, I would like to think that his article, “Qualitative Research and the Academy of Management Journal,” has had a positive impact. Continuing in this tradition, I asked Roy Suddaby—an excellent reviewer (and author) of qualitative research—to tackle another “big issue” that the editorial team has noticed with respect to qualitative submissions to AMJ: overly generic use of the term “grounded theory” and confusion regarding alternative epistemological approaches to qualitative research. Like Bob before him, Roy has, I believe, produced an analysis that will greatly benefit those who are relatively new to qualitative research or who have not yet had much success in getting their qualitative research published. Hopefully, Roy’s analysis will help even more authors to succeed, thus allowing AMJ and other journals to continue to increase the quality of insights provided by rich qualitative studies of individual, organizational, and institutional phenomena. Sara L. Rynes

2,366 citations


Cites background from "Phenomenological Research Methods"

  • ...Because phenomenology is an effort to probe the lived experience of subjects without contaminating the data (Moustakas, 1994), units of data are often presented in their raw form....

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  • ...Such data are typically analyzed through somewhat introspective techniques that permit a clear focus on the relationship between the language used and the objects to which language relates (Moustakas, 1994)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article distills the core principles of a phenomenological research design and, by means of a specific study, illustrates the phenomenological methodology. After a brief overview of the developments of phenomenology, the research paradigm of the specific study follows. Thereafter the location of the data, the data-gathering the data-storage methods are explained. Unstructured in-depth phenomenological interviews supplemented by memoing, essays by participants, a focus group discussion and field notes were used. The data explicitation, by means of a simplified version of Hycner's (1999) process, is further explained. The article finally contains commentary about the validity and truthfulness measures, as well as a synopsis of the findings of the study.

2,104 citations


Cites background from "Phenomenological Research Methods"

  • ...…for or against” (Lauer, 1958, p. 49), the researcher‟s own presuppositions and not allowing the researcher‟s meanings and interpretations or theoretical concepts to enter the unique world of the informant/participant (Creswell, 1998, pp. 54 & 113; Moustakas, 1994, p. 90; Sadala & Adorno, 2001)....

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  • ...‟ (Eagleton, 1983, p. 56; Kruger, 1988, p. 28; Moustakas, 1994, p. 26)....

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  • ...The list of units of relevant meaning extracted from each interview is carefully scrutinised and the clearly redundant units eliminated (Moustakas, 1994)....

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  • ...The researcher concludes the explicitation by writing a composite summary, which must reflect the context or „horizon‟ from which the themes emerged (Hycner, 1999; Moustakas, 1994)....

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  • ...Clusters of themes are typically formed by grouping units of meaning together (Creswell, 1998; King, 1994; Moustakas, 1994) and the researcher identifies significant topics, also called units of significance (Sadala & Adorno, 2001)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper reflects on the development of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) as one particular qualitative approach to psychology. After a brief introduction to IPA, the paper outlines what can be described as its characteristic features: idiographic, inductive, interrogative, illustrating each feature with examples from studies which have been conducted with IPA. The paper then considers the different levels of interpretation, which are possible with IPA and discusses the notion of when an interpretation is ‘good enough’. It goes on to consider issues around the types of topics for which IPA is suitable and the emerging pattern of work using the approach. The next section considers how IPA studies can widen the type of participants included and also examines the suitability of different data collection methods. The paper finishes by bringing together some thoughts on the future development of IPA.

2,100 citations


Cites background from "Phenomenological Research Methods"

  • ...Among these related approaches are those of Ashworth (1999), Benner (1994), Giorgi (1985), Halling (1994), Moustakas (1994) and Van Manen (2002)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article provides a detailed discussion about five qualitative approaches— narrative research; case study research; grounded theory; phenomenology; and participatory action research—as alternative qualitative procedures useful in understanding test interpretation. For each approach, the authors offer perspectives about historical origins, definition, variants, and the procedures of research.

2,098 citations


Cites background or methods from "Phenomenological Research Methods"

  • ...We highlight two approaches to phenomenology in this discussion: hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990) and empirical, transcendental, or psychological phenomenology (Moustakas, 1994)....

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  • ...We highlight two approaches to phenomenology in this discussion: hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990) and empirical, transcendental, or psychological phenomenology (Moustakas, 1994). van Manen (1990) is widely cited in the health literature (Morse & Field, 1995)....

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  • ...The inquirer then collects data from persons who have experienced the phenomenon and develops a composite description of the essence of the experience for all the individuals—what Creswell et al. / QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS 253 they experienced and how they experienced it (Moustakas, 1994)....

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  • ...We highlight two approaches to phenomenology in this discussion: hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990) and empirical, transcendental, or psychological phenomenology (Moustakas, 1994). van Manen (1990) is widely cited in the health literature (Morse & Field, 1995). The educator van Manen wrote an instructive book on hermeneutical phenomenology in which he described research as oriented to lived experience (phenomenology) and as interpreting the “texts” of life (hermeneutic; p. 4). Although van Manen does not believe that his approach is a set of rules or methods for conducting research, he discusses a phenomenological research study as a dynamic interplay among six research activities. Researchers first turn to a phenomenon, an “abiding concern” (p. 31), which seriously interests them (e.g., reading, running, driving, mothering). In the process, they reflect on essential themes— what constitutes the nature of this lived experience. They write a description of the phenomenon, maintaining a strong relation to the topic of inquiry and balancing the parts of the writing to the whole. Phenomenology is not only a description but also an interpretive process in which the researcher makes an interpretation (i.e., the researcher “mediates” between different meanings; van Manen, 1990, p. 26) of the meaning of the lived experiences. Moustakas’s (1994) transcendental or psychological phenomenology...

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  • ...In keeping with our TI scenario, we use Moustakas’s (1994) approach because it has systematic steps in the data analysis procedure and guidelines for assembling the textual and structural descriptions....

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