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Journal ArticleDOI

Phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes suppress inflammatory bone loss by ameliorating the cytokine imbalance provoked by infiltrated macrophages.

01 Jun 2011-Laboratory Investigation (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 91, Iss: 6, pp 921-931

TL;DR: PSL-induced different influence on the activities of p38 MAPK and ERK is a likely underlying mechanism for phenotypic change of infiltrated macrophages after the phagocytosis of PSLs, resulting in the inhibition of inflammatory bone loss.

AbstractPhosphatidylserine (PS)-containing liposomes (PSLs) strongly inhibit inflammatory bone loss in adjuvant arthritic (AA) rats. This effect was attributed to the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis through the secretion of prostaglandin E(2) and transforming growth factor-β1 by osteoclast precursors after the phagocytosis of PSLs. However, infiltrated macrophages are considered to secrete anti-inflammatory mediators after phagocytosis of PSLs, which also contribute to inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. In the present study, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of PSLs on the phenotype of infiltrated macrophages during inflammatory bone loss. In AA rats, the ankle joints swelled with the infiltration of both macrophages and helper T cells into the synovium after a complete Freund's adjuvant injection. In the ankle joints of AA rats, approximately half of the infiltrated macrophages underwent a phenotypic change from interleukin (IL)-1β-producing to IL-10-producing cells after the phagocytosis of PSLs. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, PSLs also significantly decreased IL-1β production, but increased IL-10 production. Moreover, PSLs inhibited the rapid activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, but enhanced the delayed activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. PSL-induced different influence on the activities of p38 MAPK and ERK is a likely underlying mechanism for phenotypic change of infiltrated macrophages after the phagocytosis of PSLs. This phenotypic change may be responsible for a significant decrease in the mean mRNA level of the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and the RANK ligand (RANKL) in the ankle joint of PSL-treated AA rats, resulting in the inhibition of inflammatory bone loss.

Topics: Interleukin 10 (53%), Phagocytosis (52%), Cytokine (52%), Osteoclast (51%), RANKL (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The restorative macrophage phenotype was recapitulated in vitro by the phagocytosis of cellular debris with associated activation of the ERK signaling cascade, offering a therapeutic strategy to this orphan pathological process.
Abstract: Although macrophages are widely recognized to have a profibrotic role in inflammation, we have used a highly tractable CCl4-induced model of reversible hepatic fibrosis to identify and characterize the macrophage phenotype responsible for tissue remodeling: the hitherto elusive restorative macrophage. This CD11Bhi F4/80int Ly-6Clo macrophage subset was most abundant in livers during maximal fibrosis resolution and represented the principle matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -expressing subset. Depletion of this population in CD11B promoter–diphtheria toxin receptor (CD11B-DTR) transgenic mice caused a failure of scar remodeling. Adoptive transfer and in situ labeling experiments showed that these restorative macrophages derive from recruited Ly-6Chi monocytes, a common origin with profibrotic Ly-6Chi macrophages, indicative of a phenotypic switch in vivo conferring proresolution properties. Microarray profiling of the Ly-6Clo subset, compared with Ly-6Chi macrophages, showed a phenotype outside the M1/M2 classification, with increased expression of MMPs, growth factors, and phagocytosis-related genes, including Mmp9, Mmp12, insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1), and Glycoprotein (transmembrane) nmb (Gpnmb). Confocal microscopy confirmed the postphagocytic nature of restorative macrophages. Furthermore, the restorative macrophage phenotype was recapitulated in vitro by the phagocytosis of cellular debris with associated activation of the ERK signaling cascade. Critically, induced phagocytic behavior in vivo, through administration of liposomes, increased restorative macrophage number and accelerated fibrosis resolution, offering a therapeutic strategy to this orphan pathological process.

610 citations


Cites background from "Phosphatidylserine-containing lipos..."

  • ...Furthermore, recent studies have shown that liposome administration can alter macrophage phenotype in vivo in part by induction of ERK signaling after ingestion (53, 54)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes new data on inflammatory bone loss obtained in 2011 and describes the molecular pathways by which receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and RANKL induce osteoclast differentiation.
Abstract: Chronic inflammation including autoimmune disease is an important risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) play a central role in osteoclast differentiation and function, and the molecular pathways by which M-CSF and RANKL induce osteoclast differentiation have been analyzed in detail. Proinflammatory cytokines directly or indirectly regulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption providing a link between inflammation and osteoporosis. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-17 are the most important proinflammatory cytokines triggering inflammatory bone loss. Inhibition of these cytokines has provided potent therapeutic effects in the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Further investigation is needed to understand the pathophysiology and to develop new strategies to treat inflammatory bone loss. This review summarizes new data on inflammatory bone loss obtained in 2011.

129 citations


Cites background from "Phosphatidylserine-containing lipos..."

  • ...[77] suggests that this effect is due to increased IL-10 production by macrophages....

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Journal ArticleDOI
13 Feb 2014-Viruses
TL;DR: The induction of a uniquely polarized macrophage subset from infected monocytes is described, which is argued to be the ideal cellular environment for the initiation of viral gene expression and replication and, ultimately, viral spread and persistence within the infected host.
Abstract: The wide range of disease pathologies seen in multiple organ sites associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection results from the systemic hematogenous dissemination of the virus, which is mediated predominately by infected monocytes. In addition to their role in viral spread, infected monocytes are also known to play a key role in viral latency and life-long persistence. However, in order to utilize infected monocytes for viral spread and persistence, HCMV must overcome a number of monocyte biological hurdles, including their naturally short lifespan and their inability to support viral gene expression and replication. Our laboratory has shown that HCMV is able to manipulate the biology of infected monocytes in order to overcome these biological hurdles by inducing the survival and differentiation of infected monocytes into long-lived macrophages capable of supporting viral gene expression and replication. In this current review, we describe the unique aspects of how HCMV promotes monocyte survival and differentiation by inducing a “finely-tuned” macrophage cell type following infection. Specifically, we describe the induction of a uniquely polarized macrophage subset from infected monocytes, which we argue is the ideal cellular environment for the initiation of viral gene expression and replication and, ultimately, viral spread and persistence within the infected host.

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data show that myelin modulates the phenotype of macrophages by PPAR activation, which may subsequently dampen MS lesion progression and the immunoregulatory impact of naturally-occurring myelin lipids may hold promise for future MS therapeutics.
Abstract: Foamy macrophages, containing myelin degradation products, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Recent studies have described an altered phenotype of macrophages after myelin internalization. However, mechanisms by which myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype influences lesion progression remain unclear. We demonstrate that myelin as well as phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid found in myelin, reduce nitric oxide production by macrophages through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ). Furthermore, uptake of PS by macrophages, after intravenous injection of PS-containing liposomes (PSLs), suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. The protective effect of PSLs in EAE animals is associated with a reduced immune cell infiltration into the central nervous system and decreased splenic cognate antigen specific proliferation. Interestingly, PPARβ/δ is activated in foamy macrophages in active MS lesions, indicating that myelin also activates PPARβ/δ in macrophages in the human brain. Our data show that myelin modulates the phenotype of macrophages by PPAR activation, which may subsequently dampen MS lesion progression. Moreover, our results suggest that myelin-derived PS mediates PPARβ/δ activation in macrophages after myelin uptake. The immunoregulatory impact of naturally-occurring myelin lipids may hold promise for future MS therapeutics.

56 citations


Cites background from "Phosphatidylserine-containing lipos..."

  • ...In vivo, PSLs have been described to promote the resolution of inflammation by modulating macrophage function in a model for inflammatory bone loss and myocardial infarction [31,33]....

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  • ...In vitro, clearance of apoptotic cells and PSLs skews macrophages towards a tolerogenic phenotype [21,23,29-35]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings suggest that the PSL-IL10 has macrophage targeting ability and enhanced anti- inflammatory effect due to the synergistic anti-inflammatory effects of IL-10 and PSL, and can be used as amacrophage-targeted therapeutic material for inflammation-related diseases, including obesity.
Abstract: Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and is known as a major risk factor for several diseases including chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced inflammation. Efficient delivery of therapeutic anti-inflammatory molecules, such as interleukin (IL)-10, to macrophages can dramatically improve therapeutic efficacy of obesity treatments. We used liposomes containing the 'eat-me' signal phosphatidylserine (PS) (PS-containing liposomes; PSL), which have macrophage targeting ability and anti-inflammatory functions, as a biomaterial carrier for the delivery of IL-10 to macrophages. The IL-10-conjugated PSL (PSL-IL10) showed high affinity for macrophages. In obese mice, PSL-IL10 treatment exhibited significant anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects, such as reduced serum total cholesterol, adipocyte size, crown-like structures, proinflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α) in adipose tissue, liver injury, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation foci, while treatment with IL-10 or PSL alone did not. These findings suggest that the PSL-IL10 has macrophage targeting ability and enhanced anti-inflammatory effect due to the synergistic anti-inflammatory effects of IL-10 and PSL, and can be used as a macrophage-targeted therapeutic material for inflammation-related diseases, including obesity.

38 citations


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TL;DR: Osteoblasts/stromal cells can now be replaced with RANKL and M-CSF in dealing with the whole life of osteoclasts, and new ways to treat several metabolic bone diseases caused by abnormal osteoclast recruitment and functions will be established.
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TL;DR: The results show that both systemic and local T-cell activation can lead to OPGL production and subsequent bone loss, and they provide a novel paradigm for T cells as regulators of bone physiology.
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"Phosphatidylserine-containing lipos..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(RANKL) and RANK, which have essential roles in differentiation and the activity of osteoclasts.(18) Among pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1b is...

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